CN102726264B - Mechanically-mulching cultivation method of organic rice - Google Patents

Mechanically-mulching cultivation method of organic rice Download PDF

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CN102726264B
CN102726264B CN2012102445157A CN201210244515A CN102726264B CN 102726264 B CN102726264 B CN 102726264B CN 2012102445157 A CN2012102445157 A CN 2012102445157A CN 201210244515 A CN201210244515 A CN 201210244515A CN 102726264 B CN102726264 B CN 102726264B
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姚宏亮
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姚宏亮
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Abstract

The invention discloses a mechanically-mulching cultivation method of organic rice, relating to a rice cultivation method. The purpose of the method provided by the invention is to solve the weeding problem in paddy fields in the existing cultivation method of organic rice. The method comprises the steps of 1, selecting field environment, namely (1) selecting soil, (2) selecting air quality and (3) selecting a water source; 2, performing soil preparation in the field, namely (1) ploughing, (2) fertilizing and (3) digging canals and harrowing; 3, preparing seedbed and bed soil, namely (1) preparing seeding environment, (2) preparing seedbed and (3) preparing bed soil; 4, germination treatment of seeds, namely (1) drying seeds, (2) performing plasma treatment, (3) soaking seeds and (4) accelerating germination; 5, sowing; 6, managing seedlings, namely (1) performing insect prevention treatment, (2) managing temperature, (3) managing water, and (4) fertilizing; 7, mulching, transplanting seedlings and managing the field, namely (1) making a bed and mulching, (2) transplanting, (3) irrigating, (4) dressing foliar fertilizer, (5) managing water layers in the field, (6) weeding and (7) preventing insects. The method is mainly used for cultivating organic rice by mechanical mulching.

Description

A kind of organic paddy rice mechanical film cultivation method
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of rice cultivating method.
Background technology
The key technology of plantation organic paddy rice is thoroughly to solve paddy field weed-killer, prevents the farmland running to weeds problem.At present, domestic organic paddy rice cultivation mainly contains the rice field fish culture method, and the duck rice does and the artificial weeding method altogether.The rice field fish culture method is subjected to the restriction of shortage of fresh water, and rice field frequent drought lack of water phenomenon does not obtain spread all the time, breeds fish and can not the weeds eat everything up, can't resolve the paddy field weeding problem.
It is a kind of new way of development organic paddy rice that the duck rice does altogether, the one, be not suitable with northern spread, the 2nd, every mu of rice field need to be built a place and support the duck canopy and becalm and take shelter from rain, and every hundred mu just need 2 people's specialties to raise ducks, also need simultaneously feeding grain, aquaculture cost is higher than selling cost.The 3rd, duck can not eat the weeds eat everything up in rice field as weeds ducks such as the stem or leaf of cattail, rice galingale herb, Scirpus tabernaemontanis, can't resolve the whole weeds weeding in rice field problem.
Artificial weeding is the weeding way of traditional farming, and the Honda weeding needs 2-3 time, and labour intensity is large, and labor cost is high, and owing to not using chemical fertilizer and agricultural chemicals, production cost is high, yields poorly, and benefit is low.Therefore, above-mentioned three kinds of ways all can not spread, can not fundamentally solve the agent for removing grass in paddy field problem.
Summary of the invention
The objective of the invention is to solve the problem of the agent for removing grass in paddy field that has the existence of organic paddy rice cultivation method now, and a kind of organic paddy rice paddy field machine covering cultivation method that provides.
A kind of organic paddy rice mechanical film cultivation method, specifically complete according to the following steps:
One, home environment is selected:
1. soil is selected: the soil of cultivating newly developed, or through the soil of transition period farming in 3 year, do not use any fertilizer and pesticide in 3 year transition period cropping season, soil fertility is I level or II level, the pH value of soil is 6.5 ~ 7.0, and with the adjacent plot distance of using the chemical fertilizer medication greater than 100m, with the Class I highway distance greater than 100m, with chemical industry, industrial and mining enterprises' factory building distance greater than 5000m;
2. air quality is selected: require air pollution index API between 0 ~ 100; 3. the source wet concentration is selected: selecting the water quality of source water is drinking water I class, drinking water II class, drinking water III class or sewage IV class;
Two, the whole ground of Honda:
1. plough: adopt to plough deeply 1 year, the rotary tillage whole ground way of 2 years is implemented whole ground of autumn, and the autumn time of site preparation is mid-October, carries out whole ground in soil moisture content under less than 30% condition, and ploughing deeply the degree of depth is 20cm ~ 25cm, and the rotary tillage degree of depth is 12 ~ 17cm;
2. fertilising: the muck that will be in the state of becoming thoroughly decomposed before whole ground of autumn is evenly raised and is spread on the Honda soil, and every mu of fertilizing amount is 1.5m 3~ 2m 3
3. repair canal, rake the soil level: rotary tillage soil-working at the beginning of 4 months, built the non-irrigated ridge, Shui Geng is accomplished fluently when discharging water the soaked field in the soaked field that discharges water mid-April, and rake the soil level in 5 ~ 7 sky and water before rice transplanting, requires the leveling rake thin, reaches cun water and do not reveal mud;
Three, seedbed, the preparation of bed soil:
1. seedling raising environment: 1, soil is selected: select the mountain region humus soil as growing seedlings soil, the pH value of soil is 6.5 ~ 7.0, and with the adjacent plot distance of using the chemical fertilizer medication greater than 300m, with the Class I highway distance greater than 300m, with chemical industry, industrial and mining enterprises' factory building distance greater than 5000m; 2, air quality is selected: require air pollution index API between 0 ~ 100; 3, the source wet concentration is selected: selecting the water quality of source water is drinking water I class, drinking water II class, drinking water III class or sewage IV class;
