CN102735600A - Method for testing coal sample seepage under true triaxial state - Google Patents

Method for testing coal sample seepage under true triaxial state Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102735600A
CN102735600A CN2012102317267A CN201210231726A CN102735600A CN 102735600 A CN102735600 A CN 102735600A CN 2012102317267 A CN2012102317267 A CN 2012102317267A CN 201210231726 A CN201210231726 A CN 201210231726A CN 102735600 A CN102735600 A CN 102735600A
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test specimen
backing plate
gas
coal
pressure
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CN102735600B (en
Inventor
尹光志
许江
王倩
彭守建
黄滚
蒋长宝
王浩
程立朝
刘�东
李文璞
李波波
王维忠
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Chongqing University
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Chongqing University
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Abstract

The invention discloses a method for testing coal sample seepage under a true triaxial state. The method comprises the steps of: 1) preparing a sample; 2) installing the sample; (3) filling oil, evacuating and vacuumizing; (4) loading; (5) absorbing by gas; (6) measuring seepage parameters; (7) stopping an experiment, and (8) storing data. According to the method, a real work condition can be really simulated and a theoretical basis is provided for solving on-site problems.

Description

Coal sample seepage flow method of testing under true three Spindle Status
Technical field
The present invention relates to the seepage flow method of testing of a kind of coal sample under true three Spindle Status.
Background technology
Coal and gas are outstanding to be a kind of extremely complicated dynamic phenomenon that occurs under the coal mine, and it can spray a large amount of coal and a large amount of gas of gushing out, the safety in production of serious threat China's coal-mine and miner's life security by coal body to the digging space in the short time at the utmost point.Therefore, it is very important to add the research of strong coal and gas outburst mechanism.Research shows; Coal and gas are outstanding to be to make coal body produce the process of shear failure under the ringing of inside and outside stress; When making coal body generation local fracture destruction form the source of giving prominence under the inside and outside agent effect that the variation that promptly causes stress field, coal petrography structure and gas state because of mining activity and flow is brought out; The vibration that produces certain intensity forms the cyclic stress ripple and acts on repeatedly on the coal body, finally brings out the outstanding generation of coal and gas.The combined action hypothesis thinks that it is by the coefficient result of the physico-mechanical properties of terrestrial stress, gas, coal that coal and gas are given prominence to; It is the effect of intercoupling between terrestrial stress, gas and the coal and rock physico-mechanical properties; But how on earth still very unclear the percentage contribution of three in coal and the outstanding process of gas be; Especially acting in conjunction mechanism and the percentage contribution situation under true three-dimension stress field, high temperature, high gas permeation pressure condition known little about it.
Coal-bed gas (coal-seam gas) permeability is the physical parameter of gas seepage flow complexity in the reflection coal seam, also is the important parameter of gas permeation fluid mechanics and engineering.Therefore, the research of the measuring method of coal-bed gas permeability or Gas Permeation Coefficients of Coal Seams is the gordian technique of gas permeation fluid mechanics development, also is that a series of mine safety key of problem such as the mine safety worker studies coal and gas is outstanding, gas explosion are started with a little.
Coal seam reservoirs is the dual structure model that a cover is made up of natural crack and matrix pores; Fissure system is the passage of coal-bed methane seepage migration; Reservoir permeability is except that receiving the control of self cranny development characteristic; The contraction of tectonic structure, terrestrial stress state, gas pressure, ground temperature, matrix of coal, coal seam buried depth, coal body structure and electric field etc. all affect the coal seam permeability to some extent, and the evolution of permeability is the result of above-mentioned variant factors effect.
In the prior art; Measurement to permeability is generally accomplished through seepage tests, and still, existing seepage tests method can not be simulated the seepage characteristic research under the true three-dimensional ground stress field condition; The confined pressure bearing capacity is little; Maximum can only be applied to several to tens MPas, can not reach the purpose of coal-bed gas seepage characteristic and migration rule under research the deep heavily stressed and high tectonic stress condition, can't carry out the coal-bed gas seepage tests research under the earth formation deep hyperosmosis condition; The accurate infiltrative evolution rule of the coal and rock under the researching high-temperature condition has satisfied not the purpose of perviousness rule research under the hot environment of adopting due to the dark increase.
Variation along with exploitation scale and mining depth; The most of colliery of China will become the high gas production condition of low-permeable, and this type of condition gas control is a global problem, does not solve for a long time; Cause the coal-mine gas accident multiple, safety and high efficiency is difficult to realize.Development and develop under this type of condition the coal-bed gas exploitation technology, for the production efficiency that improves coal-seam gas, it is significant to increase energy resource supply.
The waterfrac treatment simulation test is the important means of understanding crack propagation mechanism, through the crushing test under the simulation stratum condition, can monitor the actual physics process of crack propagation, and Direct observation is carried out in the crack that forms.In addition, can the various factors that influence crack propagation be separated, carry out parameter study.
The hydraulic fracturing application of in oil exploitation, having succeeded, but the applied research in coal-bed gas exploitation still belongs to the starting stage, also exists a lot of problems to need further investigation.Although coal bed gas well is carried out waterfrac treatment and there are a lot of similarities in well fracturing, still there is very big difference in the two.There were significant differences with oil and gas reservoir on composition, structure, structure and mechanics physical property for coal petrography.Petroleum reservoir is generally sandstone, can regard the homogeneous isotropic material as; And the coal seam comprises a large amount of natural cracks, and it is bigger that mechanical property is influenced by bedding, joint, and strictness is said, belongs to orthotropy or transverse isotropy material, and there is essential difference in the crack initiation in crack with expanding on the mechanism.Crack propagation in the coal seam is mainly expansion, the perforation of original crack under the water under high pressure effect, forms the crack network; And sandstone during by pressure break water under high pressure make lithostrome constantly produce new crack, therefore the research method of two kinds of rock stratum is also with different.In addition, the general buried depth in coal seam is more than 1000m, and the general buried depth of oil and gas reservoir causes the two in the very big difference of the textural existence of terrestrial stress below 1500m thus.Because the greatest differences of above coal seam and petroleum reservoir makes the further crack crack initiation of studying in the waterfrac treatment of coal seam extend characteristic with expansion and seems particularly important.
Ground vertical drilling extraction coal-seam gas is to get into the coal seam at the ground drilling well; Through drainage and step-down the adsorbed gas in the coal seam is desorbed; Flow to ground by pit shaft, perhaps utilize nature pressure reduction or gas pump extract to assemble through pit shaft and remain among the rock that receives mining infection zone, the unquarried coal seam and the coal-seam gas in the goaf.The influence that whether receives recovery activity according to the coal seam can be divided into conventional perpendicular hole exploitation and the exploitation of mining infection zone surface well.The former requires to have bigger coal seam of thickness or coal seam group; The perviousness in coal seam is wanted better; And more favourable topographic condition, because Chinese coal seam belongs to the high-order coal mostly, initial fissure is less relatively; Therefore the characteristic that the ubiquity perviousness is low also need carry out pressure break and make cave equal excitation measure to improve gas production rate in drilling well the coal seam.Ground perpendicular hole exploiting coal bed methane, gas production rate is big, resource recovery is high, mobility strong, can form scale and benefit.This technology does not receive space constraint, does not receive time restriction, can shift to an earlier date 5 years, 10 years or the longer time at the extensive gang of wells of ground configuration, carry out the large tracts of land extraction; Simultaneously a well can reach geologic prospecting, take out in advance before adopting, minery extraction and goaf extraction, the special result of " a well four-function ".The method is in advance the gas in the preparatory mining height gassy seam to be discharged and be used, and reduces the gas bearing capacity in the coal seam, fundamentally solves the coal-mine gas accident.
It is how to improve recovery ratio that the key of ground drilling exploiting coal bed methane studies a question.This comprises two aspect contents, and first technical elements comprises the technical indicator of the design parameter and the extraction equipment self of drilling well; It two is the permeabilities in coal seam.The permeability in coal seam is big more, and it is just short more to reach the needed time of same exploitation effect.Because technology such as drilling well, pressure break and extraction have been widely used at oil and gas industry, and have obtained significant achievement, this drilling well fracturing technique for the coal seam has played good use for reference of planning undoubtedly.The major measure of current raising coal seam permeability comprises: 1, hydrofracturing renovation technique; Dominant mechanism is: clamp-on through the high drive current in the crack that occurs after original and the pressure break in the coal; Widen and stretch these cracks; And then in coal, produce more secondary fracture and crack, increase the gas penetration potential in coal seam; 2, multicomponent gas displacement technology; 3, directed pinniform HDP.
Under existing situation, no matter consider from cost or construction technology, hydrofracturing has very big advantage to coal seam transformation.But the coal seam fracturing technique does not obtain ubiquity to be broken through, and except that a few coalfield, most coalfields do not possess the technology and the condition of ground extraction.This shows; How the key issue of ground drilling exploiting coal bed methane technology further is converted into controlling Design through the ground drilling hydrofracturing increases coal seam number that connects the crack each other and the maximum length that increases fracture propagation etc., thereby reaches the purpose that improves the coal seam permeability.And these are to be based upon how crack initiation of the borehole wall, and the crack is on the basis of how expanding under the effect of water under high pressure and extending.Therefore, the crack initiation of the borehole wall, crack propagation are extended, the theoretical research of crack maximum length, and the permeability in raising coal seam and the exploitation effect of coal-bed gas are had more important practical sense.
