CN102742433B - Method for cultivating pollution-free cucumbers - Google Patents

Method for cultivating pollution-free cucumbers Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102742433B
CN102742433B CN 201210198198 CN201210198198A CN102742433B CN 102742433 B CN102742433 B CN 102742433B CN 201210198198 CN201210198198 CN 201210198198 CN 201210198198 A CN201210198198 A CN 201210198198A CN 102742433 B CN102742433 B CN 102742433B
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days
liquid
soil
temperature
spray
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CN102742433A (en
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张国前
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BENGBU SEA BRIGHT PEARL AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT Co Ltd
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BENGBU SEA BRIGHT PEARL AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT Co Ltd
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Abstract

The invention discloses a method for cultivating pollution-free cucumbers. The method comprises steps of soil selection, soil preparation, seed selection, cultivation, transplantation, fix planting, management after the fix planting, prevention and cure of diseases and insect pests, fertilization and fruit harvest. Standards and requirements of pollution-free crop planting are implemented strictly in accordance with environment quality requirements, cultivation technical measures, fertilization principles and methods and methods and principles of prevention and cure of diseases and insect pests, a Chinese herbal medicine fertilizer is applied in the seedbed sterilization and the prevention and the cure of diseases and insect pests, the usage amount of conventional pesticides is reduced, the pesticide residue is also reduced, and pollution-free requirements are met. By the aid of the method, harvested cucumbers are uniform in size and smooth in cucumber peel, the yield is high, the quality is good and no pesticide residue exists.

Description

A kind of cultivation method of Non-polluted Cucumber
Technical field
The present invention relates to the agricultural product cultivation field, be specifically related to a kind of cultivation method of Non-polluted Cucumber.
Background technology
Cucumber also is green cucumber, perverse melon, Curcurbitaceae annual herb plant.Cucumber cultivation is with a long history, and bright Li Shizhen (1518-1593 A.D.) Compendium of Material Medica the 28th volume " dish section three cucumbers " carries: " Zhang Qian must plant the Western Regions, therefore named cucumber. " plants extensively, is worldwide vegetables.Stem is elongated, and tool is indulged rib, is lacked bristle, and tendril is branch not.Peponidium, long and narrow circle or cylindrical.Flower, the fruit phase 5-9 month.Color was dark green when cucumber was tender, so some areas claim again green cucumber, meeting yellowing behind the elder.Cucumber plant is tender, and stem drapes over one's shoulders hair and succulence, and leaf is by fine hair, 3~5 pieces of slivers of tool; Give birth to paniculate tendril on the stem, by this edge frame climbing.Cucumber needs maximum heats in the Vegetables.In Northern Europe, extensively built is cultivated in the greenhouse.In the U.S. area that has a moderate climate, do the field crop plantation and plant in garden.Normally behind the excess planting seedling thinning to suitable density.The Guangzhou cucumber cultivation is longer season in China, and outdoor cropping can reach more than 9 months, utilizes facility cultivation to reach and produces in the anniversary and supply, and ten thousand mu of Annual planting area 5-10 are one of important vegetables of city's pin and outlet.
A large amount of chemical fertilizer, traditional agricultural chemicals of using cause the cucumber of output along with farming is residual more in the traditional planting technology, and the people often uses such cucumber can bring side effect to health.
Summary of the invention
The invention discloses a kind of cultivation method of Non-polluted Cucumber, from selection of land to fertilising, the several aspects of the extermination of disease and insect pest adopt nuisanceless planting technology cucumber, institute's cucumber fruits of gather in the crops is big or small even, epidermis is smooth, and is pollution-free, commodity increases substantially.
