CN102704921B - Measuring device for electrical resistivity of electromagnetic waves while drilling and measuring method thereof - Google Patents

Measuring device for electrical resistivity of electromagnetic waves while drilling and measuring method thereof Download PDF

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CN102704921B
CN102704921B CN 201210169139 CN201210169139A CN102704921B CN 102704921 B CN102704921 B CN 102704921B CN 201210169139 CN201210169139 CN 201210169139 CN 201210169139 A CN201210169139 A CN 201210169139A CN 102704921 B CN102704921 B CN 102704921B
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signal
electromagnetic wave
electromagnetic
information
generating
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CN102704921A (en
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贾衡天
张程光
艾维平
宋延淳
邓乐
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中国石油天然气集团公司
中国石油集团钻井工程技术研究院
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Abstract

本发明公开了一种随钻电磁波电阻率测量方法,包括:产生特定频率的电磁波功率信号;通过发射天线线圈将电磁波功率信号发射到地层中;通过两个接收天线线圈接收含有被测地层信息的电磁波功率信号,生成两路含有被测地层信息的电磁波功率信号;对两路含有被测地层信息的电磁波功率信号进行带通滤波,并将经过带通滤波后的两路含有被测地层信息的电磁波功率信号通过AD采样后生成两路电磁波采样数字信号;对电磁波采样数字信号进行混频变换和低通滤波,生成幅值信息和相位信息;根据幅值信息和相位信息,生成幅值比和相位差;根据幅值比和相位差,根据图表反演生成电磁波功率信号的电阻率图板。 The present invention discloses an apparatus for measuring electromagnetic wave resistivity while drilling method, comprising: generating an electromagnetic wave of a specific frequency power signal; electromagnetic wave through the transmission antenna coil to transmit the power signal formation; received by the receiving antenna coil comprising two stratigraphic information measured electromagnetic power signal, generating two electromagnetic power signal containing information measured formation; electromagnetic power signal measured formation comprising two bandpass filtered information, and through two bandpass filtered information containing the measured formation electromagnetic power of an electromagnetic wave signal generating two digital signals sampled by the AD sampling; electromagnetic wave mixer converting sampled digital signals and low-pass filtering, generating amplitude and phase information; amplitude information and phase information, and generates the amplitude ratio phase; the amplitude ratio and the phase difference, generates an electromagnetic wave resistivity of the tablet is a graph of the power signal inversion. 本发明实施例还公开了一种随钻电磁波电阻率测量装置。 Embodiments of the present invention also discloses an electromagnetic wave resistivity measurement while drilling apparatus.

Description

一种随钻电磁波电阻率的测量装置和测量方法 One kind MWD apparatus and method for measuring electromagnetic wave resistivity,

技术领域 FIELD

[0001] 本发明涉及石油、天然气钻井作业随钻测量或随钻测井领域,特别是用于地质导向钻井系统中的一种基于高频欠采样算法的随钻电磁波电阻率测量方法和装置。 [0001] The present invention relates to oil and gas drilling or measurement while drilling LWD art, particularly for one kind of geological steerable drilling system subsampling algorithm based on high frequency electromagnetic wave resistivity measurement while drilling apparatus and method.

背景技术 Background technique

[0002] 电磁波电阻率是地质导向钻井系统中用来进行实时地层评价、提供钻井导向信息的重要地质参数。 [0002] The electromagnetic wave resistivity of geological steerable drilling system for real-time formation evaluation, significant geological drilling parameters provide guidance information. 电磁波电阻率随钻测量技术是在传统电缆电磁波电阻率测量技术的基础上发展起来的,是一种可以在钻井过程中实时测量钻孔周围不同方位地层电阻率的测量方法。 Electromagnetic Wave Resistivity MWD technology is developed on the basis of measurement techniques in a conventional electromagnetic wave resistivity cable, a real-time method of measuring formation resistivity in different directions around the borehole during drilling. 随钻测井是最近几年来迅速发展起来的一项先进的测井技术,与常规测井方法相比较,随钻测量井下数据能够更及时、更真实并且精度更高,更加客观的反应地层的真实地质特征,满足了当代石油天然气工业对测井技术指标的特殊需要。 LWD is an advanced logging techniques developed rapidly in recent years, compared with conventional logging methods, MWD downhole data can be more timely, more accurate and more real, more objective reaction formation real geological features, contemporary oil and gas industry to meet the special needs of logging technology indicators. 随着整个石油工业的不断发展,大斜度井、水平井等钻井技术越来越多地被用来开发规模更小、物性更差、油层更薄、非均质性强的油藏。 With the continuous development of the oil industry, highly deviated wells, horizontal wells and other drilling techniques are increasingly being used to develop smaller and poorer physical properties, oil thinner, strong heterogeneity of the reservoir. 随钻测井(LWD)由于自身的优势和特点,更多地被用于这些油藏的评价和大斜度井、水平井的地质导向钻井应用工作中。 MWD (the LWD) due to its own advantages and characteristics, was used to evaluate more of these reservoirs and high angle wells, horizontal well drilling geosteering applications work. 其中,随钻测井中的电磁波电阻率测井是电法测井中的一种,在石油勘查和钻井技术中具有重要地位。 Wherein the electromagnetic wave resistivity logging while drilling logging is an electrical logging in, plays an important role in the oil exploration and drilling techniques. 由于电磁波在穿越介质时产生幅度衰减和相位移动,并且由于地层的电阻率和介电常数的特性所决定,电磁波在穿越不同地层介质时产生的幅度衰减和相位偏移不同。 Since electromagnetic waves generated through the medium when the amplitude attenuation and phase shift, and the determined resistivity and dielectric constant due to the characteristics of the formation, the amplitude of electromagnetic waves generated during the formation of different media through attenuation and phase shift are different. 由于电磁波的频率特性不同,当频率较高时,电磁波幅度衰减和相位偏移主要与地层的介电常数相关,而当电磁波频率低于10MHZ时,电磁波幅度衰减和相位偏移主要与地层的电阻率相关。 Due to the different frequency characteristics of the electromagnetic wave, when the high frequency electromagnetic wave amplitude attenuation and phase shift is primarily related to the dielectric constant of the formation, and when the frequency is lower than 10MHZ electromagnetic wave, electromagnetic wave amplitude attenuation and phase shift of the main resistance to the formation rate-dependent. 电阻率对于地质导向钻井和油田地层评价地层电阻率是重要地质参数。 Geosteering resistivity for drilling and field evaluation of formation resistivity is an important geologic formation parameters. 用于测量电阻率的方法也很多,电磁波测量方式可以应用在导电性差或不导电的钻井液,这是电流电阻率等测量方式所不能实现的。 A method for measuring resistivity are many electromagnetic wave measurement difference can be applied to the conductive or non-conductive drilling fluid, which is the resistivity of the current measurement and the like can not be achieved.

[0003] 在美国专利(N0.6218842)公布了一种电磁波电阻率随钻测井工具,它包括一个能过产生对个频率电磁波信号的不对称发射装置设计,一对被定位在发射天线阵列末端的接收天线组,在发射阵列和接收天线组是要测量的井眼地层,一个校准发射天线被安装在两个接收天线之间,它被用作两种不同的工作模式。 [0003] In U.S. Patent No. (N0.6218842) discloses an electromagnetic resistivity logging while drilling tool, comprising a transmitting apparatus capable of generating through an asymmetric design frequency electromagnetic wave signal, a pair of the transmission antenna array positioned end of the receiving antenna group, the formation in the wellbore and receiving the transmit array antenna group is to be measured, a calibration transmission antenna is mounted between two receiving antennas, it is used in two different operating modes. 在第一种工作模式它被用于校准接收天线装置热漂移,在这种工作模式下,测量的衰减和相移的参数,被用于校准仪器在钻孔测量地层时发生的热漂移。 In a first mode of operation which is used to calibrate the thermal drift receiving antenna means, in this mode, the measured attenuation and phase shift of the parameter, the instrument is calibrated for heat occurs the formation while drilling measurement drift. 因此当每次测量进行之前它可以进行温度漂移的校正。 Therefore, when it can be performed prior to each measurement temperature drift correction. 第二种工作模式时校准接收系统可以被用于被钻地层的电磁波电阻率的测量。 The second calibration mode of operation when the receiving system may be drilled for measuring electromagnetic wave resistivity of the formation. 但这种方法的缺点在于不能消除温度漂移影响之外的干扰,如电路中的噪声等。 But the disadvantage of this method is the inability to eliminate interference outside temperature drift effects, such as noise circuits.