2. seedbed preparation: select the leeward dry land ground that faces south or field of vegetables as seedling cultivation of rice booth base, take the method that whole ground of autumn, autumn fertilising, autumn are made bed to prepare the seedbed, the long 36m ± 1m in seedbed, the wide 10.5m ± 0.5m in seedbed in mid-October, establish pavement, the wide 40cm ~ 50cm in pavement in the middle of the seedbed;
3. a bed soil preparation: be that rice husk and mountain region humus soil 10% below mixes in October with water content, then in the sufficient condition burning of aerobic, namely obtain bed native; Step 3 3. described in water content be that rice husk and mountain region volume ratio humous below 10% is (3.5 ~ 4.5): 1;
Four, seed sprouting is processed:
1., bask seeds: after at the beginning of late March to 4 month, rice paddy seed being sieved, the rice paddy seed after sieving is paved into evenly that 3 ~ 4cm is thick to bask seeds 1 ~ 5 day, namely bask seeds process after rice paddy seed;
2. seed soaking: temperature be will bask seeds under 10 ℃ ~ 15 ℃ process after rice paddy seed put into deionized water and soaked 3 ~ 5 days, put into again mass concentration after pulling out and be 0.8% ~ 1.2% lime water solution, and temperature is to soak 2.5 ~ 3.5 days under 10 ℃ ~ 15 ℃, and stir every day 2 ~ 3 times, pull rear employing deionized water washing 2 ~ 3 times out, namely complete seed soaking;
3. vernalization: it is in the screen window bag of 10 kilograms that the rice paddy seed that at first will complete seed soaking evenly is distributed into capacity, then be placed in germinator, then broken chest vernalization under 30 ℃ ~ 32 ℃, after the broken chest of the rice paddy seed of completing seed soaking to 80% ~ 85%, temperature is down to 24 ℃ ~ 26 ℃, and 24 ℃ ~ 26 ℃ vernalization to bud till long 0.8mm ~ 1.2mm, and stir 2 ~ 3 every day during 24 ℃ ~ 26 ℃ vernalization, then be cooled to 15 ℃ ~ 20 ℃ cool bud 5h ~ 7h, namely complete presprouting of seeds, obtain chitting piece;
Five, sowing: 1 ~ April 10 April, daily mean temperature are stabilized in more than 0 ℃ and sow under condition, then the soil of growing seedlings installs in seedling-cultivating tray, then water water-wet, water and spray simultaneously natural pond liquid one time, obtain seedling-cultivating tray to be inoculated, again chitting piece is clapped and be pressed in the soil of seedling disk waiting, bury to three faces, cover again the soil of growing seedlings, thickness of earth covering is 0.5cm~1cm, bed surface tiling gas permeability mulch film after earthing, every dish seeding quantity 120g~130g of employing machine transplanting of rice dish seedling method adopts every hole of disc type seedling method to sow 3 ~ 4;
Six, seedling management: 1. insect-prevention treatment: 1, rice seedling removes the gas permeability mulch film after all being unearthed, and sprays simultaneously capsicum water one time, then sprays one time capsicum water every 7 ~ 10 days at nursery stage, and the amount of spraying of single capsicum water is 0.08 jin/m 2~ 0.12 jin/m 2, 2, adopt to hang in the seedbed or slotting cube method is placed insect protected plate, 6 of the every 100 square metres of uniform placements of insect protected plate; 2. temperature treatment: be 29 ℃ ~ 32 ℃ lower seal heat insulating culture in temperature, be cultured to rice shoot one leaf wholeheartedly after date be cooled to 27 ℃ ~ 28 ℃, and open the ventilating opening hardening of ventilating, the ventilation hardening time be early 8 to point in afternoons 4, being cultured to 1.5 ~ 2.5 leaf phases of rice shoot is cooled to 20 ℃ ~ 25 ℃, the ventilation hardening time be early 8 to point in afternoons 4, being cultured to 2.5 ~ 3.0 leaf phases of rice shoot adopts and to take off lid method ventilation at night hardening daytime, and the canopy temperature control is between 19 ℃ ~ 21 ℃, and the hardening of will ventilating round the clock before shoot transplanting equipment was more than or equal to 3 days; 3. water management: the 2 leaf phases of rice shoot, if blade tip is without reveal wanting timely moisturizing morning, if bed surface has the ponding bed that will in time dry in the air; 4. fertilising: spray altogether natural pond liquid twice between nursery stage, be respectively front 5 ~ 7 days of 15 ~ 20 days and the rice transplanting of growing seedlings;
Seven, overlay film rice transplanting and Honda management
1. Honda is done bed and overlay film: precipitation after 5 ~ 7 days is discharged soaked field water raking the soil level, then parallelly along the Chi Geng limit dig out wide 30 ~ 40cm, dark 13 ~ 17cm encloses ditch, adopt wide 30 ~ 40cm, several ridge-up beds that the bar ditch of dark 13 ~ 17cm is divided into Honda, the bedside of ridge-up bed is 1.2m, enclose ditch mud that ditch and ditch mud takes out by the form uniform spreading of middle " protruding " on the ridge-up bed bed surface, obtain being the ridge-up bed of turtleback shape, the difference in height that in the middle of ridge-up bed, the peak at protruding place and wide bedside edge are minimum is 1.5cm ~ 2.5cm, enclose between ditch and bar ditch and communicate fully, then with mulch film, ridge-up bed is covered fully,
2. rice transplanting: adopt mechanical film rice transplanter rice transplanting or rice transplantation by hand, mechanical film rice transplanter rice transplanting specification line-spacing 30cm, spacing in the rows 20cm, every cave 3 ~ 4 seedlings; The rice transplantation by hand specification is according to line-spacing 28cm ~ 32cm, spacing in the rows 16cm ~ 17cm or 19cm ~ 21cm rice transplanting of punching, every cave 3 ~ 4 seedlings;
3. pour water: rice transplanting is poured water after finishing, and the water layer height on mulch film II is 2cm ~ 5cm;
4. impose foliage fertilizer: spray natural pond liquid once in 15 ~ May 20 May, spray natural pond liquid once in 15 ~ June 20 June, the single natural pond liquid amount of spraying is 4 kg/acres ~ 6 kg/acres;
5. field water layer-management: 1, the water of tillering: tillering stage, water layer was 1cm ~ 2cm deeply; 2, protect fetal fluids: water layer is deeply for 4cm ~ 6cm to the heading in booting, and running water irrigates, temperature during lower than 17 ℃ water layer be 10cm ~ 15cm deeply, keep the running water irrigation; 3, flowering grouting water: the heading flowering period water layer is 5cm ~ 7cm deeply, and the running water irrigation, and pustulation period to ripening stage adopts intermittent mode to pour water, and water layer is 5cm ~ 7cm deeply; 4, yellow maturity draining: begin draining at yellow maturity initial stage late August;
6. Honda weeding: substantially there is no weeds under the film of overlay film field, have weeds can adopt in fact artificial weeding in time to remove this Tanaka's weeds as finding;
7. Honda insect protected: 1, every 50 mu a solar energy frequently shake trapping lamp or the trapping lamp that frequently shakes are installed; 2, scotellaris control: adopt with the mode of artificial batten cleaning and remove scotellaris.
