The automatic spiral hole-milling device and method
The invention discloses a kind of automatic spiral hole-milling device and method that is used for the large-scale workpiece porous series, belong to flexible Machining Technology for Cutting field.
Along with homemade secondary-line-aircraft ARJ21 successfully goes into operation and constantly propelling of bus C919 development, how to improve the quality of large-scale skeleton assembling drilling and the research focus that efficient becomes the complete machine general assembly stage.The automatic drilling of robotize system is the development main flow of large-scale, the intelligent drilling of ultra-large workpiece of aircraft from now on.But such drilling system because adopts traditional drilling technique more, and axial force is excessive when causing drilling, is only applicable to the processing occasion of small-bore at present, and bore process often need adopt the multiple tracks clustered operation, and a large amount of tool changing links need be set.For difficult-to-machine materials such as the large aperture drilling requirement, the especially titanium alloy that satisfy different aeronautical materials, carbon fibre reinforced composite material, high strength aerolites, press for some new and effective accurate drilling devices of exploitation towards large-scale workpiece.
Helical milling is also referred to as the rail mounted hole milling, and it is not the simple combination of drilling and two kinds of processing methods of milling with the new technology of milling mode to the direct drilling of entity workpiece to be one, but utilizes the three-dimensional spiral feeding of the relative workpiece of cutter to accomplish the processing in hole.During drilling, cutter is treated the biasing of drilling axis mutually, makes this technology have the function that a cutter is processed multiple aperture, can make the hole reach the instructions for use of regulation at aspects such as positional precision, form accuracy, surface roughnesses through less operation simultaneously.Therefore, the robotize drilling system based on the helical milling technology has broad application prospects in the large-scale workpiece high-efficiency and precision drilling in fields such as Aeronautics and Astronautics, shipbuilding.So far, some drilling device patent reports based on the helical milling technology appear in aviation field in succession both at home and abroad.
As; United States Patent (USP) PCT/SE2008/050719, US2003/0143049, PCT/SE03/00467 disclose several kinds of helical milling devices, and these devices comprise that all cutter revolution radius regulating system, cutter rotation system, cutter revolution system, cutter shaft are to feed system.Four sub-systems are all taked independent control, make whole device integrated level not high, cause the complete machine quality to lay particular stress on, and this performance requirement to supporting with it workbench is very high, especially the joint type manipulator.
And for example; The disclosed a kind of automatic spiral hole-milling unit of Chinese patent CN101633060A; This hole milling unit mainly comprises by cutter rotation system, radial deflection system, revolution system three parts, but this spiral hole-milling unit makes its practical applications receive certain limitation because of lacking the axial feed system.
For another example; The disclosed a kind of milling device of Chinese patent CN101664821A, this device have revolution radius regulatory function, but the size of revolution radius is because of receiving the restriction of travelling gear size; The difficult processing that makes the part small-bore is with completion, and its axial feed system does not provide the relevant detailed case of implementing.
In addition, Chinese patent CN101786180A, CN102145405 A disclose two kinds of helical milling devices, and these two kinds of helical milling devices do not possess the automatic regulatory function of revolution radius, thereby make the working (machining) efficiency in hole receive certain influence.
Summary of the invention
The technical problem that the present invention will solve be existing helical milling device design exist automaticity not high, form complex structure, complete machine weight is bigger than normal.
For solving the problems of the technologies described above; The technical scheme that the present invention adopts is: a kind of automatic spiral hole-milling device that is used for the large-scale workpiece porous series; Comprise the L type sectional shelf-unit, be arranged on the screwfeed mechanism on the sectional shelf-unit, and be loaded on the in-house revolution radius governor motion of screwfeed, cutter rotation speed adjusting gear; Sectional shelf-unit: comprise the base plate of horizontal direction, the backboard of vertical direction; Screwfeed mechanism: comprise axial feed housing, screw mandrel, support tube, and the axial slider that is positioned at support tube; Slide with sectional shelf-unit base plate upper rail through slide block and link to each other in the bottom of axial feed housing; Support tube is positioned at the rear portion of backboard, and its inwall upper edge is axially arranged with gib block, is connected so that slide rail is secondary between the lateral surface of gib block and axial slider; Axial feed drives output shaft and is provided with driving gear, and the driven gear that is meshed with driving gear is socketed in the input of screw mandrel; Screw mandrel from after run through the combination bearing that is loaded on axial slider upper bearing (metal) one, backboard and transition end cap one forward successively after, its output inserts transition end cap two endoporus; The axial feed housing that links to each other with transition end cap one links to each other with the revolution housing through the bearing of two ends endoporus, and axial feed housing revolution housing small end is provided with an eccentric inner hole; Revolution radius governor motion: comprise with the revolution housing in the supports end cap that links to each other of hole end surface, the revolution radius that is loaded on the supports end cap regulate driving, and the pinion of interior engagement and gear wheel; The revolution radius is regulated and is driven output shaft connection pinion, and gear wheel connects cutter rotation speed adjusting gear; Supports end cap also is provided with an eccentric inner hole; Cutter rotation speed adjusting gear: the rotation that comprise rotation housing, rotation housing end plug, knife bar, cutter, is arranged in the rotation housing drives; The rotation housing is installed in the eccentric orfice of revolution housing, also is provided with connection bearing one between itself and the eccentric orfice inwall, and its input passes bearing two, and is socketed with aforementioned gear wheel; Rotation drives and is loaded in the eccentric orfice of rotation housing end plug, and its output shaft connects knife bar; The knife bar front end is equipped with cutter, adopts nut to clamp.