[0004] 在中国授权的发明专利(N0.CN101482013)中,公开了一种大地电磁波电阻率测量方法及其仪器,仪器包括接收电场强度信号的电场传感器,接收磁场强度信号的磁场传感器,两个分别与电场传感器和磁场传感器的输出端连接的前置放大与滤波器、与前置放大与滤波器的输出端连接的数据采集系统和采集控制、数据存储及处理系统。 [0004] The issued patents in China (N0.CN101482013) invention, disclosed a method for measuring earth resistivity and electromagnetic instrument, the instrument includes an electric field strength of the signal received electric field sensor, magnetic field sensor receiving field intensity signal, two preamplifier and filter are respectively connected to the output of the electric field sensor and a magnetic field sensor, the data acquisition system is connected to the preamplifier and the output of the filter and the collection control, data storage and processing system. 但这种方法的缺点在于不能降低采样频率,并在低采样频率的情况下测量出所需要的地层参数。 But the disadvantage of this method is that the sampling frequency can not be reduced, and the required formation parameters measured in the case of low sampling frequency.

[0005] 在上述各种现有技术中,都是利用高频电磁波在通过地层时会受到电阻率的影响产生幅度的衰减和和相位的偏移,仪器测量电磁波幅度的衰减比和电磁波的相位差,对于有些技术采用硬件电路测量的方式,但由于电路内部噪声干扰,会影响测量电路的可靠性和精度,而且硬件电路中的模拟器件随温度飘移会比较严重。 [0005] In the above prior art, is the use of electromagnetic wave through the formation is affected when the resistivity deviated attenuation and phase and amplitude, phase measuring instrument and the attenuation ratio of the amplitude of the electromagnetic wave difference, some way for measuring the art hardware circuits, but the internal circuit noise, will affect the reliability and accuracy of the measurement circuit, and the piece of hardware simulator with temperature drift in the circuit would be more serious. 有些采用过采样方式测量电磁波信号的幅度衰减比和相位差值,但由于电磁波信号本身的频率较高,过采样要求比电磁波信号更高的采样率,这样高温、高精度和高速的AD器件几乎没有,而且采样频率高采样精度高的AD器件会产生大量的采样数据,这对数字信号处理器件计算能力的要求更高,由于整个电路工作在高频状态,会使系统的功耗大量增加。 Some oversampling mode electromagnetic wave signal measuring the amplitude ratio and phase difference of the attenuation values, but due to the high frequency electromagnetic wave signal itself, oversampling requires a higher sampling rate than the electromagnetic wave signal, so that high-temperature, high-precision and high-speed devices almost AD no, and a high sampling frequency of sampling precision device AD ​​generates a large amount of sample data, higher demands for digital signal processing devices that computational power, since the entire circuit at high frequencies, causes a significant increase in system power consumption.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0006] 为了克服现有技术中存在的缺陷,本发明的目的在于提出一种随钻电磁波电阻率测量方法,包括:产生特定频率的电磁波功率信号;通过发射天线线圈将所述电磁波功率信号发射到地层中;通过两个接收天线线圈分别接收含有被测地层信息的电磁波功率信号,生成两路含有被测地层信息的电磁波功率信号;对所述的两路含有被测地层信息的电磁波功率信号分别进行带通滤波,并将经过带通滤波后的两路含有被测地层信息的电磁波功率信号通过AD采样后生成两路电磁波采样数字信号;对所述两路电磁波采样信号的每一路电磁波采样数字信号进行混频变换和低通滤波,生成每一路电磁波采样数字信号的幅值信息和相位信息;根据所述两路电磁波采样数字信号的幅值信息和相位信息,生成所述两路电磁波采样数字信号的幅值比和相位差;根据所述的幅 [0006] In order to overcome the deficiencies of the prior art, the object of the present invention is to provide a drilling electromagnetic wave resistivity measurement method, comprising: generating an electromagnetic wave of a specific frequency power signal; transmitting antenna coil by the electromagnetic signal emission power into the formation; two wave power signal by the receiving antenna coil receives the information containing the measured formation, generates an electromagnetic wave power signal comprises two strata measured information; electromagnetic power signal containing information measured for the formation of the two band-pass filtering, respectively, and through two bandpass filtered information containing formation measured electromagnetic wave power signal generating two digital signals sampled by the AD sampling; each road electromagnetic wave to sample the two sampled signal It mixes the digital signal conversion and low-pass filtering, generating amplitude and phase information of an electromagnetic wave in each channel sampled digital signal; amplitude information and phase information of the two-way electromagnetic sampled digital signal, the two electromagnetic generating sampling the amplitude ratio and phase difference of the digital signal; according to the web 值比和相位差,根据图表反演生成所述电磁波功率信号的电阻率图板。 Value ratio and phase difference, the resistivity of the electromagnetic wave generating plate of FIG power signal is a graph of the inversion.

[0007] 为了克服现有技术中存在的缺陷,本发明的目的还在于提出一种随钻电磁波电阻率测量装置,包括:电磁波功率信号产生装置,用于产生特定频率的电磁波功率信号;发射天线线圈,用于将产生的所述电磁波功率信号发射到地层中;两个接收天线线圈,用于接收含有被测地层信息的电磁波功率信号,生成两路含有被测地层信息的电磁波功率信号;电磁波采样信号生成装置,用于对所述的两路含有被测地层信息的电磁波功率信号分别进行带通滤波,并将经过带通滤波后的两路含有被测地层信息的电磁波功率信号通过AD采样后生成两路电磁波采样数字信号;幅值信息与相位信息生成装置,用于对所述两路电磁波采样信号的每一路电磁波采样数字信号进行混频变换和低通滤波,生成每一路电磁波采样数字信号的幅值信息和相位信息;幅值比和相位差生 [0007] In order to overcome the deficiencies of the prior art, the object of the present invention is to provide a drilling electromagnetic wave resistivity measurement apparatus, comprising: an electromagnetic wave power signal generating means for generating an electromagnetic wave power signal of a specific frequency; transmit antenna a coil for generating the electromagnetic wave signal power transmitted into the formation; two receiving antenna coil for receiving electromagnetic waves comprising a power signal measured formation information, generates an electromagnetic wave power signal comprises two strata measured information; wave electromagnetic power signal sampling signal generating means for an electromagnetic wave signal including power information of the measured formation of the two band pass filtering, respectively, and through two band-pass filtered by the information containing the measured formation sampling AD after producing two electromagnetic sampled digital signal; amplitude information and phase information generation means for sampling a digital signal for each channel of said electromagnetic wave two-way mixes sampled signal conversion and low-pass filtering, to generate digital samples of each channel an electromagnetic wave amplitude information and phase information signal; raw amplitude ratio and phase difference 成装置,用于根据所述两路电磁波采样数字信号的幅值信息和相位信息,生成所述两路电磁波采样数字信号的幅值比和相位差;电阻率图板生成装置,用于根据所述的幅值比和相位差,根据图表反演生成所述电磁波功率信号的电阻率图板。 As a means for amplitude information and phase information of the two-way electromagnetic sampled digital signal, the amplitude ratio and phase difference generating two electromagnetic sampled digital signal; FIG plate resistivity generating means, according to the said amplitude ratio and phase difference, the resistivity of the electromagnetic wave generating plate of FIG power signal is a graph of the inversion.

[0008] 本发明实施例的这种基于高频欠采样算法的随钻电磁波电阻率测量方法及测量装置,硬件电路简单、模拟器件少,并且温度对器件的影响弱。 [0008] This embodiment of the present invention is based on high frequency electromagnetic wave resistivity while drilling measuring method and apparatus of the under-sampling algorithm, a simple hardware circuit, Analog Devices less, and a weak effect of temperature on the device. 本发明能够通过较低的采样率对电磁波信号进行采样(这是因为对于高温AD器件来说高采样率与高精度是一对相互冲突的技术参数指标),这样可以选用采样频率较低但采样精度高的高温AD器件,对电磁波信号进行采样,可以提高测量系统的精度,降低整个系统工作频率减少整套系统的功率损耗。 The present invention can be sampled (This is because the high-temperature high sampling rate for AD devices and high-precision index is a pair of conflicting technical parameters) of the electromagnetic wave signal by a low sampling rate, so that a lower sampling frequency can be selected, but the sampling AD device temperature with high accuracy, an electromagnetic wave signal is sampled, the system can improve the measurement accuracy, reduce the overall system operating frequency to reduce power consumption of the entire system.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0009] 为了更清楚地说明本发明实施例或现有技术中的技术方案,下面将对实施例或现有技术描述中所需要使用的附图作简单地介绍,显而易见地,下面描述中的附图仅仅是本发明的一些实施例,对于本领域技术人员来讲,在不付出创造性劳动性的前提下,还可以根据这些附图获得其他的附图。 [0009] In order to more clearly illustrate the technical solutions in the embodiments or the prior art embodiment of the present invention, briefly introduced hereinafter, embodiments are described below in the accompanying drawings or described in the prior art needed to be used in describing the embodiments the drawings are only some embodiments of the present invention, in terms of ordinary skill in the art, without any creative effort, and can obtain other drawings based on these drawings.