Advantage of the present invention: one, thoroughly not use of insecticide, weed killer herbicide and chemical fertilizer of organic paddy rice mechanical film cultivation method of the present invention, replace chemical fertilizer with farmyard manure, mulch film is close to that the disconnected oxygen of mud face is wetly inhaled, high light is exposed to the sun, the herbicide pesticide effect is just played in the vexed steaming of high temperature, weeding rate reaches 98%, and killing rate reaches more than 95%; Two, organic paddy rice mechanical film cultivation method of the present invention can be realized water-saving irrigation, and saving water resource is more than 30% ~ 40%; Three, organic paddy rice mechanical film cultivation method of the present invention can improve ground temperature, year improves accumulated temperature can reach more than 200 ℃, is conducive to that popularizing planting is late-maturing, high yield, fine quality; Four, organic paddy rice mechanical film cultivation method of the present invention makes rice root flourishing, laterally wider, vertically darker, make it fully absorb nutrient in soil, tillering increases by 3 ~ 5 than routine, big panicle many grains per panicle, empty flat rate are low, increase thousand kernel weight, maturity is high, can shift to an earlier date 7 ~ 10 days maturations, and milled rice rate is high, mouthfeel good; Five, paddy field mechanical film, machine rice transplantation reduce labor intensity, and raise labour efficiency, and are conducive to popularize; Six, organic paddy rice mechanical film cultivation method high-grade rice of the present invention does not use chemical fertilizer, and with the more not underproduction of conventional cultivation, the organic products price is high, is conducive to the peasant and increases income; Seven, organic paddy rice mechanical film cultivation method of the present invention adopts farmyard manure; the availability that improves soil, raising farmyard manure with farmyard manure prevents from volatilization and runs off, improves the farmyard manure availability reaching 30%; ecotope is played a protective role, and can make paddy rice really reach green organic standard.
Embodiment
Embodiment one: present embodiment is a kind of organic paddy rice mechanical film cultivation method, specifically completes according to the following steps:
One, home environment is selected:
1. soil is selected: the soil of cultivating newly developed, or through the soil of transition period farming in 3 year, do not use any fertilizer and pesticide in 3 year transition period cropping season, soil fertility is I level or II level, the pH value of soil is 6.5 ~ 7.0, and with the adjacent plot distance of using the chemical fertilizer medication greater than 100m, with the Class I highway distance greater than 100m, with chemical industry, industrial and mining enterprises' factory building distance greater than 5000m; 2. air quality is selected: require air pollution index API between 0 ~ 100; 3. the source wet concentration is selected: selecting the water quality of source water is drinking water I class, drinking water II class, drinking water III class or sewage IV class;
Two, the whole ground of Honda:
1. plough: adopt to plough deeply 1 year, the rotary tillage whole ground way of 2 years is implemented whole ground of autumn, and the autumn time of site preparation is mid-October, carries out whole ground in soil moisture content under less than 30% condition, and ploughing deeply the degree of depth is 20cm ~ 25cm, and the rotary tillage degree of depth is 12 ~ 17cm;
2. fertilising: the muck that will be in the state of becoming thoroughly decomposed before whole ground of autumn is evenly raised and is spread on the Honda soil, and every mu of fertilizing amount is 1.5m 3~ 2m 3
3. repair canal, rake the soil level: rotary tillage soil-working at the beginning of 4 months, built the non-irrigated ridge, Shui Geng is accomplished fluently when discharging water the soaked field in the soaked field that discharges water mid-April, and rake the soil level in 5 ~ 7 sky and water before rice transplanting, requires the leveling rake thin, reaches cun water and do not reveal mud;
Three, seedbed, the preparation of bed soil:
1. seedling raising environment: 1, soil is selected: select the mountain region humus soil as growing seedlings soil, the pH value of soil is 6.5 ~ 7.0, and with the adjacent plot distance of using the chemical fertilizer medication greater than 300m, with the Class I highway distance greater than 300m, with chemical industry, industrial and mining enterprises' factory building distance greater than 5000m; 2, air quality is selected: require air pollution index API between 0 ~ 100; 3, the source wet concentration is selected: selecting the water quality of source water is drinking water I class, drinking water II class, drinking water III class or sewage IV class;
2. seedbed preparation: select the leeward dry land ground that faces south or field of vegetables as seedling cultivation of rice booth base, take the method that whole ground of autumn, autumn fertilising, autumn are made bed to prepare the seedbed, the long 36m ± 1m in seedbed, the wide 10.5m ± 0.5m in seedbed in mid-October, establish pavement, the wide 40cm ~ 50cm in pavement in the middle of the seedbed;
3. a bed soil preparation: be that rice husk and mountain region humus soil 10% below mixes in October with water content, then in the sufficient condition burning of aerobic, namely obtain bed native; Step 3 3. described in water content be that rice husk and mountain region volume ratio humous below 10% is (3.5 ~ 4.5): 1;
Four, seed sprouting is processed:
1., bask seeds: after at the beginning of late March to 4 month, rice paddy seed being sieved, the rice paddy seed after sieving is paved into evenly that 3 ~ 4cm is thick to bask seeds 1 ~ 5 day, namely bask seeds process after rice paddy seed;
2. seed soaking: temperature be will bask seeds under 10 ℃ ~ 15 ℃ process after rice paddy seed put into deionized water and soaked 3 ~ 5 days, put into again mass concentration after pulling out and be 0.8% ~ 1.2% lime water solution, and temperature is to soak 2.5 ~ 3.5 days under 10 ℃ ~ 15 ℃, and stir every day 2 ~ 3 times, pull rear employing deionized water washing 2 ~ 3 times out, namely complete seed soaking;