In addition, behind the entering deep mining, the weighing factor of temperature factor in the Deep Mine exploitation obviously increases when exploiting than superficial part, and this exploits negligible factor at superficial part temperature, in deep mining, has produced significant effects.Deep high temperature and a series of problems that produced thus become a difficult problem of deep mining, at present in deep mining the research about temperature effect still be in initially, stage qualitatively, mainly have following problem: do not consider real ground stress environment; The temperature, pressure coupling of setting up at present is down in the constitutive equation of rock stream varying model, not concrete clear and definite temperature field as yet distribute and the situation of temperature variation under, being thought of as linear factor to temperature also need prove and improve; Crisp-Yan conversion aspect Influence of Temperature at deep rock mass lacks quantitative analysis; Also do not form the concrete parametric equation that universal significance is arranged, do not have and to show reach, influence degree and the mechanism of temperature in crisp-Yan transforms through mathematics row formula clearly; To the calculating of rock mass damage and the relation between two kinds of damages also need further research to prove down in TM coupling; To the coupling of temperature and pressure-water-between the time and under several persons influence each other situation the Influence of Temperature form, influence and need further investigate aspect the degree of depth; Should pay attention to the process of dynamic change to the research of temperature, analyse in depth from two angles of microcosmic and macroscopic view.Therefore under true three experimental situations, the research of the problems referred to above has important theory and practice significance for the research of deep mining.
Traditional common triaxial apparatus can only be to the mechanical characteristic of the axi symmetrical stress state research soil body, and the real stress state of the soil body generally is asymmetric, is three-dimensional stress state sometimes, like plane strain etc.Along with going deep into of this structure of soil body theoretical research, some are can the test apparatus of simulated soil body under complex stress condition also developed, like thin-walled hole cylinder torsional shear appearance, true triaxil tester, plane strain instrument etc.Wherein, true triaxil tester adopts cuboid sample, loads respectively from three principal directions of stress, can study the mechanical characteristic of the soil body under the complex stress condition.True triaxil tester is since Kjellmn in 1936 designs successfully; Successively developed multiple true triaxil tester both at home and abroad; Difference according to the mode that applies of intermediate principal stress generally can be divided into three kinds: rigidity level increased pressure board true triaxil tester, level of flexibility increased pressure board true triaxil tester and hard and soft compound pressurization true triaxil tester.China did not also have independent development and introduces true triaxil tester before the eighties in 20th century, the development of true triaxil tester and experimental study afterwards also mainly carried out in Tsing-Hua University, Tongji University and Hohai University.Up to the present, the research institution and the research institutions that have true three equipment mainly comprise: Hohai University, China Mining University, Tsing-Hua University, Wuhan ground institute, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Institutes Of Technology Of Taiyuan, North China Institute of Water Conservancy and Hydroelectric Power and three of Luoyang Headquarters of the General Staff, China University Of Petroleum Beijing.
Above unit designs the true triaxial test device of exploitation; Though deepened the progress of soil mechanics, rock mechanics, permeation fluid mechanics and colliery dynamic disaster to a certain extent, all can not realize the true triaxial test function of high temperature, high confining pressure and high seepage flow condition.Along with the variation of exploitation scale and mining depth, surrouding rock stress constantly increases, and the most of colliery of China will become the high gas production condition of low-permeable; This type of condition gas control is a global problem; Do not solve for a long time, cause the coal-mine gas accident multiple, safety and high efficiency is difficult to realize.In addition, behind the entering deep mining, the weighing factor of temperature factor in the Deep Mine exploitation obviously increases when exploiting than superficial part, and this exploits negligible factor at superficial part temperature, in deep mining, has produced significant effects.Deep high temperature and a series of problems that produced thus become a difficult problem of deep mining.Therefore, the above equipment testing requirements that all can't satisfy research and solve the practical challenges that a period of time colliery at present and in the future faced.
Therefore those skilled in the art are devoted to develop and a kind ofly can simulate the solid coupling test system of true three axial flows of high temperature, high confining pressure and high seepage flow condition simultaneously and under true three Spindle Status, carry out hydrofracturing test and seepage tests.
Summary of the invention
Because the above-mentioned defective of prior art, technical matters to be solved by this invention provides a kind of true three axial flows that can simulate high temperature, high confining pressure and high seepage flow condition simultaneously and consolidates coupling test system and under true three Spindle Status, carry out hydrofracturing test and seepage tests.
For realizing the purpose of the present invention's first aspect, the invention provides the solid coupling test system of a kind of multi-functional true three axial flows, comprise frame and the pressure chamber that can place the coal petrography sample;
Said frame comprises bearing; Be fixedly connected with framework on the said bearing;
The top of said framework is provided with first lining; The top of said framework is fixedly connected with first end cap; The outside of said first end cap is fixed with first oil cylinder; Said first oil cylinder is connected with the first servo oil circuit device; First oil cylinder piston and the first oil cylinder piston bar have been wholely set in said first oil cylinder; Be provided with the first oil cylinder displacement transducer in said first oil cylinder piston and the first oil cylinder piston bar;
The bottom of said framework is provided with second lining; The bottom of said framework is fixedly connected with second end cap; The outside of said second end cap is fixed with second oil cylinder; Said second oil cylinder is connected with the second servo oil circuit device; Second oil cylinder piston and the second oil cylinder piston bar have been wholely set in said second oil cylinder; Be provided with the second oil cylinder displacement transducer in said second oil cylinder piston and the second oil cylinder piston bar;
The left part of said framework is provided with the 3rd lining; The left part of said framework is fixedly connected with the 3rd end cap; The outside of said the 3rd end cap is fixed with the 3rd oil cylinder; Said the 3rd oil cylinder is connected with the 3rd servo oil circuit device; The 3rd oil cylinder piston and the 3rd oil cylinder piston bar have been wholely set in said the 3rd oil cylinder; Be provided with the 3rd oil cylinder displacement transducer in said the 3rd oil cylinder piston and the 3rd oil cylinder piston bar;
The right part of said framework is provided with the 4th lining; The right part of said framework is fixedly connected with the 4th end cap; The outside of said the 4th end cap is fixed with the 4th oil cylinder; Said the 4th oil cylinder is connected with the 4th servo oil circuit device; The 4th oil cylinder piston and the 4th oil cylinder piston bar have been wholely set in said the 4th oil cylinder; Be provided with the 4th oil cylinder displacement transducer in said the 4th oil cylinder piston and the 4th oil cylinder piston bar;
Said pressure chamber comprises cylindrical shell; The top of said cylindrical shell is provided with first pressure chamber's lining, and the bottom is provided with second pressure chamber's lining, and left part is provided with the 3rd pressure chamber's lining, and right part is provided with the 4th pressure chamber's lining;
Said first pressure chamber's lining internal fixation is connected with first load sensor; Said first load sensor is fixedly connected with first centring sleeve; Said first centring sleeve is connected with first shim; Said first centring sleeve comprises first cylindrical portion and first base portion of one; The front end of said first load sensor is provided with first mount grooves; Said first cylindrical portion is provided with the bolt that inserts said first mount grooves; Said first base portion is connected with said first shim through bolt;
Said second pressure chamber's lining internal fixation is connected with second load sensor; Said second load sensor is fixedly connected with second centring sleeve; Said second centring sleeve is connected with second shim; Said second centring sleeve comprises second cylindrical portion and second base portion of one; The front end of said second load sensor is provided with second mount grooves; Said second cylindrical portion is provided with the bolt that inserts said second mount grooves; Said second base portion is connected with said second shim through bolt;
Said the 3rd pressure chamber's lining internal fixation is connected with the 3rd load sensor; Said the 3rd load sensor is fixedly connected with the 3rd centring sleeve; Said the 3rd centring sleeve is connected with the 3rd shim; Said the 3rd centring sleeve comprises the 3rd cylindrical portion and the 3rd base portion of one; The front end of said the 3rd load sensor is provided with the 3rd mount grooves; Said the 3rd cylindrical portion is provided with the bolt that inserts said the 3rd mount grooves; Said the 3rd base portion is connected with said the 3rd shim through bolt;
Said the 4th pressure chamber's lining internal fixation is connected with the 4th load sensor; Said the 4th load sensor is fixedly connected with the 4th centring sleeve; Said the 4th centring sleeve is connected with the 4th shim; Said the 4th centring sleeve comprises the 4th cylindrical portion and the 4th base portion of one; The front end of said the 4th load sensor is provided with the 4th mount grooves; Said the 4th cylindrical portion is provided with the bolt that inserts said the 4th mount grooves; Said the 4th base portion is connected with said the 4th shim through bolt;
The said first oil cylinder piston bar passes said first end cap and is fixedly connected with first pressure chamber's lining with first lining; The said second oil cylinder piston bar passes said second end cap and is fixedly connected with second pressure chamber's lining with second lining; Said the 3rd oil cylinder piston bar passes said the 3rd end cap and is fixedly connected with the 3rd pressure chamber's lining with the 3rd lining; Said the 4th oil cylinder piston bar passes said the 4th end cap and is fixedly connected with the 4th pressure chamber's lining with the 4th lining;
The front end of said cylindrical shell is fixedly connected with the five terminal lid; The outside of said five terminal lid is fixed with the 5th oil cylinder; Said the 5th oil cylinder is connected with the 5th servo oil circuit device; The 5th oil cylinder piston and the 5th oil cylinder piston bar have been wholely set in said the 5th oil cylinder; Be provided with the 5th oil cylinder displacement transducer in said the 5th oil cylinder piston; Said the 5th oil cylinder piston bar internal fixation has the 5th load sensor; Said the 5th pressure chamber's oil cylinder piston bar is fixedly connected with the 5th centring sleeve; Said the 5th centring sleeve is connected with the 5th shim; Said the 5th centring sleeve comprises the 5th cylindrical portion and the 5th base portion of one; The front end of said the 5th load sensor is provided with the 5th mount grooves; Said the 5th cylindrical portion is provided with the bolt that inserts said the 5th mount grooves; Said the 5th base portion is connected with said the 5th shim through bolt;
The rear end of said cylindrical shell is fixedly connected with the 6th end cap; The outside of said the 6th end cap is fixed with the 6th oil cylinder; Said the 6th oil cylinder is connected with the 6th servo oil circuit device; The 6th oil cylinder piston and the 6th oil cylinder piston bar have been wholely set in said the 6th oil cylinder; Be provided with the 6th oil cylinder displacement transducer in said the 6th oil cylinder piston; Said the 6th oil cylinder piston bar internal fixation has the 6th load sensor; Said the 6th pressure chamber's oil cylinder piston bar is fixedly connected with the 6th centring sleeve; Said the 6th centring sleeve is connected with the 6th shim; Said the 6th centring sleeve comprises the 6th cylindrical portion and the 6th base portion of one; The front end of said the 6th load sensor is provided with the 6th mount grooves; Said the 6th cylindrical portion is provided with the bolt that inserts said the 6th mount grooves; Said the 6th base portion is connected with said the 6th shim through bolt;
Said framework has cavity is arranged; Be arranged with first guide rail and second guide rail in the said cavity in parallel; Said first guide rail and second guide rail pass through supporting leg;
Said first guide rail and second guide rail are provided with pressure chamber's bearing assembly; Said pressure chamber bearing assembly comprises the linear bearing that cooperates with guide rail; Said linear bearing is fixedly connected with and connects piece; The said piece that connects is fixedly connected with the bottom of said pressure chamber.