The present invention adopts following technical scheme for achieving the above object:
A kind of cultivation method of Non-polluted Cucumber is characterized in that: specifically comprise following content:
(1) mu is educated in seed selection: select Resistant, strong stress resistance, wide adaptability, commodity is good, output is high cucumber improved seeds,
1. build seedling bed, seedling bed is built in selection of land gesture drying, ventilation, well-drained pollution-free plot,
The preparation of a, Nutrition Soil:
Seedling bed earth mixes in proportion with the high-quality decomposed manure with land for growing field crops soil, and then by adding the plain 0.8-1.2kg that grows seedlings in every cubic metre of seedling bed earth, land for growing field crops soil is (60-70) with the mixed weight ratio of high-quality decomposed manure: (30-40) again;
B, seedling bed earth sterilization
The Nutrition Soil for preparing is carried out disinfection, and concrete disinfectant measure is: admix the mixture of 25% metalaxyl and mancozeb in Nutrition Soil, the mixed proportion of the two is 1:1-1.1, and the amount of admixing is 8-10 g/m 3, the medicine soil after mixing covers with plastic foil, uses after 4-5 days again;
2. seed treatment, remove flat grain, seed is put into 50-60 ℃ of hot water constantly be stirred to water temperature and be down to about 30 ℃, stop to stir, allow seed continue to soak after 5-7 hour and pull out, be soaked in the thimerosal again and carry out disinfection, different thimerosals are selected different disinfecting time, and described thimerosal is 500 times of liquid of carbendazim dilution or 300 times of liquid of formalin dilution, is 5-6 minute with 500 times of liquid soak times of carbendazim dilution, 300 times of liquid of formalin dilution soaked 1-1.5 hour;
Vernalization
Sterile seed is got rid of moisture, wrapped under 25 ℃~30 ℃ conditions vernalization 22-25 hour with wet cloth, when bud exposes 1mm~2mm, again seed was deposited 1 day~2 days under 0 ℃~2 ℃ conditions, can sow;
Sowing: 2/3 of above-mentioned preparation and the seedling bed medicine soil that disinfects is paved in seedling bed, then just urged the seed of bud evenly to put on medicine soil, cover seed with remaining medicine soil again, about 3cm~the 4cm of cladding thickness, again with new high fat film 600---800 times of liquid spraying soil surfaces, high and new technology industrial development zone, Weinan, Shaanxi Province short flower king Science and Technology Ltd. provides
Graft seedling growth
A, grafting method
Stock black seed pumpkin, scion are used the cultivated species cucumber, and sowing the last week is proposed in scion, scion a slice true leaf, and grafting when the stock cotyledon launches, grafting method is to be abutted against;
Management after b, the grafting
Adding a cover hut after the grafting shelters from heat or light, control temperature of shed and humidity, requirement, temperature: 22 ℃~28 ℃ of daytimes, 18 ℃~16 ℃ of nights, humidity keeps more than 95%, during this time and spray the spraying of 700~800 times of liquid of 75% tpn wetting powder or the spraying of homemade Chinese herbal medicine fluid, described Chinese herbal medicine fluid adopts following method to make: with the dried silkworm excrement 10-15 of component of following weight portion, coptis 5-8, rheum officinale 2-3, kuh-seng 10-12, Swamp Mahogany Leaf 8-10, Chinese scholartree root 8-10 adds 10-15 times of weight water after mixing, and boils with vigorous fire, then boils 30-40 minutes with slow fire, the cool filtered through gauze of using of drying in the air, filtrate adds 100-150 times in water again and is mixed with dilution, and spraying is seen light after 4 days gradually, the little reduction temperature of leaking informaton after 6~7 days, wound healing enters normal management after 10 days, in time falls disease worm seedling, small and weak seedling and variation seedling;
(2) transplant planting:
1. wholely bedding is ploughed rear button canopy to soil, utilizes disinfecting soil 6-7 days, then uses chlorothalonil smoke, per 667 square metres of 300g, and vexed canopy diel leaks informaton again, executes high-quality barnyard manure 7000-8000kg/667 ㎡ again, then plans bedding, the good seeding row spacing of cloth;
In good time field planting is when the seedling in the seedbed is long when arriving 9-11cm, ambient-temp-stable more than 12 ℃ the time, with the seedling replanting field planting in the above-mentioned plot of land of putting in order, plantation density: per 667 square metre of 3200 strain~4000 strains; Customization mode: north and south row;
(3) management after the field planting
Plant is adjusted
Melon seedling after the field planting is after growth a period of time, and tendril is in time removed in routinely requirement, and eunuchs are tied up climingly, pluck the Routine Managements such as Lao Ye;
The management of temperature, humidity
To water as required to the melon seedling after the field planting, the rear hydrofuge that in time leaks informaton that waters, temperature adjustment, requirement, day temperature is controlled at 25~30 ℃, and in 8~11 ℃ of evenings, humidity is controlled at 50-85%;
Fertilizing management
Execute the high-quality barnyard manure in conjunction with ploughing before the field planting, to tying the melon phase in conjunction with watering again dressing fertilizer, adopt chemical fertilizer and fertilizer (cake fertilizer that becomes thoroughly decomposed, particle chicken manure etc.) biological medicine fertilizer to be used alternatingly, each urea 10~15 kg/667 ㎡, fertilizer 40-50 kg/667 ㎡; Melon is contained the phase, every the urea of 4~5 days foliage-sprays 0.5% and 0.2% phosphoric acid dioxy potassium,
