CN102737468A - System and method for detecting fire hazard based on wireless multi-sensor information fusion - Google Patents

System and method for detecting fire hazard based on wireless multi-sensor information fusion Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102737468A
CN102737468A CN2012102387626A CN201210238762A CN102737468A CN 102737468 A CN102737468 A CN 102737468A CN 2012102387626 A CN2012102387626 A CN 2012102387626A CN 201210238762 A CN201210238762 A CN 201210238762A CN 102737468 A CN102737468 A CN 102737468A
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China
Prior art keywords
fire
wireless
sensor
gateway
sensor information
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CN2012102387626A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
李正周
黄扬帆
甘平
方朝阳
缪鹏飞
刘勇
唐岚
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重庆大学
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Priority to CN2012102387626A priority Critical patent/CN102737468A/en
Publication of CN102737468A publication Critical patent/CN102737468A/en

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Abstract

The invention provides a system and a method for detecting a fire hazard based on wireless multi-sensor information fusion. The system comprises a sensor terminal node and an intelligent gateway, wherein the sensor terminal node establishes a data transmission network of a fire hazard monitoring field by using the ZigBee technology; the intelligent gateway is accessed into the Internet and a general packet radio service GPRS (general packet radio service) network based on an ARM11S3C6410 (Advanced RISC Machine 11S3C6410) chip; and a user can obtain the monitoring information while accessing to an embedded server. Once the fire hazard is detected, the alarm information is transmitted to a cell phone of the user through a GPRS module; a plurality of sensors of smoke, temperature, carbon monoxide CO gas and the like are utilized to sense the burning state of the fire; different trust degree functions are distributed according to that whether the fire hazard happens; and a D-S evidence theory is fused with three sensor information so as to judge the state of the fire hazard. With the adoption of the system and the method, the defect of wired scheme of a traditional fire hazard monitoring system is modified; and the system and the method can be used in families and industrial environments with wiring inconvenience and reduced cost widely.