In order to do the gas seepage tests, said first backing plate is provided with the first flow and second runner that communicates with each other; Said first flow is along the horizontally set of said first backing plate; Said second runner is positioned at the center of said first backing plate to extending below; Said first backing plate is provided with air permeable plate in the exit of said second runner; Said second backing plate is provided with the 3rd runner and the 4th runner that communicates with each other; Said the 3rd runner is along the horizontally set of said second backing plate; The center that said the 4th runner is positioned at said second backing plate extends upward; Said cylindrical shell is provided with the air valve that can be communicated with said first flow and the 3rd runner; Said cylindrical shell is provided with at least one oil-in and at least one oil-out.
In order to realize acoustic emission detection and the location in the true three axial compression scissor test processes of the coal petrography under different stress, different temperatures environment, different tests type and the different coal lithotypes conditions under true three loading environments; Analyze sound emission signal characteristic and influence coal petrography and press the relation between each factor of shear fracture; Inquire into coal petrography and press the propagation law and the decay characteristics of acoustic emission signal in the shear fracture process; And the acoustic emission signal in the coal petrography rupture process positioned; Analyze the temporal and spatial evolution that coal petrography destroys under high confining pressure, hyperosmosis power, the high temperature in the stress field environment truly, explain that with further announcement coal and gas gives prominence to genesis mechanism, gas seepage characteristic; With the hydrofracturing principle, said the 5th backing plate and the 6th backing plate are provided with the probe mounting hole; Said probe mounting hole is welded with plug near the inboard end of backing plate, is combined with first bolt near the end outside the backing plate; Be provided with the refractory seals packing ring between the end face of said first bolt and backing plate; The inboard of said plug is provided with the sound source probe; Be pressed with spring between the end face of said sound source probe and said first bolt; Said first bolt is provided with first axially extending bore; Be combined with second bolt in said first axially extending bore; Said second bolt is provided with second axially extending bore; The external wire of said sound source probe picks out from said first axially extending bore and second axially extending bore; Said cylindrical shell is provided with and is used for the acoustic emission joint that said sound source probe external wire picks out.
For improving the reliability of sound source probe, said first axially extending bore comprises taper hole; The aperture of said taper hole is along diminishing gradually near the inboard direction of backing plate; Be positioned at said taper hole place in said first axially extending bore and be provided with cutting ferrule; Said second bolt is arranged on the outside of said cutting ferrule; The front end of said cutting ferrule is coniform, and its tapering is less than the tapering of said taper hole; The front end edge of said cutting ferrule axially is provided with at least two open slots; Said open slot is uniformly distributed with at circumferencial direction.
For ease of the installation of pressure chamber and sample, below, said pressure chamber is provided with six groups of said pressure chamber bearing assemblies, and wherein, first group of pressure chamber's assembly is fixedly connected with said the 5th oil cylinder; Second group of pressure chamber's assembly is fixedly connected with said five terminal lid; The 3rd group of pressure chamber's assembly is fixedly connected with the front end of said cylindrical shell; The 4th group of pressure chamber's assembly is fixedly connected with the rear end of said cylindrical shell; The 5th group of pressure chamber's assembly is fixedly connected with said the 6th end cap; The 6th group of pressure chamber's assembly is fixedly connected with said the 6th oil cylinder.
In order to do hydrofracturing test, pipe is split in overhanging the causing that be threaded at said the 4th runner place of said second backing plate.
For ease of accurately measuring the microdeformation of test specimen itself, said first backing plate, second backing plate, the 3rd backing plate, the 4th backing plate, the 5th backing plate, the 6th backing plate are the square backing plate that area equates;
The length of side of said first backing plate is greater than the external diameter of first base portion of said first centring sleeve;
The length of side of said second backing plate is greater than the external diameter of second base portion of said second centring sleeve;
The length of side of said the 3rd backing plate is greater than the external diameter of the 3rd base portion of said the 3rd centring sleeve;
The length of side of said the 4th backing plate is greater than the external diameter of the 4th base portion of said the 4th centring sleeve;
The length of side of said the 5th backing plate is greater than the external diameter of the 5th base portion of said the 5th centring sleeve;
The length of side of said the 6th backing plate is greater than the external diameter of the 6th base portion of said the 6th centring sleeve;
The edge of said the 3rd backing plate is fixed with to first fixed mount of 45 ° of inclinations of said first backing plate with to second fixed mount of 45 ° of inclinations of said second backing plate; The edge of said the 4th backing plate is fixed with to the 3rd fixed mount of 45 ° of inclinations of said first backing plate with to the 4th fixed mount of 45 ° of inclinations of said second backing plate;
Said first fixed mount is fixed with the first test specimen displacement transducer near the end of said first backing plate; Said the 3rd fixed mount is fixed with the first test specimen displacement transducer extension rod near the end of said first backing plate; The said first test specimen displacement transducer and the first test specimen displacement transducer extension rod are positioned at the outside of said first backing plate, and over against setting;
Said second fixed mount is fixed with the second test specimen displacement transducer near the end of said second backing plate; Said the 4th fixed mount is fixed with the second test specimen displacement transducer extension rod near the end of said second backing plate; The said second test specimen displacement transducer and the second test specimen displacement transducer extension rod are positioned at the outside of said second backing plate, and over against setting;
Said first test specimen displacement transducer and the said second test specimen displacement transducer are oppositely arranged; The first test specimen displacement transducer extension rod and the said second test specimen displacement transducer extension rod are oppositely arranged;
The edge of said the 5th backing plate is fixed with to the 5th fixed mount of 45 ° of inclinations of said the 3rd backing plate with to the 6th fixed mount of 45 ° of inclinations of said the 4th backing plate; The edge of said the 6th backing plate is fixed with to the 7th fixed mount of 45 ° of inclinations of said the 3rd backing plate with to the 8th fixed mount of 45 ° of inclinations of said the 4th backing plate;
Said the 7th fixed mount is fixed with the 3rd test specimen displacement transducer near the end of said the 3rd backing plate; Said the 5th fixed mount is fixed with the 3rd test specimen displacement transducer extension rod near the end of said the 3rd backing plate; Said the 3rd test specimen displacement transducer and the 3rd test specimen displacement transducer extension rod are positioned at the outside of said the 3rd backing plate, and over against setting;
Said the 8th fixed mount is fixed with the 4th test specimen displacement transducer near the end of said the 4th backing plate; Said the 6th fixed mount is fixed with the 4th test specimen displacement transducer extension rod near the end of said the 4th backing plate; Said the 4th test specimen displacement transducer and the 4th test specimen displacement transducer extension rod are positioned at the outside of said the 4th backing plate, and over against setting;
Said the 3rd test specimen displacement transducer and said the 4th test specimen displacement transducer are oppositely arranged; The 3rd test specimen displacement transducer extension rod and said the 4th test specimen displacement transducer extension rod are oppositely arranged;
The edge of said first backing plate is fixed with to the 9th fixed mount of 45 ° of inclinations of said the 5th backing plate with to the tenth fixed mount of 45 ° of inclinations of said the 6th backing plate; The edge of said second backing plate is fixed with to the 11 fixed mount of 45 ° of inclinations of said the 5th backing plate with to the 12 fixed mount of 45 ° of inclinations of said the 6th backing plate;
Said the 9th fixed mount is fixed with the 5th test specimen displacement transducer near the end of said the 5th backing plate; Said the 11 fixed mount is fixed with the 5th test specimen displacement transducer extension rod near the end of said the 5th backing plate; Said the 5th test specimen displacement transducer and the 5th test specimen displacement transducer extension rod are positioned at the outside of said the 5th backing plate, and over against setting;
Said the tenth fixed mount is fixed with the 6th test specimen displacement transducer near the end of said the 6th backing plate; Said the 12 fixed mount is fixed with the 6th test specimen displacement transducer extension rod near the end of said the 6th backing plate; Said the 6th test specimen displacement transducer and the 6th test specimen displacement transducer extension rod are positioned at the outside of said the 6th backing plate, and over against setting;
Said the 5th test specimen displacement transducer and said the 6th test specimen displacement transducer are oppositely arranged; Said the 5th test specimen displacement transducer extension rod and said the 6th test specimen displacement transducer extension rod are oppositely arranged.
