CN102721604A - Device and method for physical simulation test of stability of deep tunnel surrounding rock - Google Patents

Device and method for physical simulation test of stability of deep tunnel surrounding rock Download PDF

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CN102721604A
CN102721604A CN2012102244849A CN201210224484A CN102721604A CN 102721604 A CN102721604 A CN 102721604A CN 2012102244849 A CN2012102244849 A CN 2012102244849A CN 201210224484 A CN201210224484 A CN 201210224484A CN 102721604 A CN102721604 A CN 102721604A
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sample
deep tunnel
rock
stress
tunnel
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CN2012102244849A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN102721604B (en
Inventor
张永双
郭长宝
张瑞端
蒋良文
周能娟
杜宇本
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中国地质科学院地质力学研究所
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Abstract

The invention discloses a device and a method for a physical simulation test of the stability of a deep tunnel surrounding rock and relates to a rock-soil mechanic technology. A structure of the device is that a pressure plate is covered on a sample in a deep tunnel rock body model instrument, and a vertical pressure system is arranged on the pressure plate and used for loading so as to simulate and exert gravity stress. A miniature shield machine drills into the sample from a drilling surface, and the miniature shield machine, a stepless speed changing box and a motor are sequentially connected to achieve drilling. Eight optical fibers and six strain gauges are distributed in the sample, the optical fibers are connected with a distributed optical fiber monitoring system, and the distributed optical fiber monitoring system and the strain gauges are respectively connected with a data acquiring system so as to achieve detection and recording. By means of the device and the method for the physical simulation test of the stability of the deep tunnel surrounding rock, a development and change law of stress strain when a deep tunnel rock body is excavated in tunnel construction can reappear accurately, and a novel solving path for researching the stability of the grotto surrounding rock and forming mechanism of rock burst in the tunnel construction.

Description

Deep tunnel stability of surrounding rock physical simulation simulation test device and method thereof
Technical field
The present invention relates to the rock-soil mechanics experimental technique, relate in particular to a kind of deep tunnel stability of surrounding rock physical simulation simulation test device and method thereof.
Background technology
In deep tunnel project planning process of construction, surrounding rock of chamber stability is the problem that Geotechnical Engineering and Geological Engineering worker must pay much attention to.Surrounding rock of chamber generally is meant around the underground chamber; Cause the interior rock soil mass of certain limit of distortion and stress redistribution owing to underground local excavation; Because the difference of geologic condition; Important Project geological problems such as rock burst and soft rock large deformation take place easily, are directly connected to safety, progress and the quality of underground chamber construction.Rock burst is that sliver (piece) that country rock is produced under the high-ground stress field condition flies to throw and looses, and hole wall power destruction phenomenon such as scale off.Rock burst is a big geologic hazard of underground engineering construction, because its destructiveness is very big, brings a lot of problems usually for the stability of construction safety, rock mass and buildings, even can cause the Important Project accident.And the Changing Pattern of the stress of deep tunnel rock mass, displacement is significant undoubtedly for the generation of analyzing surrounding rock of chamber stability and prevention rock burst in the understanding tunnel construction process.
At present; Focus mostly in theoretic analysis to rock mass in tunnel ess-strain Study of Monitoring in the deep tunnel construction; Laboratory simulation for deep tunnel rock mass surrouding rock stress strain monitoring is the blank of this research field; And surrounding rock of chamber stability and rock burst form one of important means of mechanism when being the research constructing tunnel to the analogue experiment installation of tunnel surrounding rock mass stress strain monitoring in the deep tunnel construction, have important theory and practical significance.
Through retrieval, still none overlaps ripe accurately simulation deep tunnel stability of surrounding rock physical simulation simulation test device and method thereof at present.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention just is to overcome the shortcoming and defect that prior art exists, and a kind of deep tunnel stability of surrounding rock physical simulation simulation test device and method thereof are provided.
This test unit of the first can accurately be simulated in deep tunnel is built; Along with tunnel excavation; Displacement, stress and strain in the tunnel surrounding rock mass also will be along with variations, and the formation mechanism research of surrounding rock of chamber stability and rock burst during for constructing tunnel provides a kind of new research technique.