[0010] 图1为本发明的一种随钻电磁波电阻率测量方法的一个实施例的方法流程图; [0010] FIG 1. A method of the present invention, one embodiment of an electromagnetic wave resistivity measurement while drilling flowchart of a method;

[0011] 图2为图1所示实施例中的产生特定频率的电磁波功率信号步骤的方法流程图; [0011] FIG 2 is a flowchart of a method step of generating an electromagnetic wave power signal frequency according to a specific embodiment shown in FIG 1;

[0012] 图3为图1所示实施例中的对所述的两路含有被测地层信息的电磁波功率信号分别进行带通滤波,并通过AD采样后生成两路电磁波采样数字信号的步骤的方法流程图; [0012] FIG. 3 is shown in Figure 1 contains the measured signal power of the electromagnetic wave formation information for the two examples of embodiment are band-pass filtered, and the step of sampling the electromagnetic two-way digital signals by the AD sampling generated The method of flowchart;

[0013] 图4为图1所示实施例中的对所述两路电磁波采样信号进行混频变换和低通滤波,生成幅值信息和相位信息的步骤的方法流程图; [0013] FIG. 4 is a process step for mixing a low-pass filter and converting the sampled signal wave two-way embodiment, the amplitude information and phase information generated in the flowchart shown in FIG. 1 embodiment;

[0014] 图5为本发明的一种随钻电磁波电阻率测量装置的一个实施例的结构示意图; A structure of an embodiment [0014] FIG. 5 of the present invention is the electromagnetic wave resistivity measurement while drilling apparatus schematic;

[0015] 图6为本发明实施例的随钻电磁波电阻率测量装置中的发射天线线圈和接收天线线圈在无磁钻铤中的结构示意图; [0015] FIG. 6 electromagnetic wave resistivity LWD embodiment of a schematic structure of a non-magnetic drill collar transmitting antenna coil and receiving antenna coil in the measuring apparatus of the present invention;

[0016] 图7为本发明实施例的随钻电磁波电阻率测量装置中的电磁波功率信号产生装置的结构示意图; Electromagnetic power signal in the drilling apparatus electromagnetic wave resistivity [0016] FIG. 7 embodiment of the present invention, the measuring means generating a schematic structural diagram;

[0017] 图8为本发明实施例的随钻电磁波电阻率测量装置中的电磁波采样信号生成装置的结构示意图; [0017] FIG. 8 LWD electromagnetic wave resistivity schematic structural embodiment of an electromagnetic wave signal generating means samples measuring apparatus of the present invention;

[0018] 图9为本发明实施例的随钻电磁波电阻率测量装置中的幅值信息与相位信息生成装置的结构示意图; [0018] FIG. 9 LWD electromagnetic wave resistivity structural diagram of an embodiment of the amplitude information generating means and the phase information measuring apparatus of the present invention;

[0019] 图10为本发明实施例的幅值信息与相位信息生成装置进行算法处理过程的原理框图; [0019] Figure 10 block diagram of amplitude information and phase information according to an algorithm generation process of the apparatus of the present embodiment of the invention;

[0020] 图11为利用本发明实施例的随钻电磁波电阻率测量装置及测量方法进行算法处理后的效果图。 [0020] Figure 11 apparatus and measuring method for measuring the effect of the view of the arithmetic processing electromagnetic wave resistivity while drilling with the present embodiment of the invention.

具体实施方式 Detailed ways

[0021] 下面将结合本发明实施例中的附图,对本发明实施例中的技术方案进行清楚、完整地描述,显然,所描述的实施例仅仅是本发明一部分实施例,而不是全部的实施例。 [0021] below in conjunction with the present invention in the accompanying drawings, technical solutions of embodiments of the present invention are clearly and completely described, obviously, the described embodiments are merely part of embodiments of the present invention, but not all embodiments example. 基于本发明中的实施例,本领域普通技术人员在没有做出创造性劳动前提下所获得的所有其他实施例,都属于本发明保护的范围。 Based on the embodiments of the present invention, all other embodiments of ordinary skill in the art without any creative effort shall fall within the scope of the present invention.

[0022] 由于本发明使用了欠采样技术对高频电磁波信号进行采样,因此需要经过响应的算法来消除欠采样的频域混叠。 [0022] Since the present invention uses high frequency electromagnetic sub-sampling signal is sampled, and after the response is required to eliminate the frequency domain algorithms subsampling aliasing. 其原理如下: The principle is as follows:

[0023] 传统的采用奈奎斯特采样定理的电磁波信号采样的采样率需要高于被采样的电磁波信号的频率,即奈奎斯特采样定律:设有一个频率带限信号x(t),其频带限制在(0,fH)内,如果以不小于fs=2fH的采样速率对x(t)进行等间隔采样,得到时间离散的采样信号χ (n) =X(nTS)(其中Ts=l/fs称为采样间隔),则原信号x(t)将被所得到的采样值χ (η)完全地确定。 [0023] using the conventional Nyquist sampling theorem electromagnetic wave signal sampling rate needs to be above sampled frequency electromagnetic wave signal is sampled, i.e. the Nyquist sampling theorem: bandlimited signal has a frequency of x (t), which band limitation in the (0, fH), if not less than fs = sampling rate 2fH of x (t) be equal interval sampling to obtain time-discrete sampled signal χ (n) = X (nTS) (where Ts = l / fs called the sampling interval), the original signal x (t) will be obtained sampled values ​​χ (η) is completely determined.

[0024] 该定理说明:如果以不低于信号最高频率两倍的采样率对带限信号进行采样,那么所得到的离散信号采样值就能准确地确定原信号。 [0024] The theorem: If the signal is not lower than twice the highest frequency of the band-limited signal sample rate sampling, the discrete signal samples so obtained can determine exactly where the original signal. 即被采样的电磁波信号在频域上不会产生混叠。 I.e. electromagnetic wave signal sampled without aliasing in the frequency domain.

[0025] 但由于被采样的电磁波信号最高频率为2MHZ,这样使用传统的奈奎斯特采样定理进行采样就需要高于2倍的采样频率,这样高采样频率的高精度的而且是高温的AD转换器在现有的器件中没有,只能采用欠采样方式和响应的数字信号处理算法进行处理,来准确的确定被采样前的电磁波信号。 [0025] However, since the electromagnetic wave signal of the highest frequency sampled 2MHZ, the use of such conventional Nyquist sampling theorem requires a sampling frequency for sampling more than 2 times, such high-precision sampling frequency and a high temperature is AD not a conventional converter devices, only digital signal processing algorithms using under sampling methods and responses are processed to accurately determine the electromagnetic wave signal before being sampled.

[0026] 由于被采样的电磁波信号为带通信号,其本身带宽并不一定很宽,因此有可能使用比NyquiSt定理所规定的采样率更低的速率来采样电磁波信号。 [0026] Since the electromagnetic wave signal is sampled bandpass signal, which in itself is not necessarily very wide bandwidths, it is possible to use a lower sampling rate than the rate specified sampling theorem NyquiSt electromagnetic signals. 对于一个带通很窄的电磁波信号,即设一个频率带限电磁波信号x(t),其频带限制在(fL,fH)内,如果其采样速率fs满足: For a narrow band-pass electromagnetic signals, i.e., provided a band-limited frequency electromagnetic wave signal x (t), in which band limiting (fL, fH) within, if it satisfies the sampling rate fs:

Γ Ί - 2(7,+ /:ν) Γ Ί - 2 (7, + /: ν)

[0027] f =^LL(2-1) [0027] f = ^ LL (2-1)

2» +1 2 >> +1

[0028] 式中,η取能满足仁^2(fH-fL)的最大正整数,则用fs进行等间隔采样所得到的信号采样值能精确地确定原电磁波信号X(t)。 [0028] wherein, [eta] can be taken to meet the maximum positive integer kernel ^ 2 (fH-fL), the signal sample is performed by fs sampling intervals can be obtained accurately determine the original electromagnetic signal X (t).

f f

[0029]或者:η 为__________;________________________£____________;____值的整数部分。 [0029] or: η is __________; ________________________ £ ____________; ____ integer part of the value.

,—-厂¥ — J f.^ J - plant ¥ -. J f ^ J

η +1 n Jh Ji η +1 n Jh Ji

[0030] 式(2-1)用带通信号的中心频率f0和频带宽度B也可以表示为: [0030] Formula (2-1) frequency f0 and bandwidth B with a center signal may also be expressed as:

4/ 4 /

[_] (2-2) [_] (2-2)

In +1 In +1

[0032] 式中,fO=(fH+fL)/2, η取能满足fs彡2B (B=fH-fL)的最大整数。 [0032] In the formula, fO = (fH + fL) / 2, η can take the largest integer that satisfies fs San 2B (B = fH-fL) of.