Be the interference that reduces to produce between each backing plate border, and improve the sealing of pressing plate to test specimen, the middle part of each fixed mount is fixed with the rubber press strip; The space between adjacent two backing plates is close in the outer face of said rubber press strip.
In order to make the pressure indoor temperature be in the preset condition of high temperature, the top of said framework is provided with the high temperature oil inlet that is communicated with said cavity; The bottom of said framework is provided with the high temperature oil outlet that is communicated with said cavity.
For realizing the purpose of the present invention's second aspect, the invention provides a kind of hydrofracturing test, may further comprise the steps:
1) prepare test specimen: 200mm * 200mm * 200mm standard cube body coal petrography sample that coal petrography appearance is processed into, and each length of side of test specimen is greater than 2% of the backing plate length of side, to reduce the interference between the different directions load; After the physical dimension of sample machines, get out diameter 12mm at the middle part of sample along the direction perpendicular to predetermined face, long 100mm causes ceasma, and with acetone or alcohol wash, waits for to the test specimen drying.
2) test specimen is installed: causing of test specimen is inserted in the ceasma to cause splits in the pipe; Test specimen is placed on second backing plate, again the test specimen and first backing plate are aligned, be inserted in the pyrocondensation gum cover together; Blow the gum cover that contracts with the hair dryer hot blast, guarantee closely to stick together between gum cover and test specimen, first backing plate and second; Test specimen, first backing plate and second backing plate are put into pressure chamber's assigned address, and first backing plate is connected with first centring sleeve, second backing plate is connected with second centring sleeve.
3) prestrain: log-on data acquisition system harmony transmission test set, in advance will be up and down all around the power of six direction be loaded on the 2-5% of predetermined load value, with inspection whether abnormal conditions are arranged.
4) load: adopt the power control mode to load, substep is CYCLIC LOADING successively, and three step numbers that direction is divided are equal, preventing that test specimen from being damaged by pressure, and more accurately simulates actual condition; Be Z with the above-below direction to, left and right directions be X to, fore-and-aft direction be Y to, loading sequence be followed successively by Z to → X to → Y to → Z to, circulation increases progressively 1MPa successively to the predetermined load value.
5) hydrofracturing: open servomotor water regulator, open stop valve, in test specimen, inject water under high pressure, hydraulic pressure adopts hierarchical loading, and every grade of pressure reduction 1MPa increases step by step, when bust appears in water injection pressure, can stop servomotor water regulator.
6) unloading: unloading be Y in proper order to → X to → Z to → Y to, the 1MPa that successively decreases successively circulates.
7) preserve all data that data acquisition system (DAS) writes down; Take out test specimen, observe the test specimen form.
For realizing the purpose of the present invention's the 3rd aspect, the invention provides a kind of seepage tests, comprise the steps:
1) prepare test specimen: the original coal cinder that will fetch from the scene places in the wooden case with the plastic sheeting good seal; Water with thin orthopaedics aggregate concrete then; To fill up the gap between coal cinder and the wooden case, treat to get core with corning machine again after the concrete hardening fully, utilize grinding machine that the coal core that takes out carefully carefully is polished into 200mm * 200mm * 200mm raw coal cube coal sample at last; And it is placed drying in oven, deposit with drying box again;
Perhaps; The original coal cinder of get is pulverized with comminutor; Through vibratory screening apparatus screening coal particle size is the pulverized coal particle between 40~80 orders; In the coal dust that these screen, add a small amount of pure water then and evenly be placed in the mould on 200t rigidity experimental machine the coal sample that is pressed into 200mm * 200mm * 200mm with the pressure of 100MPa, be positioned in the drying box after at last the moulded coal coal sample for preparing being dried.
2) test specimen is installed: for guaranteeing impermeability, with 704 silicon rubber the glue-line about one deck 1mm is smeared in each side of coal sample test specimen earlier, glue-line to be spread parches fully; Test specimen is placed on second backing plate, again the test specimen and first backing plate are aligned, be inserted in the pyrocondensation gum cover together, blow the gum cover that contracts, guarantee closely to stick together between gum cover and test specimen, first backing plate and second with the hair dryer hot blast; Test specimen, first backing plate and second backing plate are put into pressure chamber's assigned address, and first backing plate is connected with first centring sleeve, second backing plate is connected with second centring sleeve; Gas inlet pipe in the pressure chamber and escape pipe are connected with the inlet suction port and the air outlet adapter of first backing plate and second backing plate respectively; On each backing plate, connect each test specimen displacement measurement sensor and test specimen displacement transducer extension rod; The hermetically closing pressure chamber.
(3) oil-filled emptying with vacuumize: power-on, log-on data acquisition system and controller start each oil cylinder, in advance the power of three directions are loaded on the 2-5% of predetermined load value; Emptying is oil-filled to the pressure chamber, and the oil temperature is the actual condition temperature; Close with upper padding plate on the air intake opening stop valve that is connected with second runner of first flow, open with lower bolster on the gas outlet stop valve that is connected with the 4th runner of the 3rd runner, by outside gas outlet test specimen is vacuumized, lasting two hours, vacuum tightness reached 1000Pa; Close vacuum pump, close the gas outlet stop valve.
(4) load: start the confession high-pressure oil pump, utilize independently high-pressure oil pump oiling pressurization in the pressure chamber, guarantee that the force value of pump is higher than Gas seepage pressure 2%; Employing power control mode loads, and substep is CYCLIC LOADING successively, and three step numbers that direction is divided are equal, preventing that test specimen from being damaged by pressure, and more accurately simulates actual condition; Be Z with the above-below direction to, left and right directions be X to, fore-and-aft direction be Y to, loading sequence be followed successively by Z to → X to → Y to → Z to, circulation increases progressively 1MPa successively to the predetermined load value; In the cavity of framework, inject the high temperature wet goods, and open temperature control system, thereby make in the pressure chamber oily warm constant.
(5) gas absorption: open gas gas cylinder reduction valve, open the methane gas supercharging device, open the air intake opening stop valve, charge into gas, observe the dynamic change situation of gas pressure to test specimen, wait the flowmeter numerical stability after, close outlet shutoff valve; Adsorbed 12 hours, until adsorption equilibrium.
(6) measure seepage parameters: open the gas outlet stop valve; Gas outlet pressure changes rule over time in the observed data acquisition system, waits for that gas pressure is stable to the gas outlet; Modulation X, Y, Z are respectively to pressure, load mode, gas pressure; The following parameter of dynamic measurement: oil pressure, X, Y, Z triaxial pressure, gas pressure, test specimen transversal displacement, test specimen axial displacement, temperature, gas flow etc.
(7) experiment stops: turning off the methane gas supercharging device earlier, turn off gas gas cylinder reduction valve, lay down high-pressure oil pump again; Unloading at last, unloading be Y in proper order to → X to → Z to → Y to, the 1MPa that successively decreases successively circulates; After carrying the unloading completion, turn off the corresponding oil pump of each oil cylinder; Turn off temperature control system again.
(8) data storage: all data of preserving the data acquisition system (DAS) record; Take out test specimen, observe the test specimen form.
In the seepage tests, each length of side of test specimen is greater than 2% of the backing plate length of side, to reduce the interference between the different directions load.
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows: the present invention is mainly used in and carries out coal and gas outburst mechanism, coal-seam gas Penetration Signature and hydrofracturing mechanism under the heavily stressed and tectonic stress field in deep, the hyperosmosis power condition, and based on true three with hot conditions under research work such as rock mechanics.Mainly study in heavily stressed and tectonic stress field; Destructive process, strength characteristic and the Acoustic emission of different loading speeds, different water cut state, different stress field, different stress level, different stress path loading rock type materials under dull and the periodic loading, destructive process, strength characteristic and the Acoustic emission of different loading speeds, different gas pressure, different stress field, different stress level, different stress path, different-grain diameter, different forming pressure, different cohesive strength raw coal and moulded coal; Under, tectonic stress field heavily stressed, the hyperosmosis power condition in the deep; Carry out the evolution rule research of different terrestrial stress, different gas pressure, different water cut rate coal containing methane gas rock permeability under dull and the periodic loading; And the coupling Mechanism Study between terrestrial stress, gas pressure etc. and the coal petrography permeability under the condition of adopting, thereby disclose the coal-bed gas migration mechanism to a deeper level; Research moulded coal and raw coal sample be Changing Pattern researchs such as the parting pressure during hydrofracturing, angle, fracture azimuth, fracture length in different stress field, from the test angle expansion extension of hydraulic fracture are studied; Study mechanics, distortion, intensity, damage, the rheological characteristics of the deep coal petrography under true triaxial stress and the hot environment.