3. vernalization: it is in the screen window bag of 10 kilograms that the rice paddy seed that at first will complete seed soaking evenly is distributed into capacity, then be placed in germinator, then broken chest vernalization under 30 ℃ ~ 32 ℃, after the broken chest of the rice paddy seed of completing seed soaking to 80% ~ 85%, temperature is down to 24 ℃ ~ 26 ℃, and 24 ℃ ~ 26 ℃ vernalization to bud till long 0.8mm ~ 1.2mm, and stir 2 ~ 3 every day during 24 ℃ ~ 26 ℃ vernalization, then be cooled to 15 ℃ ~ 20 ℃ cool bud 5h ~ 7h, namely complete presprouting of seeds, obtain chitting piece;
Five, sowing: 1 ~ April 10 April, daily mean temperature are stabilized in more than 0 ℃ and sow under condition, then the soil of growing seedlings installs in seedling-cultivating tray, then water water-wet, water and spray simultaneously natural pond liquid one time, obtain seedling-cultivating tray to be inoculated, again chitting piece is clapped and be pressed in the soil of seedling disk waiting, bury to three faces, cover again the soil of growing seedlings, thickness of earth covering is 0.5cm ~ 1cm, bed surface tiling gas permeability mulch film after earthing, every dish seeding quantity 120g ~ 130g of employing machine transplanting of rice dish seedling method adopts every hole of disc type seedling method to sow 3 ~ 4;
Six, seedling management: 1. insect-prevention treatment: 1, rice seedling removes the gas permeability mulch film after all being unearthed, and sprays simultaneously capsicum water one time, then sprays one time capsicum water every 7 ~ 10 days at nursery stage, and the amount of spraying of single capsicum water is 0.08 jin/m 2~ 0.12 jin/m 2, 2, adopt to hang in the seedbed or slotting cube method is placed insect protected plate, 6 of the every 100 square metres of uniform placements of insect protected plate; 2. temperature treatment: be 29 ℃ ~ 32 ℃ lower seal heat insulating culture in temperature, be cultured to rice shoot one leaf wholeheartedly after date be cooled to 27 ℃ ~ 28 ℃, and open the ventilating opening hardening of ventilating, the ventilation hardening time be early 8 to point in afternoons 4, being cultured to 1.5 ~ 2.5 leaf phases of rice shoot is cooled to 20 ℃ ~ 25 ℃, the ventilation hardening time be early 8 to point in afternoons 4, being cultured to 2.5 ~ 3.0 leaf phases of rice shoot adopts and to take off lid method ventilation at night hardening daytime, and the canopy temperature control is between 19 ℃ ~ 21 ℃, and the hardening of will ventilating round the clock before shoot transplanting equipment was more than or equal to 3 days; 3. water management: the 2 leaf phases of rice shoot, if blade tip is without reveal wanting timely moisturizing morning, if bed surface has the ponding bed that will in time dry in the air; 4. fertilising: spray altogether natural pond liquid twice between nursery stage, be respectively front 5 ~ 7 days of 15 ~ 20 days and the rice transplanting of growing seedlings;
Seven, overlay film rice transplanting and Honda management
1. Honda is done bed and overlay film: precipitation after 5 ~ 7 days is discharged soaked field water raking the soil level, then parallelly along the Chi Geng limit dig out wide 30 ~ 40cm, dark 13 ~ 17cm encloses ditch, adopt wide 30 ~ 40cm, several ridge-up beds that the bar ditch of dark 13 ~ 17cm is divided into Honda, the bedside of ridge-up bed is 1.2m, enclose ditch mud that ditch and ditch mud takes out by the form uniform spreading of middle " protruding " on the ridge-up bed bed surface, obtain being the ridge-up bed of turtleback shape, the difference in height that in the middle of ridge-up bed, the peak at protruding place and wide bedside edge are minimum is 1.5cm ~ 2.5cm, enclose between ditch and bar ditch and communicate fully, then with mulch film, ridge-up bed is covered fully,
2. rice transplanting: adopt mechanical film rice transplanter rice transplanting or rice transplantation by hand, mechanical film rice transplanter rice transplanting specification line-spacing 30cm, spacing in the rows 20cm, every cave 3 ~ 4 seedlings; The rice transplantation by hand specification is according to line-spacing 28cm ~ 32cm, spacing in the rows 16cm ~ 17cm or 19cm ~ 21cm rice transplanting of punching, every cave 3 ~ 4 seedlings;
3. pour water: rice transplanting is poured water after finishing, and the water layer height on mulch film II is 2cm ~ 5cm;
4. impose foliage fertilizer: spray natural pond liquid once in 15 ~ May 20 May, spray natural pond liquid once in 15 ~ June 20 June, the single natural pond liquid amount of spraying is 4 kg/acres ~ 6 kg/acres;
5. field water layer-management: 1, the water of tillering: tillering stage, water layer was 1cm ~ 2cm deeply; 2, protect fetal fluids: water layer is deeply for 4cm ~ 6cm to the heading in booting, and running water irrigates, temperature during lower than 17 ℃ water layer be 10cm ~ 15cm deeply, keep the running water irrigation; 3, flowering grouting water: the heading flowering period water layer is 5cm ~ 7cm deeply, and the running water irrigation, and pustulation period to ripening stage adopts intermittent mode to pour water, and water layer is 5cm ~ 7cm deeply; 4, yellow maturity draining: begin draining at yellow maturity initial stage late August;
6. Honda weeding: substantially there is no weeds under the film of overlay film field, have weeds can adopt in fact artificial weeding in time to remove this Tanaka's weeds as finding;
7. Honda insect protected: 1, every 50 mu a solar energy frequently shake trapping lamp or the trapping lamp that frequently shakes are installed; 2, scotellaris control: adopt with the mode of artificial batten cleaning and remove scotellaris.
The present embodiment step 1 1. described in soil fertility be that I level design parameter index is: the soil organic matter 25g/kg, full nitrogen 1.2, available phosphorus 15mg/kg, effective potassium 100mg/kg, cation exchange capacity 20c mol/kg, quality be middle earth or heavy earth; The embodiment step 1 1. described in soil fertility be that II level design parameter index is: the soil organic matter is 20 ~ 25g/kg, full nitrogen is 1.0 ~ 1.2, available phosphorus is 10 ~ 15mg/kg, and effectively potassium is that 50 ~ 100mg/kg, cation exchange capacity are that 15 ~ 20c mol/kg, quality are sandy loam or light clay.
The described Class I highway of present embodiment be annual round the clock the volume of traffic be the highway of 15000 ~ 30000.