For improving the support effect of sectional shelf-unit, support also comprises the stiffener of two right angled triangles, and two right-angle sides of stiffener are fitted and connected base plate and backboard respectively.
For rotatablely moving of screw mandrel of assurance can be realized the screwfeed of cutter, above-mentioned screw mandrel adopts splines to be connected with the transition end cap two of revolution housing, and with stop nut axially also tightly, the combination bearing interference of the transition end cap one of screw mandrel and axial feed housing simultaneously matches.
For guaranteeing that milling device possesses multiple drilling function, after revolution housing and the supports end cap assembling, both eccentric orfices are coaxial; The offset equal and opposite in direction of the eccentric inner hole of revolution housing and rotation housing end plug, and both are partial on the contrary when being positioned at original state, thus realize: and when the radius that revolves round the sun when being zero, the drilling mode is a conventional borehole; When the revolution radius was not equal to zero, the drilling mode was a helical milling.
As a kind of improvement project of the present invention, rotation drives adopts air motor or electric main shaft.
A kind of method for helically milling hole that adopts said automatic spiral hole-milling device to realize comprises following process:
A) before the helical milling, according to treating drilling footpath and tool diameter, the revolution radius is regulated the pinion that drives through interior engagement and gear wheel and is driven the rotation housing and be rotated around the axial line of feeding revolution housing eccentric orfice, thereby realizes the revolve round the sun adjustment of radius of cutter;
B) during helical milling; Axial feed drives through the driving gear of interior engagement and driven gear and drives screw mandrel generation rotation; Under the common constraint of combination bearing, leading screw output spline connecting portion and guideway; The output of screw mandrel also drives cutter rotation speed adjusting gear and revolves round the sun with revolution radius governor motion when drive screwfeed mechanism, cutter rotation speed adjusting gear and the completion of revolution radius governor motion move forward and backward; Rotation drives the rotational velocity of regulating the control cutter, finally accomplishes helical milling.
The present invention has following effect: 1, the adjustment of cutter revolution radius takes drive unit to control automatically, has both realized the function of a cutter porous, also makes the degree of regulation of revolution radius obtain fine assurance, and this has improved the efficient and the quality of drilling greatly; 2, realize cutter screwfeed through a multi-functional screw mandrel and a drive unit, the composition that simplifies the structure has reduced complete machine weight; 3, meshed gears assembly in the kind of drive all adopts has guaranteed the driving force of installing, and has dwindled the radial dimension of device; 4, all adopt precision bearing or high accuracy line slideway auxiliary to join connection mutually between each moving component of device, can effectively guarantee the machining accuracy of helical milling.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the stereogram of automatic spiral hole-milling device of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is the structural representation of automatic spiral hole-milling device of the present invention.
Fig. 3 is Fig. 2 vertical view.
Label title among Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3:
100, screwfeed mechanism, 101, support tube, 102, axial feed drives, 103, axial slider; 104, driving gear 105, driven gear, 106, bearing one, 107, bearing (ball) cover one, 108, screw mandrel; 109, combination bearing end cap, 110, transition end cap one, 111, combination bearing, 112, stop nut; 114, bearing two, 115, transition end cap two, 116, revolution housing, 117, the axial feed housing; 118, slide block, 119, bearing five, 120, bearing (ball) cover five, 121, gib block;
200, revolution radius governor motion, 201, supports end cap, 202, revolution regulates and drive, 203, pinion, 204, gear wheel, 205, bearing three, 206, bearing (ball) cover three, 207, bearing four;
300, cutter rotation speed adjusting gear, 301, rotation drives, 302, the rotation housing, 303, the rotation housing end plug, 304, screw, 305, knife bar, 306, nut, 307, cutter;
400, sectional shelf-unit, 401, base plate, 402, backboard, 403, stiffener, 404, slide rail.