The present invention can disclose further that the deep is heavily stressed, hyposmosis coal petrography hydrofracturing mechanism and seepage characteristic under the tectonic stress field, hyperosmosis power condition; Further intercoupling effect between the physico-mechanical properties of terrestrial stress under heavily stressed, the tectonic stress field in research deep, the hyperosmosis power condition, gas and coal, the combined action that rock mass breaks to be given prominence to the Cracks Evolution rule and to coal and gas are machine-processed, in the hope of announcement coal petrography shear fracture on profound level more, seepage characteristic and coal and gas outburst mechanism; Further study mechanics, distortion, intensity, damage, the rheological characteristics of the deep coal petrography under true triaxial stress and the hot environment.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the structural representation of the embodiment of the invention.
Fig. 2 is the partial enlarged drawing at I place among Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is the partial enlarged drawing at II place among Fig. 1.
Fig. 4 is the left TV structure synoptic diagram of Fig. 1.
Fig. 5 is the partial enlarged drawing at III place among Fig. 4.
Fig. 6 is the partial enlarged drawing at IV place among Fig. 4.
Fig. 7 is the plan structure synoptic diagram of Fig. 1.
Fig. 8 is the structural representation of pressure chamber in the embodiment of the invention.
Fig. 9 is the partial enlarged drawing at V place among Fig. 8.
Figure 10 is the left TV structure synoptic diagram of Fig. 8.
Figure 11 is the plan structure synoptic diagram of Fig. 8.
Figure 12 is a sound source probe mounting structural representation in the embodiment of the invention.
Figure 13 is the partial enlarged drawing at V place among Figure 12.
Figure 14 is the structural representation of cutting ferrule in the embodiment of the invention.
Figure 15 is the upward view of Figure 14.
Figure 16 is at the structural representation of short transverse backing plate in the embodiment of the invention.
Figure 17 is the partial enlarged drawing at VI place among Figure 16.
Figure 18 is at the structural representation of left and right directions backing plate in the embodiment of the invention.
Figure 19 is at the structural representation of fore-and-aft direction backing plate in the embodiment of the invention.
Figure 20 is the installation process synoptic diagram of test specimen in the embodiment of the invention.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing and embodiment the present invention is described further:
To shown in Figure 19, the solid coupling test system of a kind of multi-functional true three axial flows comprises frame 100 and the pressure chamber 200 that can place the coal petrography sample like Fig. 1, and frame 100 comprises bearing 1, is fixedly connected with framework 2 on the bearing 1.
The top of framework 2 is provided with first lining 3, and the outside that the top of framework 2 is fixedly connected with first end cap, 4, the first end caps 4 is fixed with first oil cylinder, 5, the first oil cylinders 5 and is connected with the first servo oil circuit device 6.Be wholely set in first oil cylinder 5 in first oil cylinder piston 7 and the first oil cylinder piston bar, 8, the first oil cylinder pistons 7 and the first oil cylinder piston bar 8 and be provided with the first oil cylinder displacement transducer 10.
The bottom of framework 2 is provided with second lining, and the bottom of framework 2 is fixedly connected with second end cap, and the outside of second end cap is fixed with second oil cylinder, and second oil cylinder is connected with the second servo oil circuit device.Be wholely set second oil cylinder piston and the second oil cylinder piston bar in second oil cylinder, be provided with the second oil cylinder displacement transducer in second oil cylinder piston and the second oil cylinder piston bar.
The left part of framework 2 is provided with the 3rd lining, and the left part of framework 2 is fixedly connected with the 3rd end cap, and the outside of the 3rd end cap is fixed with the 3rd oil cylinder, and the 3rd oil cylinder is connected with the 3rd servo oil circuit device.Be wholely set the 3rd oil cylinder piston and the 3rd oil cylinder piston bar in the 3rd oil cylinder, be provided with the 3rd oil cylinder displacement transducer in the 3rd oil cylinder piston and the 3rd oil cylinder piston bar.
The right part of framework 2 is provided with the 4th lining, and the right part of framework 2 is fixedly connected with the 4th end cap, and the outside of the 4th end cap is fixed with the 4th oil cylinder, and the 4th oil cylinder is connected with the 4th servo oil circuit device.Be wholely set the 4th oil cylinder piston and the 4th oil cylinder piston bar in the 4th oil cylinder, be provided with the 4th oil cylinder displacement transducer in the 4th oil cylinder piston and the 4th oil cylinder piston bar.
Pressure chamber 200 comprises cylindrical shell 11, and the top of cylindrical shell 11 is provided with first pressure chamber's lining 9, and the bottom is provided with second pressure chamber's lining, and left part is provided with the 3rd pressure chamber's lining, and right part is provided with the 4th pressure chamber's lining.
First pressure chamber's lining, 9 internal fixation are connected with first load sensor, 12, the first load sensors 12 and are fixedly connected with first centring sleeve 14, and first centring sleeve 14 is fixedly connected with the first backing plate 13a.First centring sleeve 14 comprises that first cylindrical portion 141 of one and the front end of first base portion, 142, the first load sensors 12 are provided with first mount grooves 121; First cylindrical portion 141 is provided with bolt 41, the first base portions 142 that insert first mount grooves and is fixedly connected with the first backing plate 13a through bolt.
Second pressure chamber's lining internal fixation is connected with second load sensor, and second load sensor is fixedly connected with second centring sleeve, and second centring sleeve is fixedly connected with the second backing plate 13b.Second centring sleeve comprises second cylindrical portion and second base portion of one, and the front end of second load sensor is provided with second mount grooves; Second cylindrical portion is provided with the bolt that inserts second mount grooves, and second base portion is fixedly connected with the second backing plate 13b through bolt.
The 3rd pressure chamber's lining internal fixation is connected with the 3rd load sensor, and the 3rd load sensor is fixedly connected with the 3rd centring sleeve, and the 3rd centring sleeve is fixedly connected with the 3rd backing plate 13c.The 3rd centring sleeve comprises the 3rd cylindrical portion and the 3rd base portion of one, and the front end of the 3rd load sensor is provided with the 3rd mount grooves; The 3rd cylindrical portion is provided with the bolt that inserts the 3rd mount grooves, and the 3rd base portion is fixedly connected with the 3rd backing plate 13c through bolt.
The 4th pressure chamber's lining internal fixation is connected with the 4th load sensor, and the 4th load sensor is fixedly connected with the 4th centring sleeve, and the 4th centring sleeve is fixedly connected with the 4th backing plate 13d.The 4th centring sleeve comprises the 4th cylindrical portion and the 4th base portion of one, and the front end of the 4th load sensor is provided with the 4th mount grooves; The 4th cylindrical portion is provided with the bolt that inserts the 4th mount grooves, and the 4th base portion is fixedly connected with the 4th backing plate 13d through bolt.
The first oil cylinder piston bar 8 passes first end cap 4 and is fixedly connected with first pressure chamber's lining 9 with first lining 3; The second oil cylinder piston bar passes second end cap and is fixedly connected with second pressure chamber's lining with second lining; The 3rd oil cylinder piston bar passes the 3rd end cap and is fixedly connected with the 3rd pressure chamber's lining with the 3rd lining, and the 4th oil cylinder piston bar passes the 4th end cap and is fixedly connected with the 4th pressure chamber's lining with the 4th lining.
The front end of cylindrical shell 11 is fixedly connected with the five terminal lid, and the outside of five terminal lid is fixed with the 5th oil cylinder, and the 5th oil cylinder is connected with the 5th servo oil circuit device.The 5th oil cylinder piston and the 5th oil cylinder piston bar have been wholely set in the 5th oil cylinder; Be provided with the 5th oil cylinder displacement transducer in the 5th oil cylinder piston; The 5th oil cylinder piston bar internal fixation has the 5th load sensor; The 5th pressure chamber's oil cylinder piston bar is fixedly connected with the 5th centring sleeve, and the 5th centring sleeve is fixedly connected with the 5th backing plate 13e.The 5th centring sleeve comprises the 5th cylindrical portion and the 5th base portion of one, and the front end of the 5th load sensor is provided with the 5th mount grooves; The 5th cylindrical portion is provided with the bolt that inserts the 5th mount grooves, and the 5th base portion is fixedly connected with the 5th backing plate 13e through bolt.
The rear end of cylindrical shell 11 is fixedly connected with the 6th end cap, and the outside of the 6th end cap is fixed with the 6th oil cylinder, and the 6th oil cylinder is connected with the 6th servo oil circuit device.The 6th oil cylinder piston and the 6th oil cylinder piston bar have been wholely set in the 6th oil cylinder; Be provided with the 6th oil cylinder displacement transducer in the 6th oil cylinder piston; The 6th oil cylinder piston bar internal fixation has the 6th load sensor; The 6th pressure chamber's oil cylinder piston bar is fixedly connected with the 6th centring sleeve, and the 6th centring sleeve is fixedly connected with the 6th backing plate 13f.The 6th centring sleeve comprises the 6th cylindrical portion and the 6th base portion of one, and the front end of the 6th load sensor is provided with the 6th mount grooves; The 6th cylindrical portion is provided with the bolt that inserts the 6th mount grooves, and the 6th base portion is fixedly connected with the 6th backing plate 13f through bolt.