Present embodiment organic paddy rice mechanical film cultivation method is not use of insecticide, weed killer herbicide and chemical fertilizer thoroughly, replace chemical fertilizer with farmyard manure, mulch film is close to that the disconnected oxygen of mud face is wetly inhaled, high light is exposed to the sun, the herbicide pesticide effect is just played in the vexed steaming of high temperature, weeding rate reaches 98%, and killing rate reaches more than 95%.
Present embodiment organic paddy rice mechanical film cultivation method can be realized water-saving irrigation, and saving water resource is more than 30% ~ 40%.
Present embodiment organic paddy rice mechanical film cultivation method can improve ground temperature, year improves accumulated temperature can reach more than 200 ℃, is conducive to that popularizing planting is late-maturing, high yield, fine quality.
Present embodiment organic paddy rice mechanical film cultivation method makes rice root flourishing, laterally wider, vertically darker, make it fully absorb nutrient in soil, tillering increases by 3 ~ 5 than routine, big panicle many grains per panicle, empty flat rate are low, increase thousand kernel weight, maturity is high, can shift to an earlier date 7 ~ 10 days maturations, and milled rice rate is high, mouthfeel good.
Paddy field mechanical film, machine rice transplantation reduce labor intensity, and raise labour efficiency, and are conducive to popularize.
Present embodiment organic paddy rice mechanical film cultivation method high-grade rice does not use chemical fertilizer, and with the more not underproduction of conventional cultivation, the organic products price is high, is conducive to the peasant and increases income.
Present embodiment organic paddy rice mechanical film cultivation method adopts farmyard manure; the availability that improves soil, raising farmyard manure with farmyard manure prevents from volatilization and runs off, improves the farmyard manure availability reaching 30%; ecotope is played a protective role, and can make paddy rice really reach green organic standard.
Embodiment two: the difference of present embodiment and embodiment one is: the soil of growing seedlings described in step 5 is evenly obtained by the bed the muck native and state that becomes thoroughly decomposed that 3. step 3 prepares, and the bed soil that 3. wherein said step 3 prepares is (1.4 ~ 1.6) with the volume ratio of the muck of the state that becomes thoroughly decomposed: 1.Other are identical with embodiment one.
Embodiment three: present embodiment and one of embodiment one or two difference are: in step 6 1. in the capsicum water described in 1 be to prepare by the following method: at first take capsicum annum fasciculatum or red pepper, Chinese prickly ash or pepper and put into deionized water, then boil 30 ~ 40min, obtain clear liquid after filtration, smash garlic to pieces taking juice and adopt 10 times of deionized water dilutions, obtain garlic water, merge garlic water and clear liquid, namely obtain capsicum water after mixing; The mass ratio of described capsicum annum fasciculatum or red pepper and deionized water is 1:(18 ~ 22); The mass ratio of described Chinese prickly ash and deionized water is 1:(18 ~ 22); The mass ratio of described pepper and deionized water is 1:(18 ~ 22); The volume ratio of garlic water and clear liquid is 1:(1.5 ~ 2.5).Other are identical with embodiment one or two.
Embodiment four: one of present embodiment and embodiment one to three difference is: in step 6 1. in the insect protected plate described in 2 be to prepare by the following method: at first the plank with 35 * 35cm is sprayed into crocus, then wrap up preservative film on the plank surface of 35 * 35cm, and on preservative film even brushing one deck edible oil, hang or insert and stand on the seedbed, height is same high with rice shoot, North and South direction is placed, and the distance between adjacent two blocks of yellow plates is 10m, every 100m 2Place 6.Other are identical with embodiment one to three.
Embodiment five: one of present embodiment and embodiment one to four difference is: the mulch film of step 7 described in 1. is degradation plastic film, paper film or starch film.Other are identical with embodiment one to four.
Adopt following verification experimental verification effect of the present invention:
Test one: a kind of organic paddy rice mechanical film cultivation method, specifically complete according to the following steps:
One, home environment is selected:
1. soil is selected: the soil of cultivating newly developed, soil fertility are the I level, and the pH value of soil is 6.8, and are 210m with the adjacent plot distance of using the chemical fertilizer medication, with the Class I highway distance be 170m, with chemical industry, industrial and mining enterprises' factory building apart from being 15000m; 2. air quality is selected: requiring air pollution index API is 40; 3. the source wet concentration is selected: selecting the water quality of source water is drinking water II class;
Two, the whole ground of Honda:
1. plough: be that 22% condition is ploughed deeply ground in October 14 the previous year, soil moisture content, ploughing deeply the degree of depth is 20cm ~ 25cm;
2. fertilising: the autumn wholely the front muck that will be in the state of becoming thoroughly decomposed in 3 days evenly raise and spread on the Honda soil, every mu of fertilizing amount is 1.8m 3
3. repair canal, rake the soil level: at rotary tillage soil-working on April 2, built the non-irrigated ridge, April 13, the soaked field that discharges water, accomplished fluently Shui Geng when discharging water the soaked field, and rake the soil level in 6 sky and water before rice transplanting, requires the leveling rake thin, reaches cun water and do not reveal mud;
Three, seedbed, the preparation of bed soil:
1. seedling raising environment: 1, soil is selected: select the mountain region humus soil as growing seedlings soil, the pH value of soil is 6.5 ~ 7.0, and be 530m with the adjacent plot distance of using the chemical fertilizer medication, with the Class I highway distance be 420m, with chemical industry, industrial and mining enterprises' factory building apart from being 22000m; 2, air quality is selected: require air pollution index API between 33; 3, the source wet concentration is selected: selecting the water quality of source water is drinking water II class;
2. seedbed preparation: select the leeward dry land ground that faces south or field of vegetables as seedling cultivation of rice booth base, take the method that whole ground of autumn, autumn fertilising, autumn are made bed to prepare the seedbed, the long 36m ± 1m in seedbed, the wide 10.5m ± 0.5m in seedbed in mid-October, establish pavement, the wide 45cm in pavement in the middle of the seedbed;
3. bed soil preparation: be that 7% rice husk and mountain region humus soil mix in October with water content, then in the sufficient condition burning of aerobic, namely obtain bed native; Step 3 3. described in water content be that 7% rice husk and mountain region volume ratio humous is 4:1;