The specific embodiment
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing and practical implementation instance auto spiral drilling device and method of the present invention is set forth in detail.
Illustrated in figures 1 and 2 is a kind of automatic spiral hole-milling device that is used for the large-scale workpiece porous series disclosed by the invention; This device mainly comprise the L type sectional shelf-unit 400, be arranged on the screwfeed mechanism 100 on the sectional shelf-unit 400, and be loaded on screwfeed mechanism 100 inner revolution radius governor motion 200, cutter rotation speed adjusting gear 300;
Sectional shelf-unit 400 comprises the backboard 402 of base plate 401, the vertical direction of horizontal direction, the stiffener 403 of two right angled triangles, and two right-angle sides of stiffener 403 are fitted and connected base plate 401 and backboard 402 respectively, and is arranged on the axial both sides of support 400;
Screwfeed mechanism 100 comprises axial feed housing 117, support tube 101, and the axial slider 103 and screw mandrel 108 that are positioned at support tube 101; Support tube 101 is arranged on the rear portion of backboard 402; Gib block 121 is connected so that slide rail is secondary on axial slider 103 lateral surfaces and support tube 101 inner hole walls, and its end face is equipped with axial feed driving 102; Axial feed drives driving gear 104 is housed on 102 output shafts, is connected the input of screw mandrel 108 with the driven gear 105 that driving gear 104 is meshed; Screw mandrel 108 from after run through the combination bearing 108 of the screwed hole that is loaded on axial slider upper bearing (metal) 1, backboard 402 and transition end cap 1 forward successively after, its output inserts transition end cap 2 115 splined holes, and with stop nut 112 axially and tightly; The axial feed housing 117 that links to each other with transition end cap 1 links to each other with revolution housing 116 through the bearing 114/119 of two ends endoporus, slides with sectional shelf-unit 400 base plate upper rails 404 through slide block 118 and link to each other in axial feed housing 117 bottoms; Revolution housing 116 small ends are provided with an eccentric inner hole;
Revolution radius governor motion 200: comprise that the supports end cap 201 that links to each other with revolution housing 116 interior hole end surfaces, the revolution radius adjusting that is loaded on the supports end cap 201 drive 202, and the pinion 203 and gear wheel 204 of interior engagement; The revolution radius is regulated and is driven 202 output shafts connection pinion 203, and gear wheel 204 connects cutter rotation speed adjusting gears 300; Supports end cap 201 also is provided with an eccentric inner hole.
Cutter rotation speed adjusting gear 300: the rotation that comprise rotation housing 302, rotation housing end plug 303, knife bar 305, cutter 307, is arranged in the rotation housing 302 drives 301; Rotation housing 302 is installed in the eccentric orfice of revolution housing 116, also is provided with connection bearing 1 between itself and the eccentric orfice inwall, and its input passes bearing 2 205, and is socketed with aforementioned gear wheel 204; Rotation drives 301 and is loaded in the eccentric orfice of rotation housing end plug 303, and its output shaft connects knife bar 305; Knife bar 305 front ends are equipped with cutter 307, adopt nut 306 to clamp;
After revolution housing 116 assembled with supports end cap 201, both eccentric orfices were coaxial; The offset equal and opposite in direction of both eccentric inner holes of revolution housing 116 and rotation housing end plug 303, and both are partial on the contrary when being positioned at original state;
Aforesaid rotation drives 301 and adopts air motor or electric main shaft.
The operation principle of apparatus of the present invention is following:
Before the helical milling; According to treating drilling footpath and tool diameter; The adjusting of revolution radius drives 202 pinions 203 through interior engagement and is rotated with the axial line of gear wheel 204 drive rotation housings 301 around feeding revolution housing 116 eccentric orfices, thus the adjustment of realization cutter revolution radius.
During helical milling; Axial feed drives 102 driving gears 104 through interior engagement and drives screw mandrel 108 generation rotations with driven gear 105; Under the common constraint of combination bearing 111, leading screw 108 output spline connecting portions and guideway 121/404; The output of screw mandrel 102 also drives cutter rotation speed adjusting gear 200 and revolves round the sun with revolution radius governor motion 300 when drive screwfeed mechanism 100, cutter rotation speed adjusting gear 200 and 300 completion of revolution radius governor motion move forward and backward; Rotation drives 301 and regulates the rotational velocity of controlling cutter 307, finally accomplishes helical milling.
The above is merely a preferable case study on implementation of the automatic spiral hole-milling device and method that the present invention relates to, but practical range of the present invention is not limited thereto example.