Description

Fire detection system and method based on wireless multi-sensor information fusion
Technical field
The present invention designs a kind of fire detection system and method based on wireless multi-sensor information fusion, is applicable to the real-time remote monitoring family fire.
Background technology
Fire is the most common a kind of disasters of harm people's lives and properties, how to monitor family fire effectively and stop disaster the safety problem that family life must be considered takes place to have become.Traditional family fire monitoring equipment only is confined to household internal, and in a single day the people leaves guarded region, can't take in time dangerous situation with regard to being difficult to obtain monitor message, effective treatment measures.For this reason, adopt Internet network connection family fire watch-dog and remote monitoring center, expand monitoring range, just progressively substituted the conventional fire supervisory system to realize remote monitoring.At present, often adopt distributed design based on the fire monitoring system of Internet network, fire sensing unit and data acquisition process workstation are through the CAN bus communication, and workstation is connected to remote monitoring center through Internet.This type of fire monitoring system is counted sensing unit and is adopted wired mode to be connected with workstation, and wiring cost is high, structure is dumb.
Wireless sensor network is widely used in the disaster supervisory systems such as landslide, the forest plague of insects, has that data amount transmitted is few, transmission delay is little and characteristics such as low in energy consumption.Sensor node in the wireless sensor network can be randomly distributed in the monitored area; Constitute Radio Network System with the self-organization mode; The wiring cost that can effectively avoid the traditional schemes such as fire hazard monitoring based on the Internet network to bring is high; Destroy the shortcoming of home environment, and can realize multiple spot continuous coverage the monitored area.
Fire be a time dependent complex process, the different phase in that fire takes place can produce different fire characteristic signals.Traditional fire detector to single characteristic signal, is made response to smoke particle and heat (temperature) respectively like smoke point detector and point heat detector often.The single parameter fire detector is inhomogeneous and cause its detectivity limited to the characteristic signal response sensitivity, can only select detector for use according to the contingent fire type of different places and this place, in case select improperly just can cause mistake, fail to report.In addition, the data processing method that adopts in the one-parameter fire detector is the threshold value relative method mostly, and this traditional fire detection is simple and clear and be easy to realization, but environmental suitability and antijamming capability are relatively poor.
The present invention is based on the fire detection system and the method for wireless multi-sensor information fusion, utilize the DS evidence theory to merge multi-sensor data and carry out the judgement of fire, the user is provided long-range ability of carrying out monitoring environment, the fire hazard monitoring accuracy is high, monitoring is convenient and swift.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of this invention is to provide a kind of fire detection system and method based on wireless multi-sensor information fusion, the remote monitoring combination with wireless senser ZigBee network short-range communication and Internet realizes the long-range fire hazard monitoring of user to home environment.
The technical scheme that the present invention solves the problems of the technologies described above is that the fire detection hardware system comprises sensor terminal node and intelligent gateway two parts.Fire is a combined process with light, cigarette, temperature, radiation and gas concentration variation, as discharges multiple composition gases such as CO gas, sulphuric dioxide, and naked light flame and temperature fast rise appear in the smog such as gasoloid of emerging.Terminal node has disposed carbon monoxide transducer MQ-7; Wide spectrum gas sensor MQ-2; Temperature sensor DS18B20, perception carbon monoxide, sulphuric dioxide, smog and temperature, and the completion of employing CC2430 processor sensor data acquisition, pre-service and transmission respectively.
According to the distance range of sensor measurement, the family room is divided into a plurality of guarded regions, in each zone the sensor terminal node has been installed all.Adopt the ZigBee agreement to set up wireless sensor network between sensor terminal and the intelligent gateway and carry out radio communication, satisfied the demand of a plurality of fire sensor terminal node group-net communication transmission information.Simultaneously, household internal has also been installed several routing nodes and has been carried out exchanges data, to increase transmission range and to guarantee network reliability.
The task that gateway is being undertaken and organized the networking, handling multi-sensor data and user interactions, computation complexity and closeness are high.Gateway is made up of ARM11 processor, RF receiving and transmission module CC2430, power supply and reseting module, camera, GPRS module (GTM900-C), Ethernet interface (DM9000AEP) module and memory module.Gateway carries the software platform of embedded Linux system as the gateway part; On the ARM embedded system, transplant the Boa embedded web server;, use the CGI interface and realize dynamic page mutual between embedded web server and the user browser as embedded database with SQLite.Gateway receives the request of browser remote inquiry, shows current sensor information situation in real time, merge multi-sensor data decision-making fire condition, and control GPRS sends warning information.Camera is used for video monitoring, so that the user further confirms fire condition through video.
Based on the fire information fusion of ZigBee wireless sensor network and the workflow that detects be: gateway at first starts sets up a new network; After network is set up successfully, accept a plurality of terminal nodes and routing node networking request, and distribute the short address; The gateways and starting monitor command, a plurality of sensing datas on the receiving terminal node regularly, and carry out D-S evidence information fusion and the reasoning whether breaking out of fire of making a strategic decision; Therebetween, routing node is transmitted the information of terminal node.
The present invention also proposes a kind of fire detection method based on multi-sensor information fusion; Promptly use the D-S evidence theory that carbonomonoxide concentration, temperature and the smog of terminal node collection are carried out the multi-sensor data fusion; Characterize the belief function that fire takes place according to each information, whether the reasoning fire takes place.
According to sensor output response characteristic and expertise, select Gaussian function to characterize the degree of belief function that fire takes place as smog, temperature, the output of carbon monoxide CO gas sensor, wherein horizontal ordinate is a sensor output value, ordinate is a fire probability.The degree of belief function has three sections, from left to right be followed successively by no fire, uncertain, fire arranged.When smokescope greater than 2.1%/foot, carbon monoxide CO output is greater than 150ppm or temperature surpasses ; Be judged to be fire, and degree of belief increases with sensor output value.
After obtaining smog, temperature, the output of carbon monoxide CO gas sensor; Can obtain the degree of belief that current fire takes place according to the degree of belief function that fire takes place; Be designated as respectively; and ; Wherein ; and representes that respectively the smokescope judgement has fire, does not have fire and uncertain probability; ; and representes that respectively the temperature judgement has fire, does not have fire and uncertain probability; ; and representes that respectively the judgement of carbon monoxide CO gas has fire, does not have fire and uncertain probability.