In the present embodiment, the size of each backing plate equates.
Pressure chamber 200 is provided with the pressure transducer plug 27 that connects one to one with each load sensor, and institute's measuring pressure signal of load sensor spreads out of from pressure transducer plug 27 through wiring.
Framework 2 has cavity 15 is arranged, and pressure chamber 200 can place in the cavity 15.Be arranged with first guide rail 16 and the second guide rail 16b in the cavity 15 in parallel, first guide rail 16 and the second guide rail 16b are through leg 18 supportings.
First guide rail 16 and the second guide rail 16b are provided with pressure chamber's bearing assembly 17, and pressure chamber's bearing assembly 17 comprises the linear bearing 17a that cooperates with guide rail, and linear bearing 17a is fixedly connected with and connects piece 17b, connects piece 17b and is fixedly connected with the bottom of pressure chamber 200.Pressure chamber's bearing assembly with first guide rail and the second guide rail left and right sides relative position is one group; 200 belows, pressure chamber are provided with six groups of pressure chamber's bearing assemblies 17; Wherein, first group of pressure chamber's assembly is fixedly connected with the 5th oil cylinder, and second group of pressure chamber's bearing assembly is fixedly connected with the five terminal lid; The 3rd group of pressure chamber's bearing assembly is fixedly connected with the front end of cylindrical shell 11; The 4th group of pressure chamber's bearing assembly is fixedly connected with the rear end of cylindrical shell 11, and the 5th group of pressure chamber's bearing assembly is fixedly connected with the 6th end cap, and the 6th group of pressure chamber's bearing assembly is fixedly connected with the 6th oil cylinder.
First backing plate 13 is provided with the first flow 19 and second runner 20 that communicates with each other; First flow 19 is along the horizontally set of first backing plate 13; Second runner 20 is positioned at the center of first backing plate 13 to extending below, and first backing plate 13 is provided with air permeable plate 21 in the exit of second runner 20.First flow 19 places are provided with first joint, are used for air inlet.
The second backing plate 13b is provided with the 3rd runner 22 that communicates with each other and the 4th runner 23, the three runners 22 horizontally set along the second backing plate 13b, and the center that the 4th runner 23 is positioned at the second backing plate 13b extends upward.The second backing plate 13b be threaded at the 4th runner 23 places overhanging causing split the pipe 24.The 3rd runner 22 places are provided with second joint, and second joint can be used for giving vent to anger or feed liquor.
Cylindrical shell 11 tops are provided with a high-pressure gas-liquid mixing valve 42; The middle part is provided with four high-pressure gas-liquid mixing valves 42; Generally only do gas vent or inlet with one in the test, other is subsequent use, and each high-pressure gas-liquid mixing valve all can be connected with first joint or second joint; Each high-pressure gas-liquid valve all can be connected with external source of the gas or liquid source simultaneously, thereby realizes feeding gas or liquid to test specimen.Cylindrical shell is provided with oil-in 29a and oil-out 29b.
According to the attenuation characteristic of sound wave in coal and rock; Take into full account and realize reasonably location of Data Receiving memory to greatest extent; Taken into account the operability on mould simultaneously; Be provided with 4 probe mounting holes on four angles of the 5th backing plate 13e and the 6th backing plate 13f, amount to 8, thereby acoustic emission device 300 can be installed.
The probe mounting hole is welded with plug 31 near the inboard end of backing plate, is combined with near the end in the backing plate outside between the end face of first bolt, 32, the first bolts 32 and backing plate and is provided with refractory seals packing ring 40.
The inboard of plug 31 is provided with sound source probe 33; Be pressed with spring 34 between the end face of sound source probe 33 and first bolt 32; First bolt 32 is provided with first axially extending bore 35; Be combined with second bolt, 36, the second bolts 36 in first axially extending bore 35 and be provided with second axially extending bore 37, the external wire 39 of sound source probe 33 picks out from first axially extending bore 35 and second axially extending bore 37.
First axially extending bore 35 comprises taper hole 35a; The aperture of taper hole 35a is positioned at taper hole 35a place and is provided with the outside that cutting ferrule 38, the second bolts 36 are arranged on cutting ferrule 38 along diminishing gradually near the inboard direction of backing plate in first axially extending bore 35; The front end of cutting ferrule 38 is coniform; Its tapering is less than the tapering of taper hole 35a, and the front end edge of cutting ferrule 38 axially is provided with at least two open slots 38, and open slot 38 is uniformly distributed with at circumferencial direction.
Cylindrical shell 11 is provided with corresponding with the acoustic emission device, is used for the acoustic emission joint 30 that sound source probe external wire 39 picks out.
In the present embodiment, the first backing plate 13a, the second backing plate 13b, the 3rd backing plate 13c, the 4th backing plate 13d, the 5th backing plate 13e, the 6th backing plate 13f are the square backing plate that area equates.
The length of side of first backing plate is greater than the external diameter of first base portion of first centring sleeve; The length of side of second backing plate is greater than the external diameter of second base portion of second centring sleeve; The length of side of the 3rd backing plate is greater than the external diameter of the 3rd base portion of the 3rd centring sleeve; The length of side of the 4th backing plate is greater than the external diameter of the 4th base portion of the 4th centring sleeve; The length of side of the 5th backing plate is greater than the external diameter of the 5th base portion of the 5th centring sleeve; The length of side of the 6th backing plate is greater than the external diameter of the 6th base portion of the 6th centring sleeve.
The edge of the 3rd backing plate 13c is fixed with the first fixed mount 44a and the second fixed mount 44b that becomes 45 ° of inclinations to the second backing plate 13b that becomes 45 ° of inclinations to the first backing plate 13a; The edge of the 4th backing plate is fixed with to first backing plate and becomes the 3rd fixed mount 45a of 45 ° of inclinations and the 4th fixed mount 45b that becomes 45 ° of inclinations to second backing plate.
The first fixed mount 44a is fixed with the first test specimen displacement transducer 43a near the end of the first backing plate 13a; The 3rd fixed mount 45a is fixed with the first test specimen displacement transducer extension rod 46a near the end of the first backing plate 13a; The first test specimen displacement transducer 43a and the first test specimen displacement transducer extension rod 46a are positioned at the outside of the first backing plate 13a, and over against setting.
The second fixed mount 44b is fixed with the second test specimen displacement transducer 43b near the end of the second backing plate 13b; The 4th fixed mount 45b is fixed with the second test specimen displacement transducer extension rod 46b near the end of the second backing plate 13b; The second test specimen displacement transducer 43b and the second test specimen displacement transducer extension rod 46b are positioned at the outside of the second backing plate 13b, and over against setting.
The first test specimen displacement transducer 43a and the second test specimen displacement transducer 43b are oppositely arranged; The first test specimen displacement transducer extension rod 46a and the second test specimen displacement transducer extension rod 46b are oppositely arranged.
The edge of the 5th backing plate 13e is fixed with the 5th fixed mount 47a and the 6th fixed mount 47b that becomes 45 ° of inclinations to the 4th backing plate 13d that becomes 45 ° of inclinations to the 3rd backing plate 13c; The edge of the 6th backing plate 13f is fixed with to the 3rd backing plate and becomes the 7th fixed mount 48a of 45 ° of inclinations and the 8th fixed mount 48b that becomes 45 ° of inclinations to the 4th backing plate.
The 7th fixed mount 48a is fixed with the 3rd test specimen displacement transducer 43c near the end of the 3rd backing plate 13c; The 5th fixed mount 47a is fixed with the 3rd test specimen displacement transducer extension rod 46c near the end of the 3rd backing plate 13c; The 3rd test specimen displacement transducer 43c and the 3rd test specimen displacement transducer extension rod 46c are positioned at the outside of the 3rd backing plate 13c, and over against setting.
The 8th fixed mount 48b is fixed with the 4th test specimen displacement transducer 43d near the end of the 4th backing plate 13d; The 6th fixed mount 47b is fixed with the 4th test specimen displacement transducer extension rod 46d near the end of the 4th backing plate 13d; The 4th test specimen displacement transducer 43d and the 4th test specimen displacement transducer extension rod 46d are positioned at the outside of the 4th backing plate 13d, and over against setting.
The 3rd test specimen displacement transducer 43c and the 4th test specimen displacement transducer 43d are oppositely arranged; The 3rd test specimen displacement transducer extension rod 46c and the 4th test specimen displacement transducer extension rod 46d are oppositely arranged.
The edge of the first backing plate 13a is fixed with the 9th fixed mount 49a and the tenth fixed mount 49b that becomes 45 ° of inclinations to the 6th backing plate 13f that becomes 45 ° of inclinations to the 5th backing plate 13e; The edge of the second backing plate 13b is fixed with to the 5th backing plate and becomes the 11 fixed mount 50a of 45 ° of inclinations and the 12 fixed mount 50b that becomes 45 ° of inclinations to the 6th backing plate.
