CN102721910B - Built-in ultrahigh-frequency antenna sensor for switch cabinet - Google Patents

Built-in ultrahigh-frequency antenna sensor for switch cabinet Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102721910B
CN102721910B CN201210230316.0A CN201210230316A CN102721910B CN 102721910 B CN102721910 B CN 102721910B CN 201210230316 A CN201210230316 A CN 201210230316A CN 102721910 B CN102721910 B CN 102721910B
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dielectric layer
ground plane
layer
pad
aerial radiation
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CN102721910A (en
Inventor
周泽宏
姚陈果
黄琮鉴
刘乾坤
李成祥
陈昱
米彦
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CHONGQING SHIZHU POWER SUPPLY CO LTD
Chongqing University
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CHONGQING SHIZHU POWER SUPPLY CO LTD
Chongqing University
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Abstract

The invention discloses a built-in ultrahigh-frequency antenna sensor for a switch cabinet, and belongs to the technical field of online monitoring of the insulating state of electric equipment. The built-in ultrahigh-frequency antenna sensor mainly comprises an antenna radiation layer, a feed probe, a dielectric medium layer, an air medium layer, a ground layer, a coaxial cable and a coaxial joint. The built-in ultrahigh-frequency antenna sensor is attached to a bottom plate or a side plate in the switch cabinet, has the characteristics of convenience for installing, high directionality, high anti-interference capability, wide frequency band, high gain, high sensitivity and the like, and can be used for effectively monitoring a local discharge ultrahigh frequency signal in the switch cabinet on line in real time, eliminating fault and hidden dangers in time, and ensuring safe running of the switch cabinet. The built-in ultrahigh-frequency antenna sensor can be widely applied to local discharge ultrahigh-frequency online monitoring of switch cabinets for power plants and converting stations.

Description

The built-in ultra-high frequency antenna sensor of a kind of switch cubicle
Technical field
The invention belongs to insulation of electrical installation state on_line monitoring technical field, be specifically related to the structure of the local discharge superhigh frequency antenna sensor of monitoring switch cabinet.
Background technology
In recent years, along with improving constantly of voltage class of electric power system, electrical network scale constantly expands, and guarantees that insulation of electrical installation safety has become safeguards system safe operation important prerequisite.Switch cubicle uses in a large number in electric system, and directly to power distribution network and customer power supply.Due to directly related with power supply, economic loss and social loss that switch cubicle fault causes power outage to bring are very large, and the importance of its device security can not be doubted.And because inside switch cabinet narrow space, part are various, complex structure, insulating pressure is large, so more easily there is insulation fault than other power equipment in switch cubicle, and the safe operation of electrical equipment is brought to huge hidden danger.The fault overwhelming majority of switch cubicle is insulation fault, and shelf depreciation is the tendency that insulation fault occurs.But the generation of shelf depreciation does not often continue, may a very long time there is not shelf depreciation in power equipment, but can cause due to the variation of operation and environment continuing the shelf depreciation of several minutes, surprise detects and is difficult to discovering device shelf depreciation, and partial discharge monitoring just becomes effective detection method.So, can be by switch cubicle be carried out to partial discharge monitoring, monitor constantly the situation of change of its built-in electrical insulation situation, find in time potential insulation fault, avoid paroxysmal insulation fault, thereby the security that improves switch cubicle operation is one of important measures of guaranteeing safe operation of power system.
In the inherent air of shelf depreciation generation cabinet in switch cubicle, shelf depreciation is attended by the generation of a pulse current, and its rising edge can reach nanosecond, so the frequency band of the discharge pulse signal of its generation is very wide, tens of to hundreds of MHz.Ultrahigh frequency method is to detect the electromagnetic wave signal of the hyper band (300MHz-3GHz) that shelf depreciation excites, in order to judge insulation of electrical installation situation.The object of selecting this frequency range is that the frequency band of the generally electromagnetic interference signal (as the carrier communication of radio broadcasting, power network, corona discharge etc.) in electrical equipment electromagnetic environment of living in is all below 200MHz, like this ultrahigh frequency method just can be avoided these common electromagnetic interference (EMI), makes the method have stronger anti-interference.In addition, the method also has highly sensitive, the feature that accuracy is good.