It two is that this test method can be implemented in when taking different construction array modes to construct in the constructing tunnel; The deep tunnel Rock Mass is with the difference of excavation speed; Detect the Changing Pattern of its displacement, stress, strain, this helps inspiring us to find the safest, constructing tunnel speed efficiently.
The objective of the invention is to realize like this:
Lithology, architectural feature and engineering geomechanics character according to tunnel surrounding rock mass in the actual tunnel construction are set up geologic model, and are generalized as the laboratory mathematical model, and set up physical model with analogous similarity material; Apply the self-weight stress field of its deep tunnel position of certain uniform load simulation at the sample top, so can make sample accurately simulate actual tunnel country rock distribution characteristics and mechanical characteristic; Digging process when adopting test to build with the miniature shield machine simulation tunnel uses infinitely variable transmission control to creep into speed, and lays the Changing Pattern that monitoring system accurately records tunnel surrounding internal displacement, stress and strain, for the late time data analysis.Its principle meets the analog simulation pattern of field geology body and working-yard, and test unit is simple relatively, and is cheap, can be equipped by most of teaching and scientific research units.
1, deep tunnel stability of surrounding rock physical simulation simulation test device (abbreviation test unit)
This test unit comprises sample, deep tunnel strata model appearance, face, lateral pressure system, pressure plare, distribution type fiber-optic monitoring system, optical fiber, foil gauge, miniature shield machine, infinitely variable transmission and data acquisition system (DAS);
Its annexation is:
Add a cover pressure plare on the sample in deep tunnel strata model appearance, the lateral pressure system is set on pressure plare, carry out loading and apply gravity stress with simulation;
Miniature shield machine pierces in the sample from face, and miniature shield machine, infinitely variable transmission and motor are connected successively, realizes creeping into;
In sample, lay 8 optical fiber and 6 pieces of foil gauges, optical fiber links to each other with the distribution type fiber-optic monitoring system, and the distribution type fiber-optic monitoring system is connected with data acquisition system (DAS) respectively with foil gauge, realizes detecting and record.
2, deep tunnel stability of surrounding rock physical simulation simulation experiment method (abbreviation test method)
This test method is based on above-mentioned deep tunnel stability of surrounding rock physical simulation simulation test device, specifically comprises the following steps:
1. the preparation of sample
A, sample adopt the deep tunnel rock mass in the equivalent material simulating reality tunnel construction, and density is 2.0~3.0g/cm 3, water percentage is 10~20%, and (soil: sand: schohartite=1:2:7) allotment forms with the constant weight ratio to adopt soil, sand, schohartite in the actual rock mass structure character and the situation of breaking;
B, at sample assigned address laying optical fiber and foil gauge;
C, adding pressure plare, and, calculate its self-weight stress field according to the actual buried depth of deep tunnel, apply the relevant pressure value by the lateral pressure system at the sample top, the fixed 48h of compacting;
2. check the initial value of sample
Start distribution type fiber-optic monitoring system and data acquisition system (DAS), the strain initial value that sample stress initial value that observation optical fiber is derived and foil gauge test out;
Must guarantee initial value within the effective range of design in advance,, should consider to prepare again sample or change respective element if certain initial value deviation average is excessive;
3. check the degree of consolidation of sample
If sample its stress, strain in 12h remain unchanged basically, show that then sample is fixed good, can carry out next step operation;
4. start miniature shield machine, begin to pierce in the sample with given pace along horizontal linear from deep tunnel strata model appearance face, it creeps into speed to use infinitely variable transmission control, pierces sample to certain depth, stops to creep into; Near observation face and stopping the STRESS VARIATION situation in a period of time of back of creeping into is analyzed the generation whether situation such as rock burst and soft rock large deformation are arranged simultaneously; As not having the generation of correlation engineering geological problem, row starts miniature shield machine again, keeps constant rate of speed to creep into;
5. use the situation of change of sample internal stress, displacement in the fiber-optic monitoring systematic observation entire test; The strain variation rule of observing foil gauge simultaneously and being reflected; And gather stress, displacement, strain variation data; And in the input database, the various Monitoring Data that again test obtained are analyzed, thus the related law of deep tunnel rock mass stress strain variation and the formation mechanism of rock burst when obtaining the simulation tunnel excavation.