[0033] 显然,当fO=fH/2、B=fH时,取n=0,式(2-2)就是Nyquist采样定理,即满足:fs=2fH。 [0033] Obviously, when fO = fH / 2, B = fH, take n = 0, the formula (2-2) is the Nyquist sampling theorem, i.e., satisfies: fs = 2fH. 由式(2-2)可见,当频带宽度B —定时,为了能用最低采样速率即两倍频带宽度速率(fs=2B)对带通信号进行采样,带通信号的中心频率必须满足: It is seen, when the band width B of the formula (2-2) - the timing, i.e., to use a sampling rate twice the minimum bandwidth rate (fs = 2B) of the bandpass signal is sampled, the center frequency of the bandpass signal must be met:

(2" + 1)/.ί (2 "+ 1) /. Ί

[0034] f0 =--或fL+fH=(2n+l)B (2-3) [0034] f0 = - or fL + fH = (2n + l) B (2-3)

2 2

[0035] 即信号的最高(或最低)频率是带宽的整数倍。 [0035] i.e., the highest (or lowest) frequency signal is an integer multiple of the bandwidth. 也就是说任何一个中心频率为fOn(n=0, 1,2,3,...)带宽为B的带通电磁波信号均可以用同样的采样频率fs=2B对信号进行采样,这些采样均能准确地表示位于不同频段的原始信号xO (t),Xl (t),x2(t),…。 Means that any center frequency fOn (n = 0, 1,2,3, ...) can be sampled bandwidth of bandpass electromagnetic wave signal B with the same sampling frequency fs = 2B signal, the samples were accurately represent the original signal in different frequency bands xO (t), Xl (t), x2 (t), ....

[0036] 上述带通电磁波信号采样适用的前提条件是:只允许在其中一个频带上存在信号,而不允许在不同的频带上同时存在信号,否则将会引起信号混叠。 [0036] The electromagnetic wave bandpass signal samples applied with the proviso that: only one band is present on the signal, and the signal is allowed to exist simultaneously in different frequency bands would otherwise cause aliasing. 这可以采用在采样前加一个窄带滤波器的办法来解决。 It can be used in a narrow band filter before sampling plus a way to solve.

[0037] 对于高频电磁波信号进行欠采样的过程可以如以下例子进行处理:一个经过窄带滤波器滤波后的窄带电磁波信号可表示为: [0037] The process for undersampled high frequency electromagnetic wave signal can be processed in the following example: a narrow-band electromagnetic signal through a narrow-band filter filters can be expressed as:

[0038] x(t)=a(t).cos [ ω 0t+ Θ (t) ] (2-5) [0038] x (t) = a (t) .cos [ω 0t + Θ (t)] (2-5)

[0039] 窄带电磁波信号应满足: [0039] The narrow-band electromagnetic signals should be met:

[0040] — » ΰ [0040] - »ΰ

[0041] B为窄带电磁波信号带宽。 [0041] B is the bandwidth of narrow-band electromagnetic signals. 可以证明这时x(t)的Hilbert变换为: Can prove time x (t) is the Hilbert transform:

[0042] H[x(t)]=a(t).sin[ ω0ΐ+ Θ (t) ] (2-6) [0042] H [x (t)] = a (t) .sin [ω0ΐ + Θ (t)] (2-6)

[0043] 所以窄带信号的解析表示为: [0043] Therefore, analytic narrowband signal is expressed as:

[0044] z (t)=a(t).cos [ω0ΐ+ Θ (t)]+ja(t).sin[ ω0ΐ+ Θ (t) ] (2—7) [0044] z (t) = a (t) .cos [ω0ΐ + Θ (t)] + ja (t) .sin [ω0ΐ + Θ (t)] (2-7)

[0045] 或用极坐标形式表示为: [0045] or expressed in polar form as:

[0046]:(i)=fl(f) (2-8) [0046] :( i) = fl (f) (2-8)

[0047] 从上式可清楚地看出,a(t)为信号的瞬时幅度,(p(t) = ©0t + 0(t)为信号的瞬时相位,而《W = —= ¾+钱O为信号的瞬时角频率。这三个特征量包含了窄带信号的全 [0047] As is apparent from the formula, a (t) is the instantaneous amplitude of the signal, (p (t) = © 0t + 0 (t) is the instantaneous phase of the signal, and "W = - = ¾ + money O instantaneous angular frequency of the signal which contain three characteristic quantities of the whole narrowband signal

di di

部信息。 Ministry of Information.

[0048] 上式又可重写为: [0048] rewritten to turn the formula:

[0049] z(i) = a(f)-eJ<nn Ww (2-9) [0049] z (i) = a (f) -eJ <nn Ww (2-9)

[0050] 式中e/〜为信号的载频分量,作为信息载体而不包含有用信息。 [0050] wherein e / ~ carrier frequency component of the signal, as the information carrier does not contain useful information. 将上式乘以e〜,把载频下移Wtl,变成零中频信号,即基带信号。 Multiplying the upper e~, Wtl down the carrier frequency, the intermediate frequency signal becomes zero, i.e., a baseband signal.

[0051] z(t)=a(t).eJ0 ω [0051] z (t) = a (t) .eJ0 ω

[0052] =a(t) cos Θ (t) +ja(t) sin Θ (t) (2-10) [0052] = a (t) cos Θ (t) + ja (t) sin Θ (t) (2-10)

[0053] =zBI (t)+j zBQ (t) [0053] = zBI (t) + j zBQ (t)

[0054] 式中 [0054] wherein

[0055] zBI (t) =a(t) cos Θ (t) (2-11) [0055] zBI (t) = a (t) cos Θ (t) (2-11)

[0056] zBQ(t) =a(t) sin Θ (t) (2-12) [0056] zBQ (t) = a (t) sin Θ (t) (2-12)

[0057] 分别称为基带信号的同相分量(Inphase Component)与正交分量(Quadr atureComponent),这也是电磁波采样信号进行正弦和余弦混频变换,并经过低通滤波后,生成混频信号的过程生成的混频分量zBI(t)和zBQ(t),zBI(t)和zBQ(t)也被称为正交分量。 Process phase component (Inphase Component) [0057] referred to as a baseband signal and quadrature component (Quadr atureComponent), which is an electromagnetic wave signal sampled sine and cosine transforms mixer, and after low-pass filtering, generating a mixing signal generated mixed component zBI (t) and zBQ (t), zBI (t) and zBQ (t) is also called the quadrature component.

[0058] 因此,窄带电磁波信号的幅度a(t)、相位Cp(t)分别为: [0058] Thus, the amplitude of the narrowband electromagnetic wave signal a (t), the phase Cp (t), respectively:

[0059] α(/) = ^=Β12(/)+ζΒϋ2(ί) (2-13) [0059] α (/) = ^ = Β12 (/) + ζΒϋ2 (ί) (2-13)

[0060] Φ(ί) = arctan(-^.) (2-14) [0060] Φ (ί) = arctan (-. ^) (2-14)

•ψ • ψ

[0061] 图1为本发明的一种随钻电磁波电阻率测量方法的一个实施例的方法流程图。 A method of embodiments of the [0061] present invention. FIG. 1. A method for measuring electromagnetic wave resistivity LWD flowchart. 如图所示,本实施例中的随钻电磁波电阻率测量方法包括: As shown, the present embodiment the electromagnetic wave resistivity measurement while drilling embodiment of the method comprises:

[0062] 步骤S101,产生特定频率的电磁波功率信号;步骤S102,通过发射天线线圈将所述电磁波功率信号发射到地层中;步骤S103,通过两个接收天线线圈分别接收含有被测地层信息的电磁波功率信号,生成两路含有被测地层信息的电磁波功率信号;步骤S104,对所述的两路含有被测地层信息的电磁波功率信号分别进行带通滤波,并将经过带通滤波后的两路含有被测地层信息的电磁波功率信号通过AD采样后生成两路电磁波采样数字信号;步骤S105,对所述两路电磁波采样信号的每一路电磁波采样数字信号进行混频变换和低通滤波,生成每一路电磁波采样数字信号的幅值信息和相位信息;步骤S106,根据所述两路电磁波采样数字信号的幅值信息和相位信息,生成所述两路电磁波采样数字信号的幅值比和相位差;步骤S107,根据所述的幅值比和相位差,根据图表反 [0062] step S101, the electromagnetic power generating specific frequency signals; step S102, the transmitting antenna coil by the electromagnetic power signal transmitted to the formation; Step S103, the receiving electromagnetic waves containing information measured by the formation coils are two receive antennas power signal, generating two electromagnetic power signal containing information measured formation; step S104, of the two-way electromagnetic power signal containing information are measured formation bandpass filters, and band-pass filtering after two the power signal measured electromagnetic wave formation information containing two electromagnetic generating a digital signal sampled by the AD sampling; step S105, for each sampled digital signal channel electromagnetic wave of the two mixes sampled signal conversion and lowpass filtering, to generate each amplitude information and phase information of an electromagnetic wave along a sampled digital signal; step S106, according to the amplitude information and phase information of the two-way electromagnetic sampled digital signal, the amplitude ratio and phase difference generating two electromagnetic sampled digital signal; step S107, in accordance with the amplitude ratio and phase difference, according to the graph trans 演生成所述电磁波功率信号的电阻率图板。 Generating the speech wave plate resistivity FIG power signal.