The weight portion of the constitutive material of described biological medicine fertilizer is: Platycarya strobilacea 8-10, horse chestnut 8-10, Golden Larch Bark 8-10, rhizoma nardostachyos 8-10, tuber of stemona 8-10, chrysanthemum cinesariaefolium 8-10, coptis 8-10, withy 8-10, chilli seed 8-10, fortune paulownia flower 8-10, paulownia sawdust 8-10, yew 8-10, anemone vitifolia 8-10, wilson passionflower herb 8-10, Swamp Mahogany Leaf 8-10, Chinese scholartree root 8-10, yew 8-10, Fructus Gleditsiae microcarpae 8-10, david poplar root-bark 8-10, Chinese wild pepper 8-10, Lindley Butterflybush Herb 8-10, Embelia subcoridcea (C. B. Cl.) Mez 8-10, cassia twig 8-10, windproof 8-10, elscholtiza 8-10, chrysanthemum 8-10, schizonepeta 8-10, purple perilla 8-10, mulberry leaf 8-10, field pennycress 8-10, Sargent gloryvine 8-10, Radix Isatidis 8-10, Herba Andrographitis 8-10, cordate houttuynia 8-10
During preparation, extract by each weight portion mixes, perhaps by mixing after each weight portion coarse crushing, water or 70-75% ethanol or extracted by ether secondary, obtain extract medicinal extract, drying is ground preservation into powder, during use, with the alcoholic solution dissolving, convert again 800-1200 times of water spray or also can directly convert 800-1200 times of water spray first;
(4) extermination of disease and insect pest
Preventive measure
A, physical control
(a) residual tree is lost leaf and weeds are cleaned out, concentrate and carry out nuisanceless disposal, keep the rural area cleaning;
(b) in the greenhouse or the place of leaking informaton mouthful of booth, if fly net or extension silver gray film bar are kept away aphid, also available yellow plate trapping, method is to be cut into the rectangular of 100cm * 20cm with waste and old fibre or cardboard, colored yellow paint, be coated with simultaneously last layer machine oil, hang in the ranks or between strain, after sticking insect, be coated with again last layer machine oil;
B, nutritional prevention
(a) when plant strain growth to the middle and later periods, spray nutritious liquor on the plant, 1% glucose or sucrose also can spray sugared nitrogen liquid, described spray sugar nitrogen liquid is that 1% sugar+0.5% urea forms or sprayed by sugar, nitrogen, vinegar liquid that 1% sugar+1% vinegar+0.5% urea is made into;
(b) enter knot and the melon phase will enrich carbonic acid gas, with carbon-dioxide generator or contain 10% dilute sulfuric acid with Plastic Drum and add the carbon ammonium, 10% dilute sulfuric acid: the weight ratio of carbon ammonium is 2.5:1;
C, bionomic control
(a) regulate the Temperature and Humidity Control morbidity
Leaked informaton 1 hour morning when daily mean temperature was stabilized in 10 ℃~13 ℃, then closes canopy and heat up, and the morning, temperature was controlled at 25 ℃~32 ℃, leak informaton afterwards before midday, and 20~25 ℃ of canopy room temperatures, humidity is down to 50%~60%;
The treatment measure
A, the treatment measure when downy mildew occurs:
(a) the vexed canopy of high temperature
When downy mildew occurs when, can adopt the vexed canopy of high temperature, water water one time the previous day in processing, vexed canopy time 2 h, then 45-46 ℃ of canopy temperature in time leak informaton, once vexed again every 4 days~5 days;
(b) chemical control
A) fumigation
Their early stage carries out sootiness with the per 667 square metres of 250g~300g of 45% chlorothalonil smoke, smokes 3 times~4 times depending on state of an illness weight;
B) soot technique
With the anilazine pulvis of 5% tpn pulvis or 10% dirt that dusts, spray even in the airtight canopy;
C) spraying
800 times~1000 times liquid of Pu Like with 72.2% and 72% Du Pont gram reveals the by turns spraying of two kinds of liquids of 800 times of liquid, according to the state of an illness general 3 times~4 times;
B, the treatment measure when powdery mildew occurs:
(a) fumigation
When powdery mildew occurs, can carry out sootiness with 45% chlorothalonil smoke, per 667 square metres of medication 250g~300g;
(b) spraying
The powdery mildew their early stage is sprayed with 1500 times of 15% triadimefon wetting powders or 800 times of liquid of 50% thiophanate methyl, and per 6 days~7 days once, sprays 3 times~4 times;
C, the treatment measure when gray mold occurs
(a) sootiness
When gray mold occurs, carry out sootiness with 45% chlorothalonil smoke, per 667 square metres of medication 250g~300g;
(b) dust
Per 667 square metres of 1kg dust with Sukeling powder Boston, and per 6 days~7 days once, connect to spray 3 times~4 times;
(c) spraying
Spray with 1000 times of 2000 times of liquid of 50% Sukeling wetting powder or 50% sharp mould health, every 7 days once, connect and spray 2 times~3 times, by turns medication;
Treatment measure when d, the sick generation of aphid
With 1500 times of sprayings of 10% Imidacloprid watermelon blade face, 7 days once, connects to spray 2 times~3 times;
E, the treatment measure when the white powder pediculosis occurs
When insect density was low, 1500 times~2000 times liquid of available 25% buprofezin wetting powder sprayed;
(5) results
Accomplish timely harvesting, the cucumber quality should meet NY5074-2005 mark regulation, and packing, transportation, storage want clean, and health is pollution-free.