Principle of work:
Adopt the lateral pressure system to the sample load application, the self-weight stress field of simulation deep tunnel position; Utilize miniature shield machine that sample is excavated; And use infinitely variable transmission control to excavate speed; Utilize the Changing Pattern of distribution type fiber-optic monitoring system and foil gauge monitoring sample internal displacement, stress, strain; According to the related data of data acquisition system (DAS) record, the various Monitoring Data that test obtains are analyzed, thus the related law of deep tunnel rock mass stress strain variation and the formation mechanism of rock burst when obtaining the simulation tunnel excavation.
The present invention has advantage and good effect:
1. can reproduce the development and change rule of deep tunnel rock mass ess-strain the time in the tunnel construction exactly by excavation; For the formation mechanism research of surrounding rock of chamber stability and rock burst in the tunnel construction process provides a new solution route, filled up the blank in the present the research;
2. adopt the lateral pressure system, under can the sunykatuib analysis different edpth of tunnel conditions, the formation mechanism of the rock burst of deep tunnel and soft rock large deformation;
3. infinitely variable transmission and miniature shield machine have been adopted; Can accurately control excavation speed; Thereby in contrast test; Can realize simulation tunnel when constructing with difference construction array mode, the difference of deep tunnel rock mass stress strain variation rule, thus the security and the high efficiency analysis of excavating for tunnel construction provide foundation.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the block diagram of this test unit;
Fig. 2 is the structural representation of this test unit.
Wherein:
00-sample;
10-deep tunnel strata model appearance;
20-face;
30-lateral pressure system;
40-pressure plare;
50-distribution type fiber-optic monitoring system;
60-optical fiber;
70-foil gauge;
80-miniature shield machine;
90-infinitely variable transmission;
100-data acquisition system (DAS).
Embodiment
Specify below in conjunction with accompanying drawing and embodiment:
One, experimental provision
1, overall
Like Fig. 1,2, this test unit comprises sample 00, deep tunnel strata model appearance 10, face 20, lateral pressure system 30, pressure plare 40, distribution type fiber-optic monitoring system 50, optical fiber 60, foil gauge 70, miniature shield machine 80, infinitely variable transmission 90 and data acquisition system (DAS) 100;
Its annexation is:
Add a cover pressure plare 40 on the sample 00 in deep tunnel strata model appearance 10, lateral pressure system 30 is set on pressure plare 40, carry out loading and apply gravity stress with simulation;
Miniature shield machine 80 pierces in the sample 00 from face 20, and miniature shield machine 80, infinitely variable transmission 90 are connected with motor successively, realize creeping into;
In sample 00, lay 8 optical fiber 60 and 6 pieces of foil gauges 70, optical fiber 60 links to each other with distribution type fiber-optic monitoring system 50, and distribution type fiber-optic monitoring system 50 is connected with data acquisition system (DAS) 100 respectively with foil gauge 70, realizes detecting and record.
Its course of work is:
Add a cover pressure plare 40 on the sample 00 in deep tunnel strata model appearance 10, lateral pressure system 30 is set on pressure plare 40 carries out loading and apply gravity stress with simulation;
In the process of the test, miniature shield machine 80 pierces with given pace in the sample 00 along horizontal linear from face 20 beginnings, and it creeps into speed to use infinitely variable transmission 90 controls, and miniature shield machine 80 adopts electric energy to drive;
After arriving certain depth, stop to creep into; Near observation face and stopping the STRESS VARIATION situation in a period of time of back of creeping into is analyzed the generation whether situation such as rock burst and soft rock large deformation are arranged simultaneously; As not having the generation of correlation engineering geological problem, row starts miniature shield machine 80 again, keeps constant rate of speed to creep into;
In sample 00, lay 8 optical fiber 60 and 6 pieces of foil gauges 70; Optical fiber 60 links to each other with distribution type fiber-optic monitoring system 50; Distribution type fiber-optic monitoring system 50 is connected with data acquisition system (DAS) 100 respectively with foil gauge 70, observes the lasting Changing Pattern of sample 00 ess-strain during test, the record related data.