The 9th fixed mount 49a is fixed with the 5th test specimen displacement transducer 43e near the end of the 5th backing plate 13e; The 11 fixed mount 50a is fixed with the 5th test specimen displacement transducer extension rod 46e near the end of the 5th backing plate 13e; The 5th test specimen displacement transducer 43e and the 5th test specimen displacement transducer extension rod 46e are positioned at the outside of the 5th backing plate 13e, and over against setting.
The tenth fixed mount 49b is fixed with the 6th test specimen displacement transducer 43f near the end of the 6th backing plate 13f; The 12 fixed mount 50b is fixed with the 6th test specimen displacement transducer extension rod 46f near the end of the 6th backing plate 13f; The 6th test specimen displacement transducer 43f and the 6th test specimen displacement transducer extension rod 46f are positioned at the outside of the 6th backing plate 13f, and over against setting.
The 5th test specimen displacement transducer 43e and the 6th test specimen displacement transducer 43f are oppositely arranged; The 5th test specimen displacement transducer extension rod 46e and the 6th test specimen displacement transducer extension rod 46f are oppositely arranged.
The middle part of each fixed mount is fixed with rubber press strip 51, and the space between adjacent two backing plates is close in the outer face of rubber press strip 51.
The top of said framework 2 is provided with the high temperature oil inlet 52 that is communicated with cavity 15; The bottom of framework 2 is provided with the high temperature oil outlet 53 that is communicated with cavity 15.Can enter the mouth in high temperature oil and 52 corresponding joint is set, so that high temperature oil flows into and output with outlet 53 places.
When preparing test; Shown in figure 20, five terminal lid is separated with cylindrical shell 11, then with five terminal lid and the 5th oil cylinder segment distance that moves forward; On the track between five terminal lid and the cylindrical shell 11, place dress appearance dolly 25, the front end of dress appearance dolly 25 is set to " U " shape structure.Test specimen is placed on the second backing plate 13b, again the test specimen and the first backing plate 13a are aligned, be inserted in the pyrocondensation gum cover together, blow the gum cover that contracts, guarantee closely to stick together between gum cover and test specimen, first backing plate and second with the hair dryer hot blast; Test specimen, first backing plate and second backing plate are put into pressure chamber's assigned address, and the first backing plate 13a is connected with first centring sleeve 14, the second backing plate 13b is connected with the second centring sleeve 14b; Remove the foul in the pressure chamber; Each oil cylinder piston is return original position, check whether the second load sensor overhang is in the test specimen installation site, otherwise adjust.
Promote a dress appearance dolly 25, test specimen 26 is sent into pressure chamber's assigned address after, observe whether aligning second centring sleeve; If do not align; Adjust, behind the centering, the first backing plate 13a and the second backing plate 13b are installed; Last connecting line, the oil pump and the servo-control system that start power supply, each oil cylinder are carried out correlation test.
This pilot system can be carried out the hydrofracturing test under true three Spindle Status, and concrete steps are following:
1) prepare test specimen: 200mm * 200mm * 200mm standard cube body coal petrography sample that coal petrography appearance is processed into, and each length of side of test specimen is greater than 2% of the backing plate length of side, to reduce the interference between the different directions load; After the physical dimension of sample machines, get out diameter 12mm at the middle part of sample along the direction perpendicular to predetermined face, long 100mm causes ceasma, and with acetone or alcohol wash, waits for to the test specimen drying.
2) test specimen is installed: causing of test specimen is inserted in the ceasma to cause splits in the pipe 24; Test specimen is placed on the second backing plate 13b, again the test specimen and first backing plate 13 are aligned, be inserted in the pyrocondensation gum cover together; Blow the gum cover that contracts with the hair dryer hot blast, guarantee closely to stick together between gum cover and test specimen, first backing plate and second; Test specimen, first backing plate and second backing plate are put into pressure chamber's assigned address, and first backing plate 13 is connected with first centring sleeve 14, the second backing plate 13b is connected with the second centring sleeve 14b.
3) prestrain: log-on data acquisition system harmony transmission test set, in advance will be up and down all around the power of six direction be loaded on the 2-5% of predetermined load value, with inspection whether abnormal conditions are arranged; The predetermined load value can calculate through routine according to test specimen size, material etc.
4) load: adopt the power control mode to load, substep is CYCLIC LOADING successively, and three step numbers that direction is divided are equal, preventing that test specimen from being damaged by pressure, and more accurately simulates actual condition; Be Z with the above-below direction to, left and right directions be X to, fore-and-aft direction be Y to, loading sequence be followed successively by Z to → X to → Y to → Z to, circulation increases progressively 1MPa successively to the predetermined load value.
5) hydrofracturing: open servomotor water regulator, open stop valve, in test specimen, inject water under high pressure, hydraulic pressure adopts hierarchical loading, and every grade of pressure reduction 1MPa increases step by step, when bust appears in water injection pressure, can stop servomotor water regulator.
6) unloading: unloading be Y in proper order to → X to → Z to → Y to, the 1MPa that successively decreases successively circulates.
7) preserve all data that data acquisition system (DAS) writes down; Take out test specimen, observe the test specimen form.
In the step 4); Because X, Y, each direction of Z load when being positive and negative both direction; Therefore can effectively prevent the test specimen skew of its center line relatively; Reduce the friction effect that the relative changing of the relative positions with backing plate of test specimen causes, thereby can more accurately measure related data, more accurate, stable simulation actual condition; And, can change the load and the stress of all directions by test objective, different like the load that increases progressively on each direction, thus simulated formation 3-D stree field is more truly all improving on the simulation precision, on the system stability greatly.In the loading procedure,, can accurately control the size and the amount of feeding of each oil cylinder loading force through the feedback of each direction upper cylinder displacement transducer.
According to the survey data, can calculate and the computer processing according to routine, the whole process of true reflection, reduction test specimen pressure break, thus accurately simulate actual condition, for practical engineering application provides theoretical foundation.In the present embodiment, with the waterfrac treatment research of acoustic emission position application under true three Spindle Status, and in laboratory implementation, to explore waterfrac treatment mechanism; Acoustic emission test can carry out the acoustic emission propagation attenuation mechanism research in the waterfrac treatment process, for the waterfrac treatment prediction provides the basis; Acoustic emission test will position the coal petrography acoustic emission signal that produces of breaking; Can realize the visual reproduction of temporal-spatial evolution phenomenon that test specimen in the waterfrac treatment process is broken; The space-time of the acoustic emission signal of being surveyed location will provide direct data for crack forming process around the hole and evolution; Can study the temporal evolution rule of the spatial shape in crack, for the research of waterfrac treatment mechanism provides approximate reliably on-the-spot actual parameter support.
Through repeatedly hydrofracturing test; Can study coal petrography Changing Pattern such as the crack starter location in crack, propagation direction, parting pressure, angle, fracture azimuth, fracture length during hydrofracturing under conditions such as different buried depth, different stress field, different coal petrography structure, different-grain diameter, different forming pressures; Realize the accurate simulation of pressure break coal petrography edge stress field through computer control and data handling system; The dynamic changing process of pressure break hole ambient stress and strain in the true reflection hydrofracturing process, the dynamic changing process of discharge etc. in the hydrofracturing process; Acoustic emission signal in the waterfrac treatment overall process is gathered, and inquires into each influence factor to the propagation law of the acoustic emission signal in the fracturing process and the influence of decay characteristics; And acoustic emission source positioned, coal petrography produces the position and the condition in rupture failure source when analyzing waterfrac treatment, analyzes the time and the spatial character of coal petrography internal rupture development after the waterfrac treatment.Further improve the hydrofracturing correlation theory, for the engineering practice of deep, low-permeable, high gas layer exploitation and gas control provides reference.
This pilot system can be carried out seepage tests, and concrete steps are following:
1) prepare test specimen: the original coal cinder that will fetch from the scene places in the wooden case with the plastic sheeting good seal; Water with thin orthopaedics aggregate concrete then; To fill up the gap between coal cinder and the wooden case, treat to get core with corning machine again after the concrete hardening fully, utilize grinding machine that the coal core that takes out carefully carefully is polished into 200mm * 200mm * 200mm raw coal cube coal sample at last; And it is placed drying in oven, deposit with drying box again;
Perhaps; The original coal cinder of get is pulverized with comminutor; Through vibratory screening apparatus screening coal particle size is the pulverized coal particle between 40~80 orders; In the coal dust that these screen, add a small amount of pure water then and evenly be placed in the mould on 200t rigidity experimental machine the coal sample that is pressed into 200mm * 200mm * 200mm with the pressure of 100MPa, be positioned in the drying box after at last the moulded coal coal sample for preparing being dried.
2) test specimen is installed: for guaranteeing impermeability, with 704 silicon rubber the glue-line about one deck 1mm is smeared in each side of coal sample test specimen earlier, glue-line to be spread parches fully; Removing causing on the second backing plate 13b splits in the pipe 24; Test specimen is placed on the second backing plate 13b, again the test specimen and the first backing plate 13a are aligned, be inserted in the pyrocondensation gum cover together; Blow the gum cover that contracts with the hair dryer hot blast, guarantee closely to stick together between gum cover and test specimen, first backing plate and second; Test specimen, first backing plate and second backing plate are put into pressure chamber's assigned address, and the first backing plate 13a is connected with first centring sleeve 14, the second backing plate 13b is connected with the second centring sleeve 14b; Gas inlet pipe in the pressure chamber and escape pipe are connected with first joint and second joint of first backing plate and second backing plate respectively; On each backing plate, connect each test specimen displacement measurement sensor and test specimen displacement transducer extension rod (shown in Figure 16 to 19); Hermetically closing pressure chamber 200.