Four, seed sprouting is processed:
1., bask seeds: after to March 27, rice paddy seed being sieved March 25, the rice paddy seed after sieving is paved into evenly that 3 ~ 4cm is thick to bask seeds 3 days, namely bask seeds process after rice paddy seed;
2. plasma treatment: after processing basking seeds, rice paddy seed carries out plasma treatment, and the processing time is 30s, namely obtains rice paddy seed after plasma treatment;
3. seed soaking: temperature be under 13 ℃ with plasma treatment after rice paddy seed put into deionized water and soaked 4 days, put into again mass concentration after pulling out and be 1.0% lime water solution, and temperature is to soak 3 days under 13 ℃, and stir every day 3 times, pull rear employing deionized water washing 3 times out, namely complete seed soaking;
4. vernalization: it is in the screen window bag of 10 kilograms that the rice paddy seed that at first will complete seed soaking evenly is distributed into capacity, then be placed in germinator, then broken chest vernalization under 31 ℃, after the broken chest of the rice paddy seed of completing seed soaking to 84.5%, temperature is down to 25 ℃, and 25 ℃ of vernalization to bud till long 0.8mm~1.2mm, and during 25 ℃ of vernalization every day stir 3 times, then be cooled to 18 ℃ of cool bud 6h, namely complete presprouting of seeds, obtain chitting piece;
Five, sowing: April 5, daily mean temperature stabilize to more than 5 ℃ and sow under condition, then the soil of growing seedlings installs in seedling-cultivating tray, then waters water-wet, waters to spray simultaneously natural pond liquid one time, obtain seedling-cultivating tray to be inoculated, again chitting piece is clapped and be pressed in the soil of seedling disk waiting, bury to three faces, then cover the soil of growing seedlings, thickness of earth covering is 0.7cm ~ 0.9cm, after earthing, bed surface tiling gas permeability mulch film, adopt the disc type seedling method to grow seedlings, 3 ~ 4 of every hole sowings;
Six, seedling management: 1. insect-prevention treatment: 1, rice seedling removes mulch film after all being unearthed, and sprays simultaneously capsicum water one time, then sprays one time capsicum water every 8 days at nursery stage, and the amount of spraying of single capsicum water is 0.1 jin/m 2, 2, adopt to hang in the seedbed or slotting cube method is placed insect protected plate, 6 of the every 100 square metres of uniform placements of insect protected plate; 2. temperature treatment: be 31 ℃ of lower seal heat insulating culture in temperature, be cultured to rice shoot one leaf wholeheartedly after date be cooled to 27.5 ℃, and open the ventilating opening hardening of ventilating, the ventilation hardening time be early 8 to point in afternoons 4, being cultured to 1.5 ~ 2.5 leaf phases of rice shoot is cooled to 203 ℃, the ventilation hardening time be early 8 to point in afternoons 4, be cultured to 2.5 ~ 3.0 leaf phases of rice shoot to adopt and take off lid method ventilation at night hardening daytime, and the canopy temperature control is between 20 ℃, and the hardening 4 days of will ventilating round the clock before shoot transplanting equipment; 3. water management: the 2 leaf phases of rice shoot, if blade tip is without reveal wanting timely moisturizing morning, if bed surface has the ponding bed that will in time dry in the air; 4. fertilising: spray altogether natural pond liquid twice between nursery stage, be respectively front 6 days of 18 days and the rice transplanting of growing seedlings;
Seven, overlay film rice transplanting and Honda management
1. Honda is done bed and overlay film: precipitation after 6 days is discharged soaked field water raking the soil level, then along the parallel ditch that encloses that digs out wide 35cm, dark 15cm in Chi Geng limit, several ridge-up beds that adopt the bar ditch of wide 35cm, dark 15cm that Honda is divided into, the bedside of ridge-up bed is 1.2m, enclose ditch mud that ditch and ditch mud takes out by the form uniform spreading of middle " protruding " on the ridge-up bed bed surface, obtain being the ridge-up bed of turtleback shape, the difference in height that in the middle of ridge-up bed, the peak at protruding place and wide bedside edge are minimum is 2cm ± 0.1cm, enclose between ditch and bar ditch and communicate fully, then with mulch film, ridge-up bed is covered fully;
2. rice transplanting: adopt the rice transplanting of mechanical film rice transplanter, mechanical film rice transplanter rice transplanting specification line-spacing 30cm, spacing in the rows 20cm, every cave 3 ~ 4 seedlings;
3. pour water: rice transplanting is poured water after finishing, and the water layer height on mulch film is 2cm ~ 4.2cm;
4. impose foliage fertilizer: sprayed natural pond liquid once May 18, sprayed natural pond liquid once June 18, the single natural pond liquid amount of spraying is 5 kg/acres;
5. field water layer-management: 1, the water of tillering: tillering stage, water layer was 1.5cm ± 0.1cm deeply; 2, protect fetal fluids: booting to the front water layer of heading is 5cm ± 0.1cm deeply, and the running water irrigation, and when temperature is 15 ℃, water layer is 12cm ± 0.1cm deeply, keeps the running water irrigation; 3, flowering grouting water: the heading flowering period water layer is 6cm ± 0.1cm deeply, and the running water irrigation, and pustulation period to ripening stage adopts intermittent mode to pour water, and water layer is 6cm ± 0.1cm deeply; 4, yellow maturity draining: begin draining at yellow maturity initial stage August 28;
6. Honda weeding: weeds are few, manually remove;
7. Honda insect protected: 1, every 50 mu solar energy trapping lamp that frequently shakes is installed; 2, scotellaris control: adopt with the mode of artificial batten cleaning and remove scotellaris.
The soil of growing seedlings described in this test procedure five is evenly obtained by the bed the muck native and state that becomes thoroughly decomposed that 3. step 3 prepares, and the bed soil that 3. wherein said step 3 prepares is 1.5:1 with the volume ratio of the muck of the state that becomes thoroughly decomposed.
In this test procedure six 1. in the capsicum water described in 1 be to prepare by the following method: at first take capsicum annum fasciculatum, Chinese prickly ash or pepper and put into deionized water, then boil 35min, obtain clear liquid after filtration, smash garlic to pieces taking juice and adopt 10 times of deionized water dilutions, obtain garlic water, merge garlic water and clear liquid, namely obtain capsicum water after mixing; The mass ratio of described capsicum annum fasciculatum and deionized water is 1:20; The mass ratio of described Chinese prickly ash and deionized water is 1:20; The mass ratio of described pepper and deionized water is 1:20; The volume ratio of garlic water and clear liquid is 1:2.