The present invention has following clear superiority:
1: the environment of cucumber growth is pollution-free, and the kind of selection is good, the cucumber fruits of gathering in the crops size evenly, epidermis is smooth, commodity increases substantially;
2: the consumption of the fertilizer of using is few, and the using of Chinese herbal medicine fertilizer both reduced agricultural residually, is beneficial to again cucumber growth and obtains high yield;
3: good kind, the use of Chinese herbal medicine fertilizer improves the disease resistance of cucumber, and whole vegetative period, used agricultural chemicals reduced greatly, had further reduced agricultural residual.
Embodiment
A kind of cultivation method of Non-polluted Cucumber specifically comprises following content:
(1) mu is educated in seed selection: select Resistant, strong stress resistance, wide adaptability, commodity is good, output is high cucumber improved seeds,
1. build seedling bed, seedling bed is built in selection of land gesture drying, ventilation, well-drained pollution-free plot,
The preparation of a, Nutrition Soil:
Seedling bed earth mixes in proportion with the high-quality decomposed manure with land for growing field crops soil, and then by adding the plain 0.8-1.2kg that grows seedlings in every cubic metre of seedling bed earth, land for growing field crops soil is (60-70) with the mixed weight ratio of high-quality decomposed manure: (30-40) again;
B, seedling bed earth sterilization
The Nutrition Soil for preparing is carried out disinfection, and concrete disinfectant measure is: admix the mixture of 25% metalaxyl and mancozeb in Nutrition Soil, the mixed proportion of the two is 1:1-1.1, and the amount of admixing is 8-10 g/m 3, the medicine soil after mixing covers with plastic foil, uses after 4-5 days again;
2. seed treatment, remove flat grain, seed is put into 50-60 ℃ of hot water constantly be stirred to water temperature and be down to about 30 ℃, stop to stir, allow seed continue to soak after 5-7 hour and pull out, be soaked in the thimerosal again and carry out disinfection, different thimerosals are selected different disinfecting time, and described thimerosal is 500 times of liquid of carbendazim dilution or 300 times of liquid of formalin dilution, is 5-6 minute with 500 times of liquid soak times of carbendazim dilution, 300 times of liquid of formalin dilution soaked 1-1.5 hour;
Vernalization
Sterile seed is got rid of moisture, wrapped under 25 ℃~30 ℃ conditions vernalization 22-25 hour with wet cloth, when bud exposes 1mm~2mm, again seed was deposited 1 day~2 days under 0 ℃~2 ℃ conditions, can sow;
Sowing: 2/3 of above-mentioned preparation and the seedling bed medicine soil that disinfects is paved in seedling bed, then just urged the seed of bud evenly to put on medicine soil, cover seed with remaining medicine soil again, about 3cm~the 4cm of cladding thickness, again with new high fat film 600---800 times of liquid spraying soil surfaces, high and new technology industrial development zone, Weinan, Shaanxi Province short flower king Science and Technology Ltd. provides
Graft seedling growth
A, grafting method
Stock black seed pumpkin, scion are used the cultivated species cucumber, and sowing the last week is proposed in scion, scion a slice true leaf, and grafting when the stock cotyledon launches, grafting method is to be abutted against;
Management after b, the grafting
Adding a cover hut after the grafting shelters from heat or light, control temperature of shed and humidity, requirement, temperature: 22 ℃~28 ℃ of daytimes, 18 ℃~16 ℃ of nights, humidity keeps more than 95%, during this time and spray the spraying of 700~800 times of liquid of 75% tpn wetting powder or the spraying of homemade Chinese herbal medicine fluid, described Chinese herbal medicine fluid adopts following method to make: with the dried silkworm excrement 10-15 of component of following weight portion, coptis 5-8, rheum officinale 2-3, kuh-seng 10-12, Swamp Mahogany Leaf 8-10, Chinese scholartree root 8-10 adds 10-15 times of weight water after mixing, and boils with vigorous fire, then boils 30-40 minutes with slow fire, the cool filtered through gauze of using of drying in the air, filtrate adds 100-150 times in water again and is mixed with dilution, and spraying is seen light after 4 days gradually, the little reduction temperature of leaking informaton after 6~7 days, wound healing enters normal management after 10 days, in time falls disease worm seedling, small and weak seedling and variation seedling;
(2) transplant planting:
1. wholely bedding is ploughed rear button canopy to soil, utilizes disinfecting soil 6-7 days, then uses chlorothalonil smoke, per 667 square metres of 300g, and vexed canopy diel leaks informaton again, executes high-quality barnyard manure 7000-8000kg/667 ㎡ again, then plans bedding, the good seeding row spacing of cloth;
In good time field planting is when the seedling in the seedbed is long when arriving 9-11cm, ambient-temp-stable more than 12 ℃ the time, with the seedling replanting field planting in the above-mentioned plot of land of putting in order, plantation density: per 667 square metre of 3200 strain~4000 strains; Customization mode: north and south row;
(3) management after the field planting
Plant is adjusted
Melon seedling after the field planting is after growth a period of time, and tendril is in time removed in routinely requirement, and eunuchs are tied up climingly, pluck the Routine Managements such as Lao Ye;
The management of temperature, humidity
To water as required to the melon seedling after the field planting, the rear hydrofuge that in time leaks informaton that waters, temperature adjustment, requirement, day temperature is controlled at 25~30 ℃, and in 8~11 ℃ of evenings, humidity is controlled at 50-85%;
Fertilizing management
Execute the high-quality barnyard manure in conjunction with ploughing before the field planting, to tying the melon phase in conjunction with watering again dressing fertilizer, adopt chemical fertilizer and fertilizer to be used alternatingly, each urea 10~15 kg/667 ㎡, fertilizer 40-50 kg/667 ㎡; Melon is contained the phase, every the urea of 4~5 days foliage-sprays 0.5% and 0.2% phosphoric acid dioxy potassium,
(4) extermination of disease and insect pest
Preventive measure
A, physical control
(a) residual tree is lost leaf and weeds are cleaned out, concentrate and carry out nuisanceless disposal, keep the rural area cleaning;
(b) in the greenhouse or the place of leaking informaton mouthful of booth, if fly net or extension silver gray film bar are kept away aphid, also available yellow plate trapping, method is to be cut into the rectangular of 100cm * 20cm with waste and old fibre or cardboard, colored yellow paint, be coated with simultaneously last layer machine oil, hang in the ranks or between strain, after sticking insect, be coated with again last layer machine oil;
D, nutritional prevention
(a) when plant strain growth to the middle and later periods, spray nutritious liquor on the plant, 1% glucose or sucrose also can spray sugared nitrogen liquid, described spray sugar nitrogen liquid is that 1% sugar+0.5% urea forms or sprayed by sugar, nitrogen, vinegar liquid that 1% sugar+1% vinegar+0.5% urea is made into;
(b) enter knot and the melon phase will enrich carbonic acid gas, with carbon-dioxide generator or contain 10% dilute sulfuric acid with Plastic Drum and add the carbon ammonium, 10% dilute sulfuric acid: the weight ratio of carbon ammonium is 2.5:1;
E, bionomic control
(a) regulate the Temperature and Humidity Control morbidity
Leaked informaton 1 hour morning when daily mean temperature was stabilized in 10 ℃~13 ℃, then closes canopy and heat up, and the morning, temperature was controlled at 25 ℃~32 ℃, leak informaton afterwards before midday, and 20~25 ℃ of canopy room temperatures, humidity is down to 50%~60%;
The treatment measure
B, the treatment measure when downy mildew occurs:
(a) the vexed canopy of high temperature
When downy mildew occurs when, can adopt the vexed canopy of high temperature, water water one time the previous day in processing, vexed canopy time 2 h, then 45-46 ℃ of canopy temperature in time leak informaton, once vexed again every 4 days~5 days;
(b) chemical control
A) fumigation
Their early stage carries out sootiness with the per 667 square metres of 250g~300g of 45% chlorothalonil smoke, smokes 3 times~4 times depending on state of an illness weight;
B) soot technique
With the anilazine pulvis of 5% tpn pulvis or 10% dirt that dusts, spray even in the airtight canopy;
C) spraying
800 times~1000 times liquid of Pu Like with 72.2% and 72% Du Pont gram reveal 800 times of liquid, the by turns spraying of the fertile three kinds of liquids of Chinese herbal medicine, according to the state of an illness general 3 times~4 times, the weight portion of the constitutive material of described Chinese herbal medicine fertilizer is: Platycarya strobilacea 8-10, horse chestnut 8-10, Golden Larch Bark 8-10, rhizoma nardostachyos 8-10, tuber of stemona 8-10, chrysanthemum cinesariaefolium 8-10, coptis 8-10, withy 8-10, chilli seed 8-10, fortune paulownia flower 8-10, paulownia sawdust 8-10, yew 8-10, anemone vitifolia 8-10, wilson passionflower herb 8-10, Swamp Mahogany Leaf 8-10, Chinese scholartree root 8-10, yew 8-10, Fructus Gleditsiae microcarpae 8-10, david poplar root-bark 8-10, Chinese wild pepper 8-10, Lindley Butterflybush Herb 8-10, Embelia subcoridcea (C. B. Cl.) Mez 8-10, cassia twig 8-10, windproof 8-10, elscholtiza 8-10, chrysanthemum 8-10, schizonepeta 8-10, purple perilla 8-10, mulberry leaf 8-10, field pennycress 8-10, Sargent gloryvine 8-10, Radix Isatidis 8-10, Herba Andrographitis 8-10, cordate houttuynia 8-10