[0063] 在步骤SlOl中,如图2所示,产生特定频率的电磁波功率信号的步骤包括:步骤S1010,通过信号锁相环产生所需频率的电磁波功率信号;步骤S1011,将所述电磁波功率信号通过D类功率放大器,生成调谐所需的交流功率信号;步骤S1012,所述交流功率信号根据调谐驱动信号,调谐生成正弦高压功率激励信号;步骤S1013,将所述的正弦高压功率激励信号加载到所述发射天线线圈上,并通过步骤S102将其通过所述发射天线线圈分别发射到地层中。 Step [0063] In step SlOl, as shown in FIG. 2, a power signal to generate an electromagnetic wave of a specific frequency comprising: a step S1010, the signal power of a desired frequency electromagnetic wave is generated by the phase locked loop signal; S1011, step, power to the electromagnetic wave class D power amplifier signal, generating a tuning signal required to alternating current power; step S1012, the alternating current power signal in accordance with said drive signal tuned, the tuning voltage power generates a sinusoidal excitation signal; step S1013, the sinusoidal voltage power load excitation signal to the transmitter antenna coils, which emit and S102 through the transmitting antenna coil to the formation step.

[0064] 在本实施例中,产生的电磁波功率信号为500KHZ或2MHz,其由高温FPGA器件的锁相环功能产生,不但能自动校正所需信号的频率,而且能够产生任意占空比的频率信号,可以有效消除温度漂移对其的影响。 [0064] In the present embodiment, the electromagnetic wave power signal is generated or 500KHZ 2MHz, which is generated by the PLL function of temperature FPGA devices, not only can automatically correct the frequency of the desired signal, and can generate arbitrary frequency duty cycle signal, can effectively eliminate the effects of temperature drift on it. 占空比可调的频率信号用于形成驱动D类功率放大器所需的带“死区”的驱动信号。 Duty cycle for forming the adjustable frequency signal with the drive signal "dead zone" required to drive the Class D amplifier. 虽然D类功率放大器的开关元件属于电压型驱动,但在开关元器件内部的结电容建立起电压,还是需要一定程度输入电流,而FPGA芯片的管脚输出电流能力有限,不能直接用于驱动D类功率放大器的开关元器件,因此在两者之间加入专用驱动元件,增强驱动能力,使D类功率放大器正常工作。 Although Class-D power amplifier voltage driving switching element belongs to, but in the junction capacitance of the switch to establish a voltage of the internal components, or requires a certain amount of the input current, the output current capability and the limited pin FPGA chip can not be directly used to drive the D power amplifier switch components, thus adding a dedicated drive member therebetween, enhance the driving capability of the class D amplifier is working properly. D类功率放大单元用于产生调谐所需要的交流功率信号,该信号通过调谐驱动信号,即500KHz和2MHz驱动信号,来切换相应的调谐网络,调谐成为正弦高压功率激励信号,即将电磁波功率信号的功率达到峰值。 Class D power amplification unit for generating an alternating power signal tuning required, the signal driving signal, i.e., 500KHz and 2MHz driving signal by tuning to a corresponding switching network tuning, the tuning voltage power becomes sinusoidal excitation signal, i.e. the electromagnetic power signal power peaked. 调谐网络的元器件选择十分重要,元器件的品质因数,温漂和精度等参数对调谐能够成功的影响很大。 Tuning network very important to select components, the quality factor of the components, temperature drift and influence on the accuracy of the tuning parameters can be great success.

[0065] 在步骤S102中,所述通过发射天线线圈将电磁波功率信号发射到地层中,包括:通过四个发射天线线圈将所述电磁波功率信号发射到地层中,所述电磁波功率信号的为500KHz或2MHz,分时发送,通过两个接收天线线圈接收所述电磁波功率信号,生成四组幅值比和四组相位差。 [0065] In step S102, the power of the electromagnetic wave signal is transmitted into the formation through the transmission antenna coil, comprising: four transmitting antennas by the electromagnetic coil to transmit the power signal into the formation, the power of the electromagnetic wave signal is 500KHz or 2MHz, time-division transmission, the received signal power of the electromagnetic wave received by two antenna coils generate four amplitude ratio and phase difference of the four groups.

[0066] 在本实施例中,分时发送的含义为:如果四个发射天线线圈为nl,n2,n3,n4,nl线圈在Tl时刻发送500KHz的电磁波功率信号,n2线圈在T2时刻发送2MHz的电磁波功率信号,n3线圈在T3时刻发送500KHz的电磁波功率信号,n4线圈在T4时刻发送500KHz的电磁波功率信号,nl线圈在T5时刻发送2MHz的电磁波功率信号,n2线圈在T6时刻发送2MHz的电磁波功率信号,n3线圈在T7时刻发送500KHz的电磁波功率信号,n4线圈在T8时刻发送2MHz的电磁波功率信号,即由四个发射天线线圈将500KHz和2MHz的电磁波功率信号交叉分时发送,从而能够探测到深、中、浅不同深度的四组幅值比和四组相位差,可以极大减少两路接收系统测量的不对称性。 [0066] In the present embodiment, the transmission of time-meaning: if four transmitting antenna coil is nl, n2, n3, n4, nl coil 500KHz transmission signal power of an electromagnetic wave in a time Tl, n2 2MHz transmission coil at time T2 electromagnetic power signal, n3 coil transmit time T3 electromagnetic power signal of 500KHz, n4 coil transmitting an electromagnetic wave power signal of 500KHz at time T4, nl coil transmitting an electromagnetic wave power signal is 2MHz at time T5, n2 coil transmit time T6 waves of 2MHz power signal, n3 coil transmits electromagnetic power signal at time T7 of 500KHz, n4 transmit coil 2MHz electromagnetic power signal at time T8, i.e., the time-division transmitted by the antenna coil an electromagnetic wave power of four transmit 500KHz and 2MHz signal crossing, thereby enabling to detect to deep, in four different depths shallower than the amplitude and phase four, can significantly reduce the asymmetry of the two measured reception system.

[0067] 在步骤S103中,通过两个接收天线线圈分别接收含有被测地层信息的电磁波功率信号,生成两路含有被测地层信息的电磁波功率信号。 [0067] In step S103, the power of the received signal comprises an electromagnetic wave formation information measured by the two receiving antennas are coils, producing two electromagnetic power signal containing information of the measured formation. 在本实施例中,对任何一个发射天线线圈发射的电磁波功率信号,有两个接收天线线圈进行接收,即可以生成两路信号,并且,所述电磁波功率信号经过地层后,接收天线线圈接收到的信号已经包含有地层信息。 In the present embodiment, the electromagnetic wave of the transmit power of any signal transmission antenna coil, two receive antennas receiving coils, i.e., two signals may be generated, and the power of the electromagnetic wave signal through the formation received by the receiving antenna coil signal already contains information about the formation.

[0068] 在步骤S104中,如图3所示,对所述的两路含有被测地层信息的电磁波功率信号分别进行带通滤波,并将经过带通滤波后的两路含有被测地层信息的电磁波功率信号通过AD采样后生成两路电磁波采样数字信号的步骤包括: [0068] In step S104, as shown in FIG. 3, the electromagnetic power signal containing information measured for the formation of the two band pass filtering, respectively, and through two bandpass filtered information containing the measured formation electromagnetic power of an electromagnetic wave signal generating two digital signals sampled by the AD sampling step comprises:

[0069] 步骤S1040,对所述两路含有被测地层信息的电磁波功率信号进行自适应调谐;步骤S1041,对自适应调谐后的信号通过前置放大器,进行前置放大处理;步骤S1042,对进行前置放大处理后的信号进行二次放大处理,生成进行带通滤波的电磁波信号;步骤S1043,对进行二次放大处理后的电磁波功率信号分别进行带通滤波;步骤S1044,对经过带通滤波后的两路含有被测地层信息的电磁波功率信号进行AD采样。 [0069] Step S1040, the two-way electromagnetic power signal containing information measured for the formation adaptive tuning; step S1041, the adaptive tuning signal by a preamplifier, a preamplifier process; step S1042, for signal subjected to low noise preamplifiers secondary amplification processing to generate electromagnetic wave bandpass filtered signal; step S1043, the power of the electromagnetic wave signal amplified secondary bandpass filtering process, respectively; a step S1044, on the band pass two electromagnetic power signal comprising a filtered test sample of formation information is AD.