2, functional part
1) deep tunnel strata model appearance 10
Deep tunnel strata model appearance 10 is a kind of rectangle cavity (length * wide * height=2m * 1m * 1.5m); The tyre graduated scale, the scale precision is 1mm, periphery is set up stationary installation; Adopt special tempering glass to become; MWP is 5Mpa, and sample 00 is housed in it, and has dome 11 supporting with it at face 20 tappings.
These parts are provided by sea, Jinan City, Shandong Province Weir instrument Ltd.
2) face 20
Face 20 is the circular openings (diameter 10cm) on deep tunnel strata model appearance 10 sides, and its size is to confirm according to the relative scale size of actual tunnel construction excavation face and The model.The dome 11 supporting with face 20 arranged in the making of deep tunnel strata model appearance 10, and dome 11 adopts screw thread closely to be connected with deep tunnel strata model appearance 10 face 20 places.
3) lateral pressure system 30
The load bringing device that lateral pressure system 30 is made up of the hydraulic pump, lifting jack and the structure connecting link that connect successively; In order to sample 00 load application is simulated its gravity pressure, lateral pressure system 30 applied pressure values need to control according to the self-weight stress field at actual tunnel buried depth place.
4) pressure plare 40
Pressure plare 40 is the square sheet material of processing with pressboard of a block length; Its length * wide length * wide size that is slightly less than deep tunnel strata model appearance 10 end faces; Place sample 00 the top and with its tight contact, its effect is that the load that the lateral pressure system is applied is evenly distributed on the sample 00.
5) the distribution type fiber-optic monitoring system 50
Distribution type fiber-optic monitoring system 50 is optical fiber sensing systems that a kind of general distribution is modulated, and is made up of the LC-DTS11 type distribution type fiber-optic monitoring system of specifically selecting for use Dacca, Beijing Science and Technology Ltd. to produce LASER Light Source, sensor fibre and detecting unit.
Its function is displacement, the STRESS VARIATION situation that is used for monitoring sample 00.
Its principle of work is exactly in some way the light wave in the optical fiber constantly to be modulated (sensing) along the outer signals on the optical fiber transmission path; In optical fiber, form the modulation intelligence bands of a spectrum; And pass through detection technique; Demodulation modulation signal bands of a spectrum, thereby the size and the space distribution of acquisition extraneous field signal.
6) optical fiber 60
Optical fiber 60 is conductive mediums of distribution type fiber-optic monitoring system 50, links to each other with distribution type fiber-optic monitoring system 50 and is laid among the sample 00.
The fiber-optic monitoring system is formed in parallel by 8 optical fiber, is parallel and perpendicular to each 4 in sample excavation direction, and diameter length place of distance excavation axial plane has higher effective property to guarantee data.
7) foil gauge 70
Foil gauge 70 is a kind of general purpose transducers of processing with conductor or semiconductor material, the KFG paper tinsel metal strain plate of specifically selecting for use Beijing Beetech Technology Inc. to produce.
Its principle is conductor or semiconductor material when under extraneous power effect, producing physical deformation, and its resistance value produces corresponding the variation, can obtain the size of tested sample strain according to its changes in resistance.
Lay 6 foil gauges 70 in the sample in deep tunnel strata model appearance; Foil gauge 70 is positioned at radius length place of distance excavation axial plane, equidistantly arranges according to excavation length, and adjacent foil gauge angle at interval is roughly 137 ° of golden section angles, has higher effective property to guarantee data.
8) miniature shield machine 80
Miniature shield machine 80 is simulation tunnel construction shield machines and the sample excavation mechinery made is connected to realize creeping into the control of speed with infinitely variable transmission 90.
9) infinitely variable transmission 90
Infinitely variable transmission 90 is a kind of varying-speed machineries of being made up of MB series stepless speed changer and related accessory, and the inner bottom surface range of speeds is 0~2000 rev/min, and is stepless adjustable.
10) data acquisition system (DAS) 100
Data acquisition system (DAS) 100 is a kind of general functional blocks, adopts multifunctional data acquiring integrated circuit board, PC computing machine and data acquisition software to carry out data acquisition, transmission and record.