During preparation, extract by each weight portion mixes, perhaps by mixing after each weight portion coarse crushing, water or 70-75% ethanol or extracted by ether secondary, obtain extract medicinal extract, drying is ground preservation into powder, during use, with the alcoholic solution dissolving, convert again 800-1200 times of water spray or also can directly convert 800-1200 times of water spray first;
B, the treatment measure when powdery mildew occurs:
(a) fumigation
When powdery mildew occurs, can carry out sootiness with 45% chlorothalonil smoke, per 667 square metres of medication 250g~300g;
(b) spraying
The powdery mildew their early stage is with 1500 times of 15% triadimefon wetting powders or 800 times of liquid of 50% thiophanate methyl or special fertile 100-200 times of water spray of Chinese herbal medicine, per 6 days~7 days once, spray 3 times~4 times, the weight portion of the constituent of described Chinese herbal medicine fertilizer is: dried silkworm excrement 10-15, coptis 5-8, rheum officinale 2-3, kuh-seng 10-12, Swamp Mahogany Leaf 8-10, Chinese scholartree root 8-10 add 10-15 times of weight water after mixing, boil with vigorous fire, then boil 30-40 minutes with slow fire, the cold of drying in the air is used filtered through gauze, filtrate to add 100-200 times in water again and is mixed with dilution;
C, the treatment measure when gray mold occurs
(a) sootiness
When gray mold occurs, carry out sootiness with 45% chlorothalonil smoke, per 667 square metres of medication 250g~300g;
(b) dust
Per 667 square metres of 1kg dust with Sukeling powder Boston, and per 6 days~7 days once, connect to spray 3 times~4 times;
(c) spraying
Spray with 1000 times of 2000 times of liquid of 50% Sukeling wetting powder or 50% sharp mould health, every 7 days once, connect and spray 2 times~3 times, by turns medication;
Treatment measure when d, the sick generation of aphid
With 1500 times of sprayings of 10% Imidacloprid watermelon blade face, 7 days once, connects to spray 2 times~3 times;
E, the treatment measure when the white powder pediculosis occurs
When insect density was low, 1500 times~2000 times liquid of available 25% buprofezin wetting powder sprayed;
(5) results
Accomplish timely harvesting, the cucumber quality should meet NY5074-2005 mark regulation, and packing, transportation, storage want clean, and health is pollution-free.

Claims (1)

1. the cultivation method of a Non-polluted Cucumber is characterized in that: specifically comprise following content:
(1) seed selection is grown seedlings: select Resistant, strong stress resistance, wide adaptability, commodity is good, output is high cucumber improved seeds,
1. build seedling bed, seedling bed is built in selection of land gesture drying, ventilation, well-drained pollution-free plot,
The preparation of a, Nutrition Soil:
Nutrition Soil mixes in proportion with the high-quality decomposed manure with land for growing field crops soil, and then by adding the plain 0.8-1.2kg that grows seedlings in every cubic metre of Nutrition Soil, land for growing field crops soil is (60-70) with the mixed weight ratio of high-quality decomposed manure: (30-40) again;
B, Nutritive cube sterilization
The Nutrition Soil for preparing is carried out disinfection, and concrete disinfectant measure is: admix the mixture of 25% metalaxyl and mancozeb in Nutrition Soil, the mixed proportion of the two is 1:1-1.1, and the amount of admixing is 8-10 g/m 3, the medicine soil after mixing covers with plastic foil, uses after 4-5 days again;
2. seed treatment, remove flat grain, seed is put into 50-60 ℃ of hot water constantly to be stirred to water temperature and to be down to about 30 ℃, stop to stir, allow seed continue to soak after 5-7 hour and pull out, be soaked in the thimerosal again and carry out disinfection, different thimerosals are selected different disinfecting time, described thimerosal is 500 times of liquid of carbendazim dilution or 300 times of liquid of formalin dilution, is 5-6 minute with 500 times of liquid soak times of carbendazim dilution, and 300 times of liquid of formalin dilution soaked 1-1.5 hour;