The sensor of the electromagnetic wave signal that ultra-high frequency antenna produces as reception shelf depreciation, it is the chief component of ultrahigh frequency monitoring system, the quality of its performance has also directly determined that the ultra-high frequency signal later stage extracts and the complexity of identification, and the ultra-high frequency antenna sensor of better performances should have bandwidth, standing-wave ratio (SWR) is little, gain is large, the feature of good directionality.And as built-in aerial sensor, in addition, also should there is rational size and dimension, its installation can not affect the insulation of device interior.
The local discharge superhigh frequency antenna sensor of existing monitoring switch electrical equipment, for external antenna sensor, as " a kind of ultrahigh frequency monitoring sensor of GIS shelf depreciation of external " patent that on September 9th, 2009, disclosed publication number was CN101527221A, disclosed sensor is comprised of dielectric body and two battery lead plates, its dielectric body is the tetragonous cone table that rectangle, bottom surface are intrados by upper bottom surface, and forms with the rectangle that tetragonous cone table upper bottom surface is connected as one.Two battery lead plate is attached to respectively on the side that two bottom surfaces of tetragonous cone table are camber line, and extends in described rectangular corresponding rectangle surfaces.The major defect of this antenna sensor is: 1. this antenna sensor peripheral structure is to design for being arranged on GIS disc insulator outside, and structure is comparatively complicated, and volume is larger, is unsuitable for being arranged on inside electric appliance; 2. this antenna sensor is external sensor, because the gain of shielding electromagnetic waves benefit and antenna sensor itself is little, makes this antenna sensor sensitivity lower, can not capture the faint local discharge signal of inside electric appliance.
summary of the invention
The object of the invention is the deficiency for the local discharge superhigh frequency antenna sensor of existing monitoring switch electrical equipment, provide a kind of switch cubicle built-in ultra-high frequency antenna sensor, be installed in the ultra-high frequency signal of inside switch cabinet Real-Time Monitoring shelf depreciation, there is antijamming capability strong, bandwidth, the features such as gain is large, highly sensitive, good directionality, guarantee the safe operation of switch cubicle.
The technical scheme that realizes the object of the invention is: the built-in ultra-high frequency antenna sensor of a kind of switch cubicle, comprises aerial radiation layer, feed probes, dielectric layer, back up pad, air dielectric layer, concentric cable, coaxial fitting, ground plane.
The material of described dielectric layer is that relative dielectric constant is 2.5~10.2 epoxy resin.Described dielectric layer be shaped as square, its length of side is that 100mm~250mm, thickness are 1mm~5mm, in order to the insulation course as antenna sensor of the present invention and support member.On the surrounding of described dielectric layer, 2~8 screws are evenly set respectively, in order to affixed described back up pad.On the lower surface of the surrounding of described dielectric layer, by bolt, be connected with described back up pad, totally four respectively.Every described back up pad thickness is 2mm~10mm, highly for 5mm~20mm, length equate with the length of side of described dielectric layer.Described back up pad and described dielectric layer with and described ground plane form back of the body chamber, in order to improve antenna sensor directivity.