[0070] 在本实施例中,由于电磁波在地层中传播的衰减很大,接收天线线圈接收到的电磁波数据同样需要调谐,用以保证所需频率信号幅值最大,而其他频率信号幅值较小,减少其他频率信号对电路的干扰。 [0070] In the present embodiment, since the attenuation of electromagnetic wave propagation in the formation of large, the receiving antenna coil receives electromagnetic waves data also need to tune to the desired frequency to ensure that the maximum signal amplitude, signal amplitude and frequency than the other small, reducing interference to other frequency signal circuits. 自适应调谐利用元器件的频率特性实现了500KHZ和2MHZ信号调谐的自动自适应切换,即其切换工程不需要人工干预。 Using the frequency characteristic of adaptive tuning components to achieve automatic and adaptive 500KHZ 2MHZ tuning signal switching, i.e., switching it works without human intervention. 调谐后的两路接收信号经变压器耦合后传入前置放大器,由于接受到电磁波信号属于相对高频信号范畴,对于各级放大器的输入输出之间要考虑阻抗匹配问题,有助于减少信号的驻波效应,这与低频信号放大传输电路不同。 After two coupled tuned receiving the incoming signal transformer preamplifier, since the received electromagnetic wave signal is a relatively high frequency signal visible, for all levels between the output of the amplifier to consider impedance matching, helps to reduce signal the standing wave effect, which is different from the low frequency signal amplifying transmission circuit. 前置放大器的输出信号再进行二次放大处理,使其达到能够被处理的幅度范围要求。 The output signal of the preamplifier and then a second amplification process, to reach the amplitude range of requirements can be processed. 二次放大电路的频率特性和信噪比参数的调整十分重要,其将影响后面对数字信号处理的精度。 Second adjustment signal to noise ratio and the frequency characteristic parameters of the amplifier circuit is important that the rear face of the impact accuracy of digital signal processing. 经过二次放大的电磁波信号在被AD器件进行信号波形采集之前,需要进行带通滤波,这种处理的原因是AD波形数据采集必须满足公式夂其中,f(l为接 After the second electromagnetic wave signal before amplified signal is subjected to waveform acquisition device AD, band-pass filtering is required, the reason for this treatment is that AD waveform data acquisition must satisfy formula wherein Fan, f (l is connected

2λ + 1 2λ + 1

收线圈所接收到的电磁波信号。 The receiving coil receives electromagnetic signals. 该公式要求采样信号的采样频率必须大于反映地层电阻率信息的低频信号频率的2倍以上,即fs ^ 2B。 This formula requires that the sampling frequency of the sampling signal frequency must be greater than low-frequency signal reflected formation resistivity information twice or more, i.e. fs ^ 2B. 而通过接收天线线圈接收到信号还有高频成分,影响采样后的数据处理。 The coil also receives the high frequency component signal through the receiving antenna, the influence processing of the sampled data. 进行带通滤波同样能有效的抑制电磁波电阻率信号中的非带通频率成分。 Bandpass filtering the same can effectively suppress non bandpass frequency electromagnetic wave resistivity component signal.

[0071] 进行带通滤波的带通滤波器的设计使用了新型的开关电容滤波器件,其构成的四阶带通滤波器的截止频率比较陡峭。 [0071] The band-pass filtered using a bandpass filter designed a new type of switched capacitor filter member, fourth order band pass filter cutoff frequency which constitutes a relatively steep. 经过带通滤波器的信号在进行AD采集之前,需要保证采样频率的精确性。 Before passing the band pass filter signal AD acquisition is performed, it is necessary to ensure the accuracy of the sampling frequency. 这样AD采样得到的数据就能被正确的处理,计算出被采样的电磁波信号的幅值和相位信息。 Such AD sampling data obtained can be properly processed to calculate the amplitude and phase information of an electromagnetic wave signals are sampled. 但是由于随钻电磁波电阻率测量系统的工作环境温度高,产生采样频率的晶振因温度的上升发生飘移,但为保证采样的正确性应该由同一个晶振源来产生系统各个部分所需要的时钟信号,这样能将温度的影响降低到最小。 However, due to the high operating temperature drilling electromagnetic wave resistivity measurement system, generates the sampling frequency of the crystal temperature rise occurs due to drift, but to ensure the accuracy of the sampling clock signal is generated should be required for each part of the system by the same source crystal , so that the influence of temperature can be reduced to a minimum.

[0072] 在步骤S105中,如图4所示,对所述两路电磁波采样信号的每一路电磁波采样数字信号进行混频变换和低通滤波,生成每一路电磁波采样数字信号的幅值信息和相位信息,其步骤包括:步骤S1050,对所述每一路电磁波采样数字信号进行正弦和余弦混频变换,生成混频信号,其公式为I (n) =X (n) cosco Qn和Q (n) =X (n) sin ω Qn ;其中X (η)为电磁波采样信号;步骤S1051,对所述混频信号进行低通滤波,生成混频信号的同相分量和正交分 [0072] In step S105, as shown, each channel sampled digital signal electromagnetic wave of the two mixes sampled signal conversion and low pass filter 4, generates an electromagnetic wave amplitude information for each channel sampling and digital signals phase information, comprising the steps of: a step S1050, for each of said sampled digital signal channel wave sine and cosine mixing transform, to generate a mixed signal, which is formula I (n) = X (n) cosco Qn and Q (n ) = X (n) sin ω Qn; wherein X (η) is an electromagnetic wave sampled signal; step S1051, the low-pass filtering the mixed signal to produce inphase and quadrature component of the mixed signal

xRI(n) = a(n) cos φίη) χΒρ(η)^α(η)5ίηφ(η) xRI (n) = a (n) cos φίη) χΒρ (η) ^ α (η) 5ίηφ (η)

I I

的同相分量和正交分量,由公式=」xm2[n) + xBQ2(η) = aretan(.^-),求出反映地层电阻率的每一路电磁波采样数字信号的幅值信息和相位信息。 In-phase and quadrature components, by the formula = "xm2 [n) + xBQ2 (η) = aretan (^ -.), The amplitude and phase information obtaining formation resistivity reflected wave in each channel sampled digital signal.

[0073] 在步骤S106中,根据所述两路电磁波采样数字信号的幅值信息和相位信息,生成所述两路电磁波采样数字信号的幅值比和相位差,包括:如果第一路电磁波采样数字信号的幅值为al (t),相位为cpl(t),如果第二路电磁波采样数字信号的幅值为a2(t),相位为cp2(t),则所述两路电磁波采样数字信号的幅值比和相位差分别为:a(t)=al(t)/a2(t),φ(ΐ)=φ1(0-φ2(1)ο [0073] In step S106, according to the amplitude information and phase information of the two-way electromagnetic sampled digital signal, generating the amplitude ratio and phase difference of two wave sampled digital signal, comprising: a first passage of electromagnetic waves if the sample the magnitude of the digital signal is al (t), the phase is cpl (t), if the wave amplitude of the second channel is sampled digital signal a2 (t), the phase is cp2 (t), then the two-way electromagnetic wave sampled digital the amplitude ratio and phase difference signals, respectively: a (t) = al (t) / a2 (t), φ (ΐ) = φ1 (0-φ2 (1) ο

[0074] 在步骤S107中,根据所述的四组幅值比和四组相位差,根据图表反演生成所述电磁波功率信号的电阻率图板,包括: [0074] In step S107, according to four sets of amplitude ratio and phase difference of the four sets of generating the electromagnetic wave resistivity of the tablet is a graph of the power signal inversion, comprising:

[0075] 根据所述四组幅值比和四组相位差,结合所述地层所在地区中岩心取样岩石物理测量的结果,并参考所述地区临井测量的电阻率,生成电阻率图板。 [0075] The four sets of the four sets of amplitude ratio and phase difference, the combination results in the formation Region coring rock physical measurements, and with reference to the measured resistivity Pro well region, generating resistive plate of FIG. 由于此步骤为现有的较为成熟的技术,因此不再详述。 Since this step is a mature prior art, and therefore not described in detail.

[0076] 图5为本发明的一种随钻电磁波电阻率测量装置的一个实施例的结构示意图。 A structural diagram of embodiment [0076] FIG. 5 of the present invention is one kind of electromagnetic wave resistivity measurement while drilling apparatus. 如图所示,本发明实施例的随钻电磁波电阻率测量装置包括: As shown, the electromagnetic wave resistivity while drilling embodiment of the present invention, the measurement apparatus comprising:

[0077] 电磁波功率信号产生装置101,用于产生特定频率的电磁波功率信号;发射天线线圈102,用于将产生的所述电磁波功率信号发射到地层中;两个接收天线线圈103,用于接收含有被测地层信息的电磁波功率信号,生成两路含有被测地层信息的电磁波功率信号;电磁波采样信号生成装置104,用于对所述的两路含有被测地层信息的电磁波功率信号分别进行带通滤波,并将经过带通滤波后的两路含有被测地层信息的电磁波功率信号通过AD采样后生成两路电磁波采样数字信号;幅值信息与相位信息生成装置105,用于对所述两路电磁波采样信号的每一路电磁波采样数字信号进行混频变换和低通滤波,生成每一路电磁波采样数字信号的幅值信息和相位信息;幅值比和相位差生成装置106,用于根据所述两路电磁波采样数字信号的幅值信息和相位信息,生成所述两 [0077] The power of the electromagnetic signal generating means 101 for generating an electromagnetic wave power signal of a specific frequency; transmission antenna coil 102, the electromagnetic wave for generating a power signal transmitted to the formation; two receiving antenna coil 103, for receiving electromagnetic power signal containing information about the tested formations electromagnetic wave signal generating power of two strata containing the test information; electromagnetic wave power signal sampling signal generating means 104, for containing information measured for the formation of the two bands were electromagnetic power signal pass filter, and through two band-pass filtered measured strata containing the information generated by the AD sampling electromagnetic two sampled digital signal; amplitude information and phase information generating means 105, for the two each channel electromagnetic wave sampled digital signal sampled signal path mixes conversion and low pass filter, generating amplitude and phase information of an electromagnetic wave in each channel sampled digital signal; amplitude ratio and the phase difference generating means 106, according to the amplitude information and phase information of the two-way electromagnetic sampled digital signal, to generate the two 电磁波采样数字信号的幅值比和相位差;电阻率图板生成装置107,用于根据所述的幅值比和相位差,根据图表反演生成所述电磁波功率信号的电阻率图板。 Wave amplitude ratio and phase difference sampled digital signal; FIG sheet resistivity generating means 107, in accordance with the amplitude ratio and phase difference for the resistivity of the electromagnetic wave generating plate of FIG power signal is a graph of the inversion.