3. vernalization
Sterile seed is got rid of moisture, wrapped under 25 ℃~30 ℃ conditions vernalization 22-25 hour with wet cloth, when bud exposes 1mm~2mm, again seed was deposited 1 day~2 days under 0 ℃~2 ℃ conditions, be i.e. sowing;
4. sowing: 2/3 of above-mentioned preparation and the seedling bed medicine soil that disinfects is paved in seedling bed, then just urged the seed of bud evenly to put on medicine soil, cover seed with remaining medicine soil again, cladding thickness 3cm~4cm, use again new high fat film 600---800 times of liquid spraying soil surfaces, high and new technology industrial development zone, Weinan, Shaanxi Province short flower king Science and Technology Ltd. provides
5. graft seedling growth
A, grafting method
Stock black seed pumpkin, scion are used the cultivated species cucumber, and sowing the last week is proposed in scion, scion a slice true leaf, and grafting when the stock cotyledon launches, grafting method is to be abutted against;
Management after b, the grafting
Adding a cover hut after the grafting shelters from heat or light, control temperature of shed and humidity, requirement, temperature: 22 ℃~28 ℃ of daytimes, 18 ℃~16 ℃ of nights, humidity keeps more than 95%, during this time and spray the spraying of 700~800 times of liquid of 75% tpn wetting powder or the spraying of homemade Chinese herbal medicine fluid, described Chinese herbal medicine fluid adopts following method to make: with the dried silkworm excrement 10-15 of component of following weight portion, coptis 5-8, rheum officinale 2-3, kuh-seng 10-12, Swamp Mahogany Leaf 8-10, Chinese scholartree root 8-10 adds 10-15 times of weight water after mixing, boil with vigorous fire, then boil 30-40 minutes with slow fire, the cool filtered through gauze of using of drying in the air, filtrate adds 100-150 times in water again and is mixed with dilution, spraying is seen light after 4 days, the little reduction temperature of leaking informaton after 6~7 days gradually, wound healing enters normal management after 10 days, in time removes disease worm seedling, small and weak seedling and variation seedling;
(2) transplant planting:
1. wholely bedding is ploughed rear button canopy to soil, and disinfecting soil 6-7 days, then use chlorothalonil smoke, per 667 square metres of 300g, vexed canopy diel leaks informaton again, executes high-quality barnyard manure 7000-8000kg/667 ㎡ again, then plans bedding, the good seeding row spacing of cloth;
2. in good time field planting is when the seedling in the seedbed is long when arriving 9-11cm, ambient-temp-stable more than 12 ℃ the time, with the seedling replanting field planting in the above-mentioned plot of land of putting in order, plantation density: per 667 square metre of 3200 strain~4000 strains; Customization mode: north and south row;
(3) management after the field planting
1. plant is adjusted
Melon seedling after the field planting is after growth a period of time, and tendril is in time removed in routinely requirement, and eunuchs are tied up climingly, pluck Lao Ye;
2. the management of temperature, humidity
To water as required to the melon seedling after the field planting, the rear hydrofuge that in time leaks informaton that waters, temperature adjustment, requirement, day temperature is controlled at 25~30 ℃, and in 8~11 ℃ of evenings, humidity is controlled at 50-85%;
3. fertilizing management
Execute the high-quality barnyard manure in conjunction with ploughing before the field planting, to tying the melon phase in conjunction with watering again dressing fertilizer, adopt chemical fertilizer and fertilizer, biological medicine fertilizer to be used alternatingly, each urea 10~15 kg/667 ㎡, fertilizer 40-50 kg/667 ㎡; Melon is contained the phase, every the urea of 4~5 days foliage-sprays 0.5% and 0.2% potassium dihydrogen phosphate,
The weight portion of the constitutive material of described biological medicine fertilizer is: Platycarya strobilacea 8-10, horse chestnut 8-10, Golden Larch Bark 8-10, rhizoma nardostachyos 8-10, tuber of stemona 8-10, chrysanthemum cinesariaefolium 8-10, coptis 8-10, withy 8-10, chilli seed 8-10, fortune paulownia flower 8-10, paulownia sawdust 8-10, yew 8-10, anemone vitifolia 8-10, wilson passionflower herb 8-10, Swamp Mahogany Leaf 8-10, Chinese scholartree root 8-10, yew 8-10, Fructus Gleditsiae microcarpae 8-10, david poplar root-bark 8-10, Chinese wild pepper 8-10, Lindley Butterflybush Herb 8-10, Embelia subcoridcea (C. B. Cl.) Mez 8-10, cassia twig 8-10, windproof 8-10, elscholtiza 8-10, chrysanthemum 8-10, schizonepeta 8-10, purple perilla 8-10, mulberry leaf 8-10, field pennycress 8-10, Sargent gloryvine 8-10, Radix Isatidis 8-10, Herba Andrographitis 8-10, cordate houttuynia 8-10;