The material of described aerial radiation layer is that thickness is the copper of 5 μ m~50 μ m or aluminium or silver etc., the described aerial radiation layer described dielectric layer upper surface that is laid in.The peripheral length of side of described aerial radiation layer is less than dielectric layer 2mm~10mm.The border of described aerial radiation layer is surrounded by second order koch fractal curve, thereby this makes, radiating layer surface induction electric current is crooked to flow, radiating layer with respect to straight border, make antenna sensor there is lower resonance frequency, effectively reduce the size of antenna, also make antenna there are two resonance frequency bands, indirectly expanded frequency band.Upper surface at described aerial radiation layer is coated with the tin layer that thickness is 3 μ m~12 μ m, so that welding feed probes.At cornerwise one jiao of place of described aerial radiation layer, it is 0.2mm~2 mm feeding points that an aperture is set, in order to weld feed probes.The length of described feed probes is 4mm~19mm, the copper or aluminium matter that diameter is identical with the aperture of described feeding point or silver pin.The tin coating welding of one end of described feed probes and described aerial radiation layer.The other end of described feed probes is connected with the center copper cash that is fixed on the concentric cable of described ground plane.The weaving netting twine of described concentric cable is connected with described ground plane.For ease of installing, conserve space, described concentric cable lie in described ground plane above, from the bottom of a described back up pad nearby, draw, for signal transmission.
The material of described ground plane is that thickness is copper coin or aluminium sheet or the silver plate etc. of 1 mm~5mm.The width that is shaped as of described ground plane is the rectangle that 100mm~250mm, length are 120mm~270mm.On described ground plane and corresponding to the back up pad place described in four, 2~8 screws are evenly set respectively, so that affixed with described back up pad; And at the place, two ends on the long limit of described ground plane, 2~4 screws are evenly set respectively, so that affixed with base plate or the side plate of switch cubicle.Described ground plane is fixed in by 2~8 screws and bolt on the lower surface of the back up pad described in four of described dielectric layer lower surface.Described ground plane is fixed on the base plate or side plate of switch cubicle by 2~4 screws and the bolt at two ends, long limit.
Clearance between described dielectric layer and described back up pad and described ground plane is described air dielectric layer.Because air has extremely low relative dielectric constant, the setting of air dielectric layer, makes the overall reduced dielectric constant between described radiating layer and described ground plane, is conducive to widen antenna frequency band.Meanwhile, described air dielectric layer forms back of the body chamber together with described dielectric layer and described ground plane, can effectively improve the directivity of antenna of the present invention.
The present invention adopts mainly has following effect after above-mentioned technical scheme:
1 antenna sensor of the present invention is slab construction, and Sizes only needs during installation to be attached on the base plate or side plate of inside switch cabinet, easy for installation.And it is less to switch cubicle internal electric field distribution influence that this antenna sensor is put inside switch cabinet into, can not bring new insulation hidden danger to switch cubicle, meet the requirement of switch cubicle built-in sensors, the ultra-high frequency signal of the shelf depreciation of energy real time on-line monitoring inside switch cabinet.
2 antenna sensors of the present invention have two tuning-pointss in the frequency band of 500MHz~850MHz, have avoided conventional electromagnetic interference signal, and antijamming capability is strong, bandwidth.Because shelf depreciation electromagnetic wave high fdrequency component (being greater than 1GHz) decays acutely in air, main discharge energy all concentrates on low-frequency range, and antenna sensor of the present invention can receive inside switch cabinet local discharge superhigh frequency signal waveform information effectively.
The gain of 3 antenna sensor tuning-pointss of the present invention, up to 3dBi, can receive the faint discharge signal of inside switch cabinet, has stronger signal to noise ratio (S/N ratio), highly sensitive, can find in time the faint discharge signal of inside switch cabinet, guarantees the safe operation of switch cubicle.
4 antenna sensor good directionality of the present invention, can receive the discharge signal from all directions, and monitored area is wide.
5 antenna sensors of the present invention have more stable output impedance in working band, and its resistance value is 50 Ω, can mate with transmission equipment preferably.