[0078] 在本实施例中,四个发射天线线圈102和两个接收天线线圈103位于无磁钻铤中,如图6所示,为本发明实施例的随钻电磁波电阻率测量装置中的发射天线线圈和接收天线线圈在无磁钻铤中的结构示意图。 [0078] In the apparatus of the present embodiment, four transmit antennas and two receive antenna coil 102 coil 103 is non-magnetic drill collar, as shown in FIG. 6, the electromagnetic wave resistivity while drilling embodiment of the present invention is measured transmission antenna coil and the structural diagram of the receiving antenna coil of the non-magnetic drill collar.

[0079] 其中,承载装置主体为无磁钻铤I,泥浆液通道2位于钻铤中心,6为电路舱体。 [0079] wherein the carrier means is a non-magnetic drill collar body I, the liquid slurry located in a drill collar central channel 2, 6 is a circuit pods. 发射天线线圈102包括四个发射天线线圈3、4 (3、4分别包括两个发射天线线圈),其安装在无磁钻铤I的两端,两个接收天线线圈103即为图中的5 (包括两个接收天线线圈),其安装在无磁钻铤I的中部,构成四发双收电磁波信号测量阵列。 Transmission antenna coil 102 includes four coils 3, 4 transmit antennas (3, 4 comprises two transmitting antenna coil) which is mounted on the non-magnetic drill collars I ends, namely two receiving antenna coil 103 in FIG. 5 (including two receiving antenna coil) which is mounted in the non-magnetic drill collar in the middle of I, four transmitters and two receivers constituting the electromagnetic wave signal measurement array. 本发明实施例采用的四发双收线圈实现了具有井眼补偿功能的电阻率测量值。 Four coil receiver could embodiment of the present invention using the embodiment of resistivity measurements achieved with borehole compensation function. 采用500KHz和2MHz双频带、双源距激励方式,径向上可以获得4个探测深度的电阻率测量值,涵盖了冲洗带、过渡带及原状地层各个测量区域。 500KHz and 2MHz using dual-band, dual-mode excitation from the source can be obtained resistivity measurements four depths radially covers the flushed zone, transition zone and each measurement region in undisturbed.

[0080] 图7为本发明实施例的随钻电磁波电阻率测量装置中的电磁波功率信号产生装置的结构示意图。 [0080] FIG. 7 electromagnetic wave resistivity LWD embodiment of an electromagnetic wave signal power measuring means generating a schematic structure of the apparatus of the present invention. 如图所示,本实施例中的电磁波功率信号产生装置包括: As shown, the power of the signal wave generating means in this embodiment comprises:

[0081] 信号发生装置1010,用于通过信号锁相环产生所需频率的电磁波功率信号山类功率放大器1011,用于将所述电磁波功率信号驱动输出到调谐装置;调谐装置1012,用于根据调谐驱动信号,调谐生成正弦高压功率激励信号并加载到所述发射天线线圈3、4上,通过所述发射天线线圈3、4分别发射到地层中。 [0081] The occurrence of signal means 1010 for generating a desired phase-locked loop frequency electromagnetic signals through the power amplifier power signal Hill 1011, for driving the electromagnetic wave output power signal to the tuning means; tuning means 1012, according to tuner drive signal, the tuning voltage power generating sinusoidal excitation signal and loaded onto the transmitting antenna coil 3 and 4, via the transmitter antenna coils 3,4 are emitted into the formation. 在本实施例中,还包括功放驱动装置1013,用于对D类功率放大器进行驱动。 In the present embodiment, the drive means further comprises a power amplifier 1013, Class D amplifier for driving.

[0082] 在本实施例中,信号发生装置1010可为FPGA,使用高温FPGA器件的锁相环功能产生所需频率的发射信号,FPGA器件的数字锁相环功能十分强大,不但能自动校正所需信号的频率,而且能够产生任意占空比的频率信号。 [0082] In the present embodiment, the signal generator 1010 may be a FPGA device, an FPGA device temperature PLL function generates a transmission signal of the desired frequency, the digital phase-locked loop is very strong function of the FPGA device, not only can automatically corrected frequency signal need, and capable of generating a clock signal of arbitrary duty cycle.

[0083] 产生的500KHZ和2MHz频率信号通过功放驱动装置1013,驱动D类功率放大器1011,将带“死区”的功率信号输出到500KHz、2MHz频率调谐装置1012,将该信号调谐成为正弦高压功率激励信号并加载到发射天线线圈3、4上,发射天线线圈3、4位于无磁钻艇的两端。 [0083] 500KHZ and 2MHz frequency signal generated by the power amplifier driving device 1013, a drive D power amplifier 1011, the signal output power with the "dead zone" to 500KHz, 1012 2MHz frequency tuning means, the tuning signal becomes a sinusoidal voltage power and loaded onto an excitation signal transmitting antenna coil 3 and 4, coils 3, 4 transmit antennas located at both ends of non-magnetic drill boat. 在本实施例中,调谐装置为两个,分别用来调谐500khz和2Mhz的频率。 In the present embodiment, the tuning means is two, respectively, to tune the frequency of 500khz and 2Mhz.

[0084] 信号发生装置1010生成的占空比可调的频率信号用于形成驱动D类功率放大器所需的带“死区”的驱动信号。 Adjustable duty cycle frequency signals [0084] generated by the signal generating means 1010 for forming a drive signal with a "dead zone" in the desired Class D amplifier. 虽然D类功率放大器1011的开关元件属于电压型驱动,但在开关元器件内部的结电容建立起电压,还是需要一定程度输入电流,而FPGA芯片的管脚输出电流能力有限,不能直接用于驱动D类功率放大器1011的开关元器件,在两者之间加入专用驱动元件,增强驱动能力,使D类功率放大器1011正常工作。 Although Class-D power amplifier switching elements 1011 belonging voltage driving, but in the junction capacitance establishing internal voltage switching components, or requires a certain amount of the input current, the output pin and the limited current capability of the FPGA chip can not be directly used to drive class D power amplifier switch components 1011, between the two dedicated drive element added to enhance the driving capability of the class D amplifier 1011 work. D类功率放大器1011用于产生调谐所需要的交流功率信号,该信号通过天线系统发射到地层中去。 Class D power amplifier 1011 for generating an alternating power signal tuning required, the signal is transmitted to the formation by the antenna system to. 发射天线调谐单元根据500KHz和2MHz驱动信号,来切换相应的调谐装置1012,使发射线圈电磁波信号的功率达到峰值,调谐装置1012的元器件选择十分重要,元器件的品质因数,温漂和精度等参数对调谐能否成功的影响很大。 The antenna tuning unit transmit 500KHz and 2MHz drive signals to switch the respective tuning device 1012, an electromagnetic wave signal of the power transmission coil reaches a peak, the tuning component selection means 1012 is important, quality factor components, temperature drift and precision tuning parameters greatly affected the success of right.

[0085] 图8为本发明实施例的随钻电磁波电阻率测量装置中的电磁波采样信号生成装置的结构示意图。 [0085] FIG. 8 LWD electromagnetic wave resistivity schematic structural embodiment of an electromagnetic wave signal generating means samples measuring apparatus of the present invention. 如图所示,本实施例的电磁波采样信号生成装置包括:自适应调谐装置1040,用于对所述两路含有被测地层信息的电磁波功率信号进行自适应调谐;前置放大器1041,用于对自适应调谐后的信号进行前置放大处理;中放装置1042,用于对进行前置放大处理后的信号进行二次放大处理;带通滤波器1043,用于对所述进行二次放大后的电磁波信号进行带通滤波;AD采样装置1044,用于对所述带通滤波后的电磁波信号进行AD采样,生成两路电磁波采样数字信号。 As shown, sampling the electromagnetic signal generating means of the present embodiment comprises: an adaptive tuning means 1040, for an electromagnetic wave signal containing the measured power for the formation of the two-way information adaptive tune; a preamplifier 1041, a adaptive tuning of the signal processing performed preamplifier; the discharge means 1042, a signal for the preamplifiers secondary amplification processing; band-pass filter 1043, for amplifying the secondary after bandpass filtering the electromagnetic signals; AD sampling means 1044, for an electromagnetic wave signal of the band pass filtering the AD sampling, generating two electromagnetic sampled digital signal.