(3) oil-filled emptying with vacuumize: power-on; Log-on data acquisition system and controller; Start each oil cylinder, in advance the power of three directions is loaded on the 2-5% (the predetermined load value can calculate through routine according to test specimen size, material etc.) of predetermined load value; Emptying is oil-filled to the pressure chamber, closes oil-out after being full of; Close with upper padding plate on the air intake opening stop valve that is connected with second runner of first flow, open with lower bolster on the gas outlet stop valve that is connected with the 4th runner of the 3rd runner, by outside gas outlet test specimen is vacuumized, lasting two hours, vacuum tightness reached 1000Pa; Close vacuum pump, close the gas outlet stop valve.
(4) load: start the confession high-pressure oil pump, utilize independently high-pressure oil pump oiling pressurization in the pressure chamber, guarantee that the force value of pump is higher than Gas seepage pressure 2%; Employing power control mode loads, and substep is CYCLIC LOADING successively, and three step numbers that direction is divided are equal, preventing that test specimen from being damaged by pressure, and more accurately simulates actual condition; Be Z with the above-below direction to, left and right directions be X to, fore-and-aft direction be Y to, loading sequence be followed successively by Z to → X to → Y to → Z to, circulation increases progressively 1MPa successively to the predetermined load value; Open temperature control system, in the cavity of framework, inject high temperature oil, make the oil temperature constant is the actual condition temperature the pressure chamber in, as 40 ℃, 60 ℃, 80 ℃ etc.
(5) gas absorption: open gas gas cylinder reduction valve, open the methane gas supercharging device, open the air intake opening stop valve, charge into gas, observe the dynamic change situation of gas pressure to test specimen, wait the flowmeter numerical stability after, close outlet shutoff valve; Adsorbed 12 hours, until adsorption equilibrium.
(6) measure seepage parameters: open the gas outlet stop valve; Gas outlet pressure changes rule over time in the observed data acquisition system, waits for that gas pressure is stable to the gas outlet; Modulation X, Y, Z are respectively to pressure, load mode, gas pressure; The following parameter of dynamic measurement: oil pressure, X, Y, Z triaxial pressure, gas pressure, test specimen transversal displacement, test specimen axial displacement, temperature, gas flow etc.
(7) experiment stops: turning off the methane gas supercharging device earlier, turn off gas gas cylinder reduction valve, lay down high-pressure oil pump again; Unloading at last, unloading be Y in proper order to → X to → Z to → Y to, the 1MPa that successively decreases successively circulates; After carrying the unloading completion, turn off the corresponding oil pump of each oil cylinder; Turn off temperature control system again.
(8) data storage: all data of preserving the data acquisition system (DAS) record; Take out test specimen, observe the test specimen form.
In the seepage tests, each length of side of test specimen is greater than 2% of the backing plate length of side, to reduce the interference between the different directions load.
In the seepage tests; Because it is separately independently that three directions load; Thereby can change the load and the stress of all directions by test objective, and realized real true three seepage tests, can simulate the Penetration Signature in coal seam under the true three-dimensional ground stress field condition more truly.
Realize stablizing supercharging owing to utilize the methane gas regulator; Pressure that can constant maintenance Gas seepage reaches as high as 20MPa, and precision is ± 0.5%; Therefore resolution is 0.001MPa, can comparatively accurately simulate under the hyperosmosis gas condition methane gas at the inner seepage characteristic of coal and rock.
Owing to utilize temperature control system to realize the hot environment control of seepage tests; Temperature controlling range is a room temperature-100 ℃; Precision is ± 0.5 ℃, thus can the simulated formation depths, under the hot environment and truly ply stress after the match fluid at the inner seepage characteristic of coal and rock.
More than describe preferred embodiment of the present invention in detail.Should be appreciated that those of ordinary skill in the art need not creative work and just can design according to the present invention make many modifications and variation.Therefore, all technician in the art all should be in the determined protection domain by claims under this invention's idea on the basis of existing technology through the available technical scheme of logical analysis, reasoning, or a limited experiment.

Claims (4)

1. coal sample seepage flow method of testing under true three Spindle Status comprises the steps:
1) prepares test specimen: cube coal sample that preparation is dry;
2) test specimen is installed: for guaranteeing impermeability, with 704 silicon rubber the glue-line about one deck 1mm is smeared in each side of coal sample test specimen earlier, glue-line to be spread parches fully; Test specimen is placed on second backing plate, again the test specimen and first backing plate are aligned, be inserted in the pyrocondensation gum cover together, blow the gum cover that contracts, guarantee closely to stick together between gum cover and test specimen, first backing plate and second with the hair dryer hot blast; Test specimen, first backing plate and second backing plate are put into pressure chamber's assigned address, and first backing plate is connected with first centring sleeve, second backing plate is connected with second centring sleeve; Gas inlet pipe in the pressure chamber and escape pipe are connected with the inlet suction port and the air outlet adapter of first backing plate and second backing plate respectively; On each backing plate, connect each test specimen displacement measurement sensor and test specimen displacement transducer extension rod; The hermetically closing pressure chamber;
(3) oil-filled emptying with vacuumize: power-on, log-on data acquisition system and controller start each oil cylinder, in advance the power of three directions are loaded on the 2-5% of predetermined load value; Emptying is oil-filled to the pressure chamber, closes oil-out after being full of; Close with upper padding plate on the air intake opening stop valve that is connected with second runner of first flow, open with lower bolster on the gas outlet stop valve that is connected with the 4th runner of the 3rd runner, by outside gas outlet test specimen is vacuumized, lasting two hours, vacuum tightness reached 1000Pa; Close vacuum pump, close the gas outlet stop valve;
(4) load: start the confession high-pressure oil pump, utilize independently high-pressure oil pump oiling pressurization in the pressure chamber, guarantee that the force value of pump is higher than Gas seepage pressure 2%; Employing power control mode loads, and substep is CYCLIC LOADING successively, and three step numbers that direction is divided are equal, preventing that test specimen from being damaged by pressure, and more accurately simulates actual condition; Be Z with the above-below direction to, left and right directions be X to, fore-and-aft direction be Y to, loading sequence be followed successively by Z to → X to → Y to → Z to, circulation increases progressively 1MPa successively to the predetermined load value; Open temperature control system, in the cavity of framework, inject high temperature oil, make the warm constant actual condition temperature that is of oil in the pressure chamber;
(5) gas absorption: open gas gas cylinder reduction valve, open the methane gas supercharging device, open the air intake opening stop valve, charge into gas, observe the dynamic change situation of gas pressure to test specimen, wait the flowmeter numerical stability after, close outlet shutoff valve; Adsorbed 12 hours, until adsorption equilibrium;
(6) measure seepage parameters: open the gas outlet stop valve; Gas outlet pressure changes rule over time in the observed data acquisition system, waits for that gas pressure is stable to the gas outlet; Modulation X, Y, Z are respectively to pressure, load mode, gas pressure; The following parameter of dynamic measurement: oil pressure, X, Y, Z triaxial pressure, gas pressure, test specimen transversal displacement, test specimen axial displacement, temperature, gas flow etc.;
(7) experiment stops: turning off the methane gas supercharging device earlier, turn off gas gas cylinder reduction valve, lay down high-pressure oil pump again; Unloading at last, unloading be Y in proper order to → X to → Z to → Y to, the 1MPa that successively decreases successively circulates; After carrying the unloading completion, turn off the corresponding oil pump of each oil cylinder; Turn off temperature control system again;
(8) data storage: all data of preserving the data acquisition system (DAS) record; Take out test specimen, observe the test specimen form.
2. coal sample seepage flow method of testing under true three Spindle Status as claimed in claim 1; It is characterized in that: the test specimen in the step 1) makes through following method: the original coal cinder that will fetch from the scene places in the wooden case with the plastic sheeting good seal; Water with thin orthopaedics aggregate concrete then; To fill up the gap between coal cinder and the wooden case, treat to get core with corning machine again after the concrete hardening fully, utilize grinding machine that the coal core that takes out carefully carefully is polished into 200mm * 200mm * 200mm raw coal cube coal sample at last; And it is placed drying in oven, deposit with drying box again.
3. coal sample seepage flow method of testing under true three Spindle Status as claimed in claim 1; It is characterized in that: the test specimen in the step 1) makes through following method: the original coal cinder of get is pulverized with comminutor; Through vibratory screening apparatus screening coal particle size is the pulverized coal particle between 40~80 orders; In the coal dust that these screen, add a small amount of pure water then and evenly be placed in the mould on 200t rigidity experimental machine the coal sample that is pressed into 200mm * 200mm * 200mm with the pressure of 100MPa, be positioned in the drying box after at last the moulded coal coal sample for preparing being dried.
4. like coal sample seepage flow method of testing under arbitrary described true three Spindle Status of claim 1 to 3, it is characterized in that: each length of side of test specimen is greater than 2% of the backing plate length of side.
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