In this test procedure six 1. in the insect protected plate described in 2 be to prepare by the following method: at first the plank with 35 * 35cm is sprayed into crocus, then wrap up preservative film on the plank surface of 35 * 35cm, and on preservative film even brushing one deck edible oil, hang or insert and stand on the seedbed, height is same high with rice shoot, North and South direction is placed, and the distance between adjacent two blocks of yellow plates is 10m, every 100m 2Place 6.
The mulch film of this test procedure seven described in 1. is the paper film.
This test does not have use of insecticide, weed killer herbicide and chemical fertilizer, replaces chemical fertilizer with farmyard manure, and mulch film is close to that the disconnected oxygen of mud face is wetly inhaled, high light is exposed to the sun, the herbicide pesticide effect is just played in the vexed steaming of high temperature, and weeding rate reaches 98%, and killing rate reaches 97.
This test is compared saving water resource more than 35% with the conventional rice cultural method.
This test organic paddy rice mechanical film cultivation method year improve accumulated temperature and can reach 220 ℃.
This test organic paddy rice mechanical film cultivation method makes rice root flourishing, laterally wider, vertically darker, make it fully absorb nutrient in soil, tillering increases by 3 ~ 5 than routine, big panicle many grains per panicle, empty flat rate are low, increase thousand kernel weight, maturity is high, can shift to an earlier date 7 ~ 10 days maturations, and milled rice rate is high, mouthfeel good.
This test organic paddy rice mechanical film cultivation method adopts farmyard manure; the availability that improves soil, raising farmyard manure with farmyard manure prevents from volatilization and runs off, improves the farmyard manure availability reaching 30%; ecotope is played a protective role, and can make paddy rice really reach green organic standard.

Claims (5)

1. organic paddy rice mechanical film cultivation method is characterized in that organic paddy rice mechanical film cultivation method completes according to the following steps:
One, home environment is selected:
1. soil is selected: new land reclamation, or through the soil of transition period farming in 3 year, do not use any fertilizer and pesticide in 3 year transition period cropping season, soil fertility is I level or II level, the pH value of soil is 6.5~7.0, and with the adjacent plot distance of using the chemical fertilizer medication greater than 100m, with the Class I highway distance greater than 100m, with chemical industry, industrial and mining enterprises' factory building distance greater than 5000m; 2. air quality is selected: require air pollution index API between 0~100; 3. the source wet concentration is selected: selecting the water quality of source water is drinking water I class, drinking water II class, drinking water III class or sewage IV class;
Two, the whole ground of Honda:
1. plough: adopt to plough deeply 1 year, the rotary tillage whole ground way of 2 years is implemented whole ground of autumn, and the autumn time of site preparation is mid-October, carries out whole ground in soil moisture content under less than 30% condition, and ploughing deeply the degree of depth is 20cm~25cm, and the rotary tillage degree of depth is 12~17cm;
2. fertilising: the muck that will be in the state of becoming thoroughly decomposed before whole ground of autumn is evenly raised and is spread on the Honda soil, and every mu of fertilizing amount is 1.5m 3~2m 3
3. repair canal, rake the soil level: rotary tillage soil-working at the beginning of 4 months, built the non-irrigated ridge, Shui Geng is accomplished fluently when discharging water the soaked field in the soaked field that discharges water mid-April, and rake the soil level in 5~7 sky and water before rice transplanting, requires the leveling rake thin, reaches cun water and do not reveal mud;
Three, seedbed, the preparation of bed soil:
1. seedling raising environment: 1, soil is selected: select the mountain region humus soil as growing seedlings soil, the pH value of soil is 6.5~7.0, and with the adjacent plot distance of using the chemical fertilizer medication greater than 300m, with the Class I highway distance greater than 300m, with chemical industry, industrial and mining enterprises' factory building distance greater than 5000m; 2, air quality is selected: require air pollution index API between 0~100; 3, the source wet concentration is selected: selecting the water quality of source water is drinking water I class, drinking water II class, drinking water III class or sewage IV class;
2. seedbed preparation: select the leeward dry land ground that faces south or field of vegetables as seedling cultivation of rice booth base, take the method that whole ground of autumn, autumn fertilising, autumn are made bed to prepare the seedbed, the long 36m ± 1m in seedbed, the wide 10.5m ± 0.5m in seedbed in mid-October, establish pavement, the wide 40cm~50cm in pavement in the middle of the seedbed;
3. a bed soil preparation: be that rice husk and mountain region humus soil 10% below mixes in October with water content, then in the sufficient condition burning of aerobic, namely obtain bed native; Step 3 3. described in water content be that rice husk and mountain region volume ratio humous below 10% is (3.5~4.5): 1;
Four, seed sprouting is processed:
1., bask seeds: after at the beginning of late March to 4 month, rice paddy seed being sieved, the rice paddy seed after sieving is paved into evenly that 3~4cm is thick to bask seeds 1~5 day, and rice paddy seed after processing namely obtains basking seeds;
2. seed soaking: temperature be will bask seeds under 10 ℃~15 ℃ process after rice paddy seed put into deionized water and soaked 3~5 days, put into again mass concentration after pulling out and be 0.8%~1.2% lime water solution, and be to soak 2.5~3.5 days under 10 ℃~15 ℃ in temperature, and stir every day 2~3 times, pull rear employing deionized water washing 2~3 times out, namely complete seed soaking;
3. vernalization: it is in the screen window bag of 10 kilograms that the rice paddy seed that at first will complete seed soaking evenly is distributed into capacity, then be placed in germinator, then broken chest vernalization under 30 ℃~32 ℃, after the broken chest of the rice paddy seed of completing seed soaking to 80%~85%, temperature is down to 24 ℃~26 ℃, and 24 ℃~26 ℃ vernalization to bud till long 0.8mm~1.2mm, and stir 2~3 every day during 24 ℃~26 ℃ vernalization, then be cooled to 15 ℃~20 ℃ cool bud 5h~7h, namely complete presprouting of seeds, obtain chitting piece;