Take sequential system to merge three sensing datas, promptly merge smog and temperature earlier and obtain fire generation belief function, and then this belief function and carbon monoxide CO gas are merged, the order of fusion does not influence net result.Theoretical according to D-S; The degree of belief function calculation formula that merges is ; Wherein representes and all the degree of belief sum of products of conflict hypothesis fully, and satisfies .
Obtain smog, temperature and CO gas the fire that has thus, do not have fire and uncertain probability, and then judge whether fire takes place the condition of a fire.
Software engineering scheme of the present invention mainly comprises two flow processs, and promptly the structure flow process of ZigBee wireless sensor network and gateway D-S evidence theory merge the multi-sensor data flow process.
The structure flow process of ZigBee wireless senser device network is following:
1) system initialization comprises initialization coordinator node, routing node, terminal node device type; Coordinator node, routing node and terminal node LED light are bright, and indication mechanism work initial work is accomplished;
2) coordinator node networking, terminal node, routing node are sent and are added the network application; The coordinator node waits node adds network;
3) terminal node and routing node network successfully, get into next step 4), otherwise return step 2) continuation trial adding network;
4) coordinator node is that terminal node and routing node distribute the short address, and network struction is accomplished;
5) coordinator node sends monitor command to terminal node, waits for the terminal return data;
6) terminal node timing acquiring sensing data, and send to coordinator node; Routing node is transmitted the data of terminal node;
7) data of coordinator node receiving terminal node transmission are submitted to gateway with data and are handled.
It is following that gateway utilizes the D-S evidence theory to merge the multi-sensor data flow process:
1) data of gateway receiving sensor collection are distributed the belief function of fire generation according to sensor output response characteristic and expertise;
2) combined evidence of calculating smoke transducer and temperature sensor evidence;
3) calculation procedure 2) in the inconsistent factor of two evidences, and then obtain smog and temperature sensor fusion results;
4) repeating step 2) and step 3), merge result and carbon monoxide CO gas sensor data for the first time, obtain final fusion results;
5) continue the receiving sensor data, merge next time.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is a topology diagram of the present invention, comprises that the logic of said each module connects synoptic diagram;
Fig. 2 is a terminal node structured flowchart of the present invention, is on the SOC chip of core at CC2430, connects smoke transducer MQ-2, temperature sensor DS18B20, carbon monoxide CO gas sensor MQ-7;
Fig. 3 is the structure process flow diagram of ZigBee wireless sensor network;
Fig. 4 is that gateway DS evidence theory merges the multi-sensor data process flow diagram;
Fig. 5 is that smoke transducer output characterizes the degree of belief function that fire takes place;
Fig. 6 is that temperature sensor output characterizes the degree of belief function that fire takes place;
Fig. 7 is that the output of carbon monoxide CO gas sensor characterizes the degree of belief function that fire takes place.
Embodiment
In order to understand technical scheme of the present invention better, embodiment of the present invention is further described below in conjunction with accompanying drawing.
Be illustrated in figure 1 as the fire detection system that the present invention is based on wireless multi-sensor information fusion and the topological structure of method.Be on the terminal node of core multiple sensors to be installed with CC2430, be arranged in guarded region; For the growth data transmission range, several routing nodes are set; The coordinator node of ZigBee wireless sensor network is installed on the gateway; Gateway one end is through the data of serial ports reception coordinator node, and the other end is connected to GPRS network through GPRS/GSM communication module GTM900-C; Be connected to the Internet network through DM9000AEP and network interface.
Be illustrated in figure 2 as the fire detection system that the present invention is based on wireless multi-sensor information fusion and the terminal node structured flowchart of method.At CC2430 is on the SOC chip of core, connects smoke transducer MQ-2, temperature sensor DS18B20, carbon monoxide CO gas sensor MQ-7.Not only comprise ZigBee wireless RF front end on the CC2430 sheet, also integrated one 8051 kernel is as the processor of terminal node.
Be illustrated in figure 3 as the structure process flow diagram of the ZigBee wireless network of the fire detection system that the present invention is based on wireless multi-sensor information fusion and method, flow process is following:
1) system initialization comprises initialization coordinator node, routing node, terminal node device type; After initialization finished, coordinator node, routing node and terminal node LED light were bright, and indication mechanism work initial work is accomplished;
2) coordinator node networking, terminal node, routing node are sent and are added the network application; The coordinator node waits node adds network;
3) terminal node and routing node network successfully, get into next step 4), otherwise return step 2) continuation trial adding network;
4) coordinator node is that terminal node and routing node distribute the short address, and network struction is accomplished;
5) coordinator node sends monitor command to terminal node, waits for the terminal return data;
6) terminal node timing acquiring sensing data, and send to coordinator node; Routing node is transmitted the data of terminal node;
7) data of coordinator node receiving terminal node transmission are submitted to gateway with data and are handled.
The gateway DS evidence theory that is illustrated in figure 4 as the fire detection system that the present invention is based on wireless multi-sensor information fusion and method merges the multi-sensor data process flow diagram, and flow process is following:
1), the gateway receiving sensor data of gathering, distribute the belief function of fire generation according to sensor output response characteristic with expertise;
2) combined evidence of calculating smoke transducer and temperature sensor evidence;
3) calculation procedure 2) in the inconsistent factor of two evidences, and then obtain smog and temperature sensor fusion results;
4) repeating step 2) and step 3), merge result and carbon monoxide CO gas sensor data for the first time, and then obtain final fusion results;
5) continue to accept sensing data, merge next time.
The smog that is illustrated in figure 5 as the fire detection system that the present invention is based on wireless multi-sensor information fusion and method characterizes the degree of belief function that fire takes place, and wherein horizontal ordinate is the smoke transducer output valve, and ordinate is a fire probability.The degree of belief function has three sections, from left to right be followed successively by no fire, uncertain, fire arranged.When smokescope greater than 2.1%/foot, judging has fire, and degree of belief increases with sensor output value.
The smog that is illustrated in figure 6 as the fire detection system that the present invention is based on wireless multi-sensor information fusion and method characterizes the degree of belief function that fire takes place, and wherein horizontal ordinate is the temperature sensor output valve, and ordinate is a fire probability.The degree of belief function has three sections, from left to right be followed successively by no fire, uncertain, fire arranged.When temperature surpasses ; Judging has fire, and degree of belief increases with sensor output value.
The carbon monoxide CO that is illustrated in figure 7 as the fire detection system that the present invention is based on wireless multi-sensor information fusion and method characterizes the degree of belief function that fire takes place, and wherein horizontal ordinate is the carbon monoxide transducer output valve, and ordinate is a fire probability.The degree of belief function has three sections, from left to right be followed successively by no fire, uncertain, fire arranged.When carbon monoxide CO output greater than 150ppm, judging has fire, and degree of belief increases with sensor output value.