The present invention can be widely used in the partial discharge of switchgear ultrahigh frequency on-line monitoring of generating plant, transformer station.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the structural representation of the present embodiment 1 antenna sensor;
Fig. 2 is the vertical view of Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is the present embodiment 1 ultra-high frequency antenna sensor Simulation standing-wave ratio (SWR) figure;
Fig. 4 is the present embodiment 1 ultra-high frequency antenna sensor actual measurement standing-wave ratio (SWR) figure;
Fig. 5 is the laboratory shelf depreciation proving test schematic diagram of the present embodiment 1;
Fig. 6 is the local discharge signal oscillogram that ultrahigh frequency method detects;
Fig. 7 is the local discharge signal oscillogram that pulse current method detects.
In figure: 1 aerial radiation layer, 2 dielectric layers, 3 air dielectric layers; 4 ground planes, 5 back up pads, 6 feed probes; 7 concentric cable, 10 feeding points, 11 pressure regulators; 12 testing transformers, 13 protective resistances, 14 coupling capacitances; 15 detect impedance, 16 switch cubicles, 17 electric discharge test products; 18 antenna sensors, 19 oscillographs.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with embodiment, further illustrate the present invention.
embodiment 1
As shown in Figure 1, 2, the built-in ultra-high frequency antenna sensor of a kind of switch cubicle, comprises aerial radiation layer 1, feed probes 6, dielectric layer 2, back up pad 5, air dielectric layer 3, concentric cable 7, coaxial fitting 8, ground plane 4.
The material of described dielectric layer 2 is that relative dielectric constant is 4.8 epoxy resin.Described dielectric layer be shaped as square, its length of side is that 200mm, thickness are 5mm, in order to the insulation course as antenna sensor of the present invention and support member.On the surrounding at described dielectric layer 2,2 screws are evenly set respectively, in order to affixed described back up pad 5.On the lower surface of the surrounding of described dielectric layer 2, by bolt, be connected with described back up pad 5, totally four respectively.Every described back up pad 5 thickness are 3mm, highly for 20mm, length equate with the length of side of described dielectric layer 2.Described back up pad 5 and described dielectric layer 2 and described ground plane 4 form back of the body chamber, in order to improve antenna sensor directivity.
The material of described aerial radiation layer 1 is that thickness is the copper of 13 μ m, described aerial radiation layer 1 described dielectric layer 2 upper surfaces that are laid in.The peripheral length of side of described aerial radiation layer 1 is less than dielectric layer 2 5mm.The border of described aerial radiation layer 1 is surrounded by second order koch fractal curve, thereby this makes crooked the flowing of described radiating layer 1 surface induction electric current, radiating layer with respect to straight border, make antenna sensor there is lower resonance frequency, effectively reduce the size of antenna, also make antenna there are two resonance frequency bands, indirectly expanded frequency band.Upper surface at described aerial radiation layer 1 is coated with the tin layer that thickness is 5 μ m, so that welding feed probes 6.Described aerial radiation layer 1 is laid in dielectric layer 2 upper surfaces.At cornerwise one jiao of place of described aerial radiation layer 1, it is 1mm feeding point 10 that an aperture is set, in order to weld feed probes 6.The length of described feed probes 6 is 19mm, the copper pin that diameter is identical with the aperture of described feeding point 10.The tin coating welding of one end of described feed probes 6 and described aerial radiation layer 1.The other end of described feed probes 6 is connected with the center copper cash that is fixed on the concentric cable 7 of described ground plane 4.The weaving netting twine of described concentric cable 7 is connected with described ground plane 4.For ease of installing, conserve space, described concentric cable 7 lie in described ground plane 4 above, from the bottom of a described back up pad nearby, draw, for signal transmission.
The material of described ground plane 4 is that thickness is the copper coin of 3mm.The width that is shaped as of described ground plane is the rectangle that 250mm, length are 270mm.On described ground plane 4 and corresponding to back up pad 5 places described in four, 2 screws are evenly set respectively, so that affixed with described back up pad 5; And at the place, two ends on the long limit of described ground plane 4,2 screws are evenly set respectively, so that affixed with base plate or the side plate of switch cubicle.Described ground plane 4 is fixed in by 2 screws and bolt on the lower surface of the back up pad 5 described in four of described dielectric layer 2 lower surfaces.On base plate or side plate that 2 screws and the bolt of described ground plane 4 by two ends, long limit is fixed in switch cubicle.