Five, sowing: 1~April 10 April, daily mean temperature are stabilized in more than 0 ℃ and sow under condition, then the soil of growing seedlings installs in seedling-cultivating tray, then water water-wet, water and spray simultaneously natural pond liquid one time, obtain seedling-cultivating tray to be inoculated, again chitting piece is clapped and be pressed in the soil of seedling disk waiting, bury to three faces, cover again the soil of growing seedlings, thickness of earth covering is 0.5cm~1cm, bed surface tiling gas permeability mulch film after earthing, every dish seeding quantity 120g~130g of employing machine transplanting of rice dish seedling method adopts every hole of disc type seedling method to sow 3~4;
Six, seedling management: 1. insect-prevention treatment: 1, rice seedling removes the gas permeability mulch film after all being unearthed, and sprays simultaneously capsicum water one time, then sprays one time capsicum water every 7~10 days at nursery stage, and the amount of spraying of single capsicum water is 0.08 jin/m 2~0.12 jin/m 2, 2, adopt to hang in the seedbed or slotting cube method is placed insect protected plate, 6 of the every 100 square metres of uniform placements of insect protected plate; 2. temperature treatment: be 29 ℃~32 ℃ lower seal heat insulating culture in temperature, be cultured to rice shoot one leaf wholeheartedly after date be cooled to 27 ℃~28 ℃, and open the ventilating opening hardening of ventilating, the ventilation hardening time be early 8 to point in afternoons 4, being cultured to 1.5~2.5 leaf phases of rice shoot is cooled to 20 ℃~25 ℃, the ventilation hardening time be early 8 to point in afternoons 4, being cultured to 2.5~3.0 leaf phases of rice shoot adopts and to take off lid method ventilation at night hardening daytime, and the canopy temperature control is between 19 ℃~21 ℃, and the hardening of will ventilating round the clock before shoot transplanting equipment was more than or equal to 3 days; 3. water management: the 2 leaf phases of rice shoot, if blade tip is without reveal wanting timely moisturizing morning, if bed surface has the ponding bed that will in time dry in the air; 4. fertilising: spray altogether natural pond liquid twice between nursery stage, be respectively front 5~7 days of 15~20 days and the rice transplanting of growing seedlings;
Seven, overlay film rice transplanting and Honda management
1. Honda is done bed and overlay film: precipitation after 5~7 days is discharged soaked field water raking the soil level, then parallelly along the Chi Geng limit dig out wide 30~40cm, dark 13~17cm encloses ditch, adopt wide 30~40cm, several ridge-up beds that the bar ditch of dark 13~17cm is divided into Honda, the bedside of ridge-up bed is 1.2m, enclose ditch mud that ditch and ditch mud takes out by the form uniform spreading of middle " protruding " on the ridge-up bed bed surface, obtain being the ridge-up bed of turtleback shape, the difference in height that in the middle of ridge-up bed, the peak at protruding place and wide bedside edge are minimum is 1.5cm~2.5cm, enclose between ditch and bar ditch and communicate fully, then with mulch film, ridge-up bed is covered fully,
2. rice transplanting: adopt mechanical film rice transplanter rice transplanting or rice transplantation by hand, mechanical film rice transplanter rice transplanting specification line-spacing 30cm, spacing in the rows 20cm, every cave 3~4 seedlings; The rice transplantation by hand specification is according to line-spacing 28cm~32cm, spacing in the rows 16cm~17cm or 19cm~21cm rice transplanting of punching, every cave 3~4 seedlings;
3. pour water: rice transplanting is poured water after finishing, and the water layer height on mulch film is 2cm~5cm;
4. impose foliage fertilizer: spray natural pond liquid once in 15~May 20 May, spray natural pond liquid once in 15~June 20 June, the single natural pond liquid amount of spraying is 4 kg/acres~6 kg/acres;
5. field water layer-management: 1, the water of tillering: tillering stage, water layer was 1cm~2cm deeply; 2, protect fetal fluids: water layer is deeply for 4cm~6cm to the heading in booting, and running water irrigates, temperature during lower than 17 ℃ water layer be 10cm~15cm deeply, keep the running water irrigation; 3, flowering grouting water: the heading flowering period water layer is 5cm~7cm deeply, and the running water irrigation, and pustulation period to ripening stage adopts intermittent mode to pour water, and water layer is 5cm~7cm deeply; 4, yellow maturity draining: begin draining at yellow maturity initial stage late August;
6. Honda weeding: under the film of overlay film field, weeds are arranged as finding, can adopt artificial weeding in time to remove this Tanaka's weeds;
7. Honda insect protected: 1, every 50 mu frequency trapping lamp that shakes is installed; 2, scotellaris control: adopt the mode of artificial batten cleaning to remove scotellaris.
2. a kind of organic paddy rice mechanical film cultivation method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that the soil of growing seedlings described in step 5 is evenly obtained by the bed the muck native and state that becomes thoroughly decomposed that 3. step 3 prepares, the bed soil that 3. wherein said step 3 prepares is (1.4~1.6) with the volume ratio of the muck of the state that becomes thoroughly decomposed: 1.
3. a kind of organic paddy rice mechanical film cultivation method according to claim 2, in it is characterized in that in step 6 1., the capsicum water described in 1 is to prepare by the following method: at first take in capsicum annum fasciculatum or red pepper a kind of, with Chinese prickly ash or pepper in a kind of, jointly put into deionized water, then boil 30~40min, obtain clear liquid after filtration, smash garlic to pieces taking juice and adopt 10 times of deionized water dilutions, obtain garlic water, merge garlic water and clear liquid, namely obtain capsicum water after mixing; The mass ratio of described capsicum annum fasciculatum or red pepper and deionized water is 1:(18~22); The mass ratio of described Chinese prickly ash and deionized water is 1:(18~22); The mass ratio of described pepper and deionized water is 1:(18~22); The volume ratio of garlic water and clear liquid is 1:(1.5~2.5).
4. a kind of organic paddy rice mechanical film cultivation method according to claim 3, in it is characterized in that in step 6 1., the insect protected plate described in 2 is to prepare by the following method: at first the plank with 35 * 35cm is sprayed into crocus, then wrap up preservative film on the plank surface of 35 * 35cm, and on preservative film even brushing one deck edible oil, hang or slotting standing on the seedbed, height and rice shoot are with high, and North and South direction is placed, distance between adjacent two blocks of yellow plates is 10m, every 100m 2Place 6.
5. according to claim 1, the described a kind of organic paddy rice mechanical film cultivation method of 2,3 or 4 any one, it is characterized in that the mulch film described in step 7 is 1. is degradation plastic film, paper film or starch film.
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