Claims (8)

1. based on the fire detection system and the method for wireless multi-sensor information fusion; It is characterized in that fire detection system utilizes wireless monitoring terminal node detection condition of a fire environmental parameter, make up intelligent gateway with embedded system; Realize the interconnected of wireless senser ZigBee network, Internet network and general packet radio service GPRS network; The user is long-range to obtain real-time monitor message, in case when fire took place, system sent warning message to user mobile phone through GPRS.
2. fire detection system and method based on wireless multi-sensor information fusion according to claim 1; It is characterized in that; Configuration fire detection terminal node, this sense terminals node is a core with ZigBee SOC(system on a chip) CC2430, the multiple sensors of peripheral configuration detection fire; Comprise smoke transducer MQ-2, temperature DS18B20 and carbon monoxide CO gas sensor MQ-7, and electric power system on the plate.
3. fire detection system and method based on wireless multi-sensor information fusion according to claim 1; It is characterized in that; The configuration intelligent gateway; This gateway is a core with embedded chip S3C6410, and network interface HR911105A, camera, SD card and draw-in groove thereof, USB2.0 interface, ZigBee wireless module, power supply chip AMS1117, power light, the GPRS/GSM network-in-dialing that periphery design comprises Flash, SDRAM, GPRS module GTM900-C, SIM mobile phone card and draw-in groove thereof, GPRS radio-frequency antenna, network card chip DM9000AEP, band transformer be pilot lamp, a hummer, a reset key whether.
4. fire detection system and method based on wireless multi-sensor information fusion according to claim 1; It is characterized in that; After the sense terminals node powered on, the available networking in the search radio-frequency region added after the ZigBee network of gateway configuration; Be in the gateway commands state that receives, afterwards timing acquiring environmental parameter and send to gateway.
5. fire detection system and method based on wireless multi-sensor information fusion according to claim 1 is characterized in that gateway at first starts the foundation of ZigBee network; The transmission terminal node carries out the order of data acquisition; Be in the wait accepting state afterwards, gateway carries out the DS evidence theory to the data that receive merge to be judged, the whether breaking out of fire of making a strategic decision; In case think that dangerous situation takes place, start the GPRS module and send warning message to user mobile phone.
6. fire detection system and method based on wireless multi-sensor information fusion according to claim 1; It is characterized in that; Gateway carries the software platform of embedded Linux system as the gateway part, on the ARM embedded system, transplants the Boa embedded web server, with SQLite as embedded database; Use the CGI interface and realize dynamic page mutual between embedded web server and the user browser; Receive the request of browser remote inquiry, on webpage, show current various sensor information situations in real time, merge multi-sensor data decision-making fire condition.
7. fire detection system and method based on wireless multi-sensor information fusion according to claim 5; It is characterized in that; Select Gaussian function to characterize the degree of belief function that fire takes place as smog, temperature, the output of carbon monoxide CO gas sensor; The degree of belief function has three sections; From left to right be followed successively by no fire, uncertain, fire arranged; When smokescope greater than 2.1%/foot, carbon monoxide CO output is greater than 150ppm or temperature surpasses ; Be judged to be fire, and degree of belief increases with sensor output value.
8. fire detection system and method based on wireless multi-sensor information fusion according to claim 5; It is characterized in that; Adopt the D-S evidence theory to merge smog, temperature, carbon monoxide CO gas sensor data with sequential system; Be that first D-S evidence merges smog and temperature obtains fire generation belief function, and then this belief function and carbon monoxide CO gas are carried out the fusion of D-S evidence, obtain smog, temperature and CO gas the fire that has thus the condition of a fire; Do not have fire and uncertain probability, and then judge whether fire takes place.
CN2012102387626A 2012-07-11 2012-07-11 System and method for detecting fire hazard based on wireless multi-sensor information fusion CN102737468A (en)

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Application publication date: 20121017