Clearance between described dielectric layer 2 and described back up pad 5 and described ground plane 4 is described air dielectric layer 3.Because air has extremely low relative dielectric constant, the setting of air dielectric layer, makes the overall reduced dielectric constant between described radiating layer 1 and described ground plane 4, is conducive to widen antenna frequency band.Meanwhile, described air dielectric layer 3 forms back of the body chamber together with described dielectric layer 2 and described ground plane 4, can effectively improve the directivity of antenna of the present invention.
embodiment 2
The built-in ultra-high frequency antenna sensor of switch cubicle, with embodiment 1, wherein the material of dielectric layer 2 is that relative dielectric constant is 2.5 epoxy resin.Its length of side is that 100mm, thickness are 1mm.Screw quantity in order to affixed back up pad 5 on dielectric layer 2 is 4.The thickness of back up pad 5 is 2mm, highly for 5mm.The material of aerial radiation layer 1 is aluminium, and its peripheral length of side is 98mm, and thickness is 5 μ m.Surface is coated with the tin layer that thickness is 3 μ m.The aperture of feeding point 10 is that the material of 0.2mm. feed probes 6 is aluminium, and length is 4mm.The material 4 of ground plane is aluminium, and its length of side is that 120mm, thickness are 1mm, and the screw quantity in order to affixed back up pad 5 on ground plane 4 is 4, on ground plane 4, in order to affixed antenna sensor, to the base plate of switch cubicle or the screw quantity on side plate, is 3.
embodiment 3
The built-in ultra-high frequency antenna sensor of switch cubicle, with embodiment 1, wherein the material of dielectric layer 2 is that relative dielectric constant is 10.2 epoxy resin.Its length of side is that 250mm, thickness are 3mm.Screw quantity in order to affixed back up pad 5 on dielectric layer 2 is 8.The thickness of back up pad 5 is 10mm, highly for 15mm.The material of aerial radiation layer 1 is silver, and its peripheral length of side is 240mm, and thickness is 50 μ m.Surface is coated with the tin layer that thickness is 12 μ m.The aperture of feeding point 10 is that the material of 2mm. feed probes 6 is silver, and length is 14mm.The material 4 of ground plane is silver, and its length of side is that 270mm, thickness are 5mm, and the screw quantity in order to affixed back up pad 5 on ground plane 4 is 8, on ground plane 4, in order to affixed antenna sensor, to the base plate of switch cubicle or the screw quantity on side plate, is 4.
Fig. 3, Fig. 4 are respectively the standing-wave ratio (SWR) curves of emulation and the actual measurement of antenna sensor in embodiment 1, and contrasting two figure can find out, curve is substantially identical.As seen from Figure 4, first resonant frequency point of this antenna sensor is at 583MHz, and the standing-wave ratio (SWR) of this Frequency point is 1.3, and first resonant frequency point is at 732MHz.The frequency bandwidth of first tuning-points is 565MHz~623MHz, and the frequency bandwidth of second tuning-points is 668MHz~850MHz.
experimental result
The antenna sensor of the present embodiment 1 is carried out to partial discharge of switchgear and detect test, as shown in Figure 5, test testing transformer used is LTYDW-60kVA/60kV to test principle figure, and rated output voltage is 60kV, output-current rating is 1A, and electric discharge test product is needle plate electrode.Digital oscilloscope model is Tektronix TDS 7104, bandwidth 1GHz, the highest sample frequency 5GS/s of each passage.During test, by testing transformer, to the electric discharge test product being placed in switch cubicle, pressurize, make it that shelf depreciation occur, by pulse current method and ultrahigh frequency method, detect local discharge signal simultaneously, experimental result oscillogram as shown in Figure 6 and Figure 7.