During preparation, extract by each weight portion mixes, perhaps by mixing after each weight portion coarse crushing, water or 70-75% ethanol or extracted by ether secondary, obtain extract medicinal extract, drying is ground preservation into powder, during use, with the alcoholic solution dissolving, convert again 800-1200 times of water spray or directly convert 800-1200 times of water spray first;
(4) extermination of disease and insect pest
1. preventive measure
A, physical control
(a) residual tree is lost leaf and weeds are cleaned out, concentrate and carry out nuisanceless disposal, keep the rural area cleaning;
(b) in the greenhouse or the place of leaking informaton mouthful of booth, if fly net or extension silver gray film bar are kept away aphid, with yellow plate trapping, method is to be cut into the rectangular of 100cm * 20cm with waste and old fibre or cardboard, colored yellow paint, be coated with simultaneously last layer machine oil, hang in the ranks or between strain, after sticking insect, be coated with again last layer machine oil;
B, nutritional prevention
(a) when plant strain growth to the middle and later periods, spray nutritious liquor on the plant, 1% glucose, sucrose or spray sugared nitrogen liquid, described spray sugar nitrogen liquid are that 1% sugar+0.5% urea forms or sprayed by sugar, nitrogen, vinegar liquid that 1% sugar+1% vinegar+0.5% urea is made into;
(b) enter knot and the melon phase will enrich carbonic acid gas, with carbon-dioxide generator or contain 10% dilute sulfuric acid with Plastic Drum and add the carbon ammonium, 10% dilute sulfuric acid: the weight ratio of carbon ammonium is 2.5:1;
C, bionomic control
(a) regulate the Temperature and Humidity Control morbidity
Leaked informaton 1 hour morning when daily mean temperature was stabilized in 10 ℃~13 ℃, then closes canopy and heat up, and the morning, temperature was controlled at 25 ℃~32 ℃, leak informaton afterwards before midday, and 20~25 ℃ of canopy room temperatures, humidity is down to 50%~60%;
2. treat measure
A, the treatment measure when downy mildew occurs:
(a) the vexed canopy of high temperature
When downy mildew occurs when, adopt the vexed canopy of high temperature, water water one time the previous day in processing, vexed canopy time 2 h, then 45-46 ℃ of canopy temperature in time leak informaton, once vexed again every 4 days~5 days;
(b) chemical control
A) fumigation
Their early stage carries out sootiness with the per 667 square metres of 250g~300g of 45% chlorothalonil smoke, smokes 3 times~4 times depending on state of an illness weight;
B) soot technique
With the anilazine pulvis of 5% tpn pulvis or 10% dirt that dusts, spray even in the airtight canopy;
C) spraying
800 times~1000 times liquid of Pu Like with 72.2% and 72% Du Pont gram reveals the by turns spraying of two kinds of liquids of 800 times of liquid, according to the state of an illness 3 times~4 times;
B, the treatment measure when powdery mildew occurs:
(a) fumigation
When powdery mildew occurs, carry out sootiness with 45% chlorothalonil smoke, per 667 square metres of medication 250g~300g;
(b) spraying
The powdery mildew their early stage is sprayed with 1500 times of 15% triadimefon wetting powders or 800 times of liquid of 50% thiophanate methyl, and per 6 days~7 days once, sprays 3 times~4 times;
C, the treatment measure when gray mold occurs
(a) sootiness
When gray mold occurs, carry out sootiness with 45% chlorothalonil smoke, per 667 square metres of medication 250g~300g;
(b) dust
Per 667 square metres of 1kg dust with Sukeling powder Boston, and per 6 days~7 days once, connect to spray 3 times~4 times;
(c) spraying
Spray with 1000 times of 2000 times of liquid of 50% Sukeling wetting powder or 50% sharp mould health, every 7 days once, connect and spray 2 times~3 times, by turns medication;
Treatment measure when d, the sick generation of aphid
With 1500 times of sprayings of 10% Imidacloprid watermelon blade face, 7 days once, connects to spray 2 times~3 times;
E, the treatment measure when the white powder pediculosis occurs
When insect density was low, 1500 times~2000 times liquid of the buprofezin wetting powder with 25% sprayed;
(5) results
Accomplish timely harvesting, the cucumber quality should meet NY5074-2005 mark regulation, and packing, transportation, storage want clean, and health is pollution-free.
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