Concrete BF2010CJ02 module and the software kit that adopts Beijing North world Science and Technology Ltd..

Claims (4)

1. deep tunnel stability of surrounding rock physical simulation simulation test device is characterized in that:
This test unit comprises sample (00), deep tunnel strata model appearance (10), face (20), lateral pressure system (30), pressure plare (40), distribution type fiber-optic monitoring system (50), optical fiber (60), foil gauge (70), miniature shield machine (80), infinitely variable transmission (90) and data acquisition system (DAS) (100);
Its annexation is:
Add a cover pressure plare (40) on the sample (00) in deep tunnel strata model appearance (10), lateral pressure system (30) is set on pressure plare (40), carry out loading and apply gravity stress with simulation;
Miniature shield machine (80) pierces in the sample (00) from face (20), and miniature shield machine (80), infinitely variable transmission (90) are connected with motor successively, realize creeping into;
In sample (00), lay 8 optical fiber (60) and 6 pieces of foil gauges (70); Optical fiber (60) links to each other with distribution type fiber-optic monitoring system (50); Distribution type fiber-optic monitoring system (50) is connected with data acquisition system (DAS) (100) respectively with foil gauge (70), realizes detecting and record.
2. by the described a kind of deep tunnel stability of surrounding rock physical simulation simulation test device of claim 1, it is characterized in that:
Said optical fiber (60) is formed in parallel by 8, is parallel and perpendicular to each 4 in sample excavation direction, and diameter length place of distance excavation axial plane has higher effective property to guarantee data.
3. by the described a kind of deep tunnel stability of surrounding rock physical simulation simulation test device of claim 1, it is characterized in that:
Described 6 foil gauges (70) are positioned at radius length place of distance excavation axial plane, equidistantly arrange according to excavation length, and adjacent foil gauge angle at interval is 137 ° of golden section angles, has higher effective property to guarantee data.
4. based on the test method of the described a kind of deep tunnel stability of surrounding rock physical simulation simulation test device of claim 1, it is characterized in that comprising the following steps:
1. the preparation of sample
A, sample adopt the deep tunnel rock mass in the equivalent material simulating reality tunnel construction, and density is 2.0~3.0g/cm 3, water percentage is 10~20%, and adopts soil, sand, schohartite to form soil with the allotment of constant weight ratio in the actual rock mass structure character and the situation of breaking: sand: schohartite=1:2:7;
B, at sample assigned address laying optical fiber and foil gauge;
C, adding pressure plare, and, calculate its self-weight stress field according to the actual buried depth of deep tunnel, apply the relevant pressure value by the lateral pressure system at the sample top, the fixed 48h of compacting;
2. check the initial value of sample
Start distribution type fiber-optic monitoring system and data acquisition system (DAS), the strain initial value that sample stress initial value that observation optical fiber is derived and foil gauge test out;
Must guarantee initial value within the effective range of design in advance,, should consider to prepare again sample or change respective element if certain initial value deviation average is excessive;
3. check the degree of consolidation of sample
If sample its stress, strain in 12h remain unchanged basically, show that then sample is fixed good, can carry out next step operation;
4. start miniature shield machine, begin to pierce in the sample with given pace along horizontal linear from deep tunnel strata model appearance face, it creeps into speed to use infinitely variable transmission control, pierces sample to certain depth, stops to creep into; Near observation face and stopping the STRESS VARIATION situation in a period of time of back of creeping into is analyzed the generation whether situation such as rock burst and soft rock large deformation are arranged simultaneously; As not having the generation of correlation engineering geological problem, row starts miniature shield machine again, keeps constant rate of speed to creep into;
5. use the situation of change of sample internal stress, displacement in the fiber-optic monitoring systematic observation entire test; The strain variation rule of observing foil gauge simultaneously and being reflected; And gather stress, displacement, strain variation data; And in the input database, the various Monitoring Data that again test obtained are analyzed, thus the related law of deep tunnel rock mass stress strain variation and the formation mechanism of rock burst when obtaining the simulation tunnel excavation.
CN2012102244849A 2012-06-28 2012-06-28 Method for physical simulation test of stability of deep tunnel surrounding rock CN102721604B (en)

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