From above-mentioned experimental result, the antenna sensor of the present embodiment 1 can receive shelf depreciation electromagnetic wave signal effectively, and the waveforms amplitude receiving is larger, has higher sensitivity.

Claims (1)

1. the built-in ultra-high frequency antenna sensor of switch cubicle, is characterized in that: comprise aerial radiation layer (1), feed probes (6), dielectric layer (2), back up pad (5), air dielectric layer (3), concentric cable (7), coaxial fitting (8), ground plane (4);
The material of described dielectric layer (2) is that relative dielectric constant is 2.5~10.2 epoxy resin, described dielectric layer (2) be shaped as square, its length of side is 100mm~250mm, thickness is 1mm~5mm, on the surrounding of described dielectric layer (2), 2~8 screws are evenly set respectively, on the lower surface of the surrounding of described dielectric layer (2), by bolt, be connected with described back up pad (5) respectively, totally four, every described back up pad (5) thickness is 3mm~10mm, be highly 5mm~20mm, length equates with the length of side of described dielectric layer (2), described back up pad (5) and described dielectric layer (2) and described ground plane (4) form back of the body chamber,
The material of described aerial radiation layer (1) is that thickness is copper or aluminium or the silver of 5 μ m~50 μ m, described aerial radiation layer (1) described dielectric layer (2) upper surface that is laid in, the peripheral length of side of described aerial radiation layer (1) is less than dielectric layer 2mm~10mm, the border of described aerial radiation layer is surrounded by second order koch fractal curve, upper surface at described aerial radiation layer (1) is coated with the tin layer that thickness is 3 μ m~12 μ m, cornerwise one jiao of place at described aerial radiation layer (1), it is 0.2mm~2 mm feeding points that one aperture is set, the length of described feed probes (6) is 4mm~19mm, copper or the aluminium matter that diameter is identical with the aperture of described feeding point (10) or silver pin, the tin coating welding of one end of described feed probes and described aerial radiation layer (1), the other end of described feed probes (6) is connected with the center copper cash that is fixed on the concentric cable (7) of described ground plane (4), the weaving netting twine of described concentric cable (7) is connected with described ground plane (4), described concentric cable (7) lie in described ground plane (4) above, from the bottom of a described back up pad (5) nearby, draw, for signal transmission,
The material of described ground plane (4) is that thickness is copper coin or aluminium sheet or the silver plate of 1 mm~5mm, described ground plane (4) be shaped as width 100mm~250mm, length is the rectangle of 120mm~270mm, at described ground plane (4), go up and locate corresponding to the back up pad (5) described in four, 2~8 screws are evenly set respectively, and at the place, two ends on the long limit of described ground plane (4), 2~4 screws are evenly set respectively, described ground plane (4) is fixed in by 2~8 screws and bolt on the lower surface of the back up pad (5) described in four of described dielectric layer (2) lower surface, described ground plane (4) is fixed on the base plate or side plate of switch cubicle by 2~4 screws and the bolt at two ends, long limit,
Clearance between described dielectric layer (2) and described back up pad (5) and described ground plane (4) is described air dielectric layer (3).
CN201210230316.0A 2012-07-05 2012-07-05 Built-in ultrahigh-frequency antenna sensor for switch cabinet Expired - Fee Related CN102721910B (en)

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CN103675619A (en) * 2013-11-30 2014-03-26 成都科泰地理信息技术有限公司 Switch cabinet local discharge detecting instrument based on ultrahigh frequency antenna sensor
CN103675618A (en) * 2013-11-30 2014-03-26 成都科泰地理信息技术有限公司 Switchgear partial discharge inspecting instrument with printing function
CN105116304A (en) * 2015-09-02 2015-12-02 广东电网有限责任公司电力科学研究院 Switch cabinet partial discharge detection system

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