[0086] 在本实施例中,自适应调谐装置1040为LC自适应调谐,带通滤波器1043为4阶有源带通滤波器,经带通滤波器滤波后成为可以被数字信号算法处理的窄带信号,该信号经过双路AD采样装置1044后成为可以被软件处理的电磁波采样数字信号。 [0086] embodiment, the adaptive tuning device 1040 LC adaptive tuning, bandpass filter 1043 is a fourth-order active bandpass filter, after band pass filter in the present embodiment may be a digital signal to be processed Algorithm narrowband signal, the signal after AD dual sampling apparatus 1044 may be an electromagnetic wave sampled digital signal processed by software.

[0087] 在本实施例中,由于电磁波在地层中传播的衰减很大,接收天线线圈5接收到的电磁波数据同样需要调谐,用以保证所需频率信号幅值最大,而其他频率信号幅值较小,减少其他频率信号对电路的干扰。 [0087] In the present embodiment, due to the large attenuation of electromagnetic wave propagation in a formation, the receiving antenna coil 5 receives an electromagnetic wave data also need to tune to the desired frequency to ensure that the maximum signal amplitude, the frequency and the other signal amplitude small, reducing interference to other frequency signal circuits. 自适应调谐装置1040利用元器件的频率特性实现了500KHz和2MHz信号调谐的自动自适应切换,即其切换工程不需要人工干预。 Adaptive tuning device 1040 using the frequency characteristics of components to achieve the automatic tuning adaptive 500KHz and 2MHz signal switching, i.e., switching it works without human intervention. 调谐后的两路接收信号经变压器耦合后传入前置放大器1041,由于接受到电磁波信号属于相对高频信号范畴,对于各级放大器的输入输出之间要考虑阻抗匹配问题,有助于减少信号的驻波效应,这与低频信号放大传输电路不同。 After the two coupled tuned receiver preamplifier incoming signal transformer 1041, since the received electromagnetic wave signal is a relatively high frequency signal visible, for all levels between the output of the amplifier to consider impedance matching helps to reduce signal the standing wave effect, which is different from the low frequency signal amplifying transmission circuit. 前置放大器1041的输出信号再进行二次放大处理,使其达到能够被处理的幅度范围要求。 The output signal of the preamplifier 1041 and then a second amplification process, to reach the amplitude range of requirements can be processed. 二次放大电路的频率特性和信噪比参数的调整十分重要,其将影响后面对数字信号处理的精度。 Second adjustment signal to noise ratio and the frequency characteristic parameters of the amplifier circuit is important that the rear face of the impact accuracy of digital signal processing. 经过中放装置1042进行二次放大后的电磁波信号在被AD采样装置1044进行信号波形采集之前,需要进行带通滤波,这种处理的原因是AD After the discharge means 1042 second electromagnetic wave signal before being amplified signal waveform acquisition means sampling AD 1044, band-pass filtering is required, the reason for this treatment is that AD

4 f 4 f

波形数据采集必须满足公式/s 其中,fo为接收线圈所接收到的电磁波信号。 Waveform data acquisition must satisfy the equation / s wherein, fo receiving coil is received electromagnetic signals. That

+I , + I,

/ I JL / I JL

公式要求采样信号的采样频率必须大于反映地层电阻率信息的低频信号频率的2倍以上,即fs彡2B。 Formula requires that the sampling frequency of the sampling signal frequency must be greater than low-frequency signal reflected formation resistivity information twice or more, i.e. fs San 2B.

[0088] 这是因为,传统电磁波电阻率软件测量方法中需要满足乃奎斯特采样定理的采样频率,在实际使用当中该采样频率需要高于测量电阻率电磁波信号采样频率的十几倍,随钻电磁波电阻率测量装置产生高的精度,高频的采样频率很难,测量电阻率的电磁波信号x(t)的频带在0-500KHZ和0-2MHZ之间,如果采样频率fs>10fH对X(t)进行等间隔采样,得到时间离散的采样信号χ (n) =X (nTs)(其中Ts=l/fs称为采样间隔),原反映电阻率的电磁波信号x(t)的特征参数,将被所得到的采样值x(n)真实准确的反映。 [0088] This is because the conventional electromagnetic wave resistivity measurement software is required to meet the Nyquist sampling theorem the sampling frequency in actual use than the sampling frequency required resistivity was measured ten times the sampling frequency of the electromagnetic wave signal, with drill sampling frequency electromagnetic wave resistivity measurement device is difficult to produce high-precision, high-frequency, electromagnetic wave resistivity measurement signal x (t) and the frequency band between 0-500KHZ 0-2MHZ, if the sampling frequency fs> 10fH of X (t) for sampling intervals to obtain time-discrete sampled signal χ (n) = X (nTs) (where Ts = l / fs called the sampling interval), the former reflecting the electromagnetic wave resistivity signal x (t) is the characteristic parameter the sample values ​​are obtained x (n) accurately reflect the true. 但对测量电阻率的电磁波信号其频率是500KHz和2MHz,根据乃奎斯特采样定律需要产生10*500KHz和10*2MHz的高精度采样信号。 But measuring the resistivity of the electromagnetic wave signal whose frequency is 500KHz and 2MHz, need to produce high-precision sampling signal 10 * 500KHz and 10 * 2MHz according to the Nyquist sampling theorem. 这对于随钻电磁波电阻率测量装置来说很困难。 This is difficult for the electromagnetic wave resistivity measurement while drilling apparatus is. 但如果测量电磁波电阻率信号是一个带限信号,在采样频率fs>2fH的时候就可以完全的反映电磁波电阻率信号中地层的电阻率情况,这是相当于高频的电磁波信号在通过地层的时候被地层所调制,这是在电磁波信号上调制了反映地层电阻率参数的低频信号,由于该低频信号的频率低所以其是一个带限信号并且带宽很窄,这是只要电磁波电阻率测量系统的采样频率大于2倍该低频信号的带宽,就能够真实反映出地层电阻率情况,因此在进行AD采样之前,需要用带通滤波器将测量电磁波的电阻率信号滤波成为一个带限信号,再以一定的采样频率去采样,由于反映地层电阻的信号频率很低。 However, if the electromagnetic wave resistivity measurement signal is a band-limited signal, the sampling frequency fs> 2fH time can be completely reflect the electromagnetic wave resistivity of the formation resistivity signal, which corresponds to the high frequency electromagnetic wave signals through the formation time is modulated by the formation, which is modulated low-frequency signal reflected formation resistivity parameter in the electromagnetic wave signal due to the low frequency of the low frequency signal so that it is limited signals with and very narrow bandwidth, which is as long as the electromagnetic wave resistivity measurement system the sampling frequency is greater than twice the bandwidth of the low frequency signal, it is possible to reflect the true formation resistivity case, so before performing AD sampling bandpass filter will need to measure the resistivity of the electromagnetic wave becomes a filtered signal band-limited signal, and then at a certain sampling frequency to sampling, since the frequency of the signal reflects the formation resistivity is low. 随钻电磁波电阻率测量系统对于该信号的采样频率就可以设置的很低,并且可以低于发射线圈发射的电磁波信号的频率。 Low electromagnetic wave resistivity while drilling system for measuring the frequency of the sampling signal can be set lower than the frequency of electromagnetic waves and may transmit coil signal emission. 它们的关系有关4/ Their relationship is about 4 /

系式f = 和fs彡2B来确定,其中fO=(fH+fL)/2,η取能满足(B=fH-fL)的最大整2/? + 1 And f = fs-based formula to determine San 2B, where fO = (fH + fL) / 2, η taken to meet the (B = fH-fL) is the largest integer 2 /? + 1

数,频率fO是电磁波电阻率接收线圈接收到的信号频率,B是反映地层电磁波电阻率的带限信号的带宽频率。 Number, frequency fO is the frequency of the electromagnetic wave signal received by the receiving coil resistivity, B is the frequency bandwidth of the electromagnetic waves reflected formation resistivity bandlimited signal. 而通过接收天线线圈接收到信号还有高频成分,影响采样后的数据处理。 The coil also receives the high frequency component signal through the receiving antenna, the influence processing of the sampled data. 进行带通滤波同样能有效的抑制电磁波电阻率信号中的非带通频率成分。 Bandpass filtering the same can effectively suppress non bandpass frequency electromagnetic wave resistivity component signal.

[0089] 进行带通滤波的带通滤波器的设计使用了新型的开关电容滤波器件,其构成的四阶带通滤波器的截止频率比较陡峭。 [0089] The band-pass filtered using a bandpass filter designed a new type of switched capacitor filter member, fourth order band pass filter cutoff frequency which constitutes a relatively steep. 经过带通滤波器的信号在进行AD采集之前,需要保证采样频率的精确性。 Before passing the band pass filter signal AD acquisition is performed, it is necessary to ensure the accuracy of the sampling frequency. 这样AD采样得到的数据就能被正确的处理,计算出被采样的电磁波信号的幅值和相位信息。 Such AD sampling data obtained can be properly processed to calculate the amplitude and phase information of an electromagnetic wave signals are sampled. 但是由于随钻电磁波电阻率测量系统的工作环境温度高,产生采样频率的晶振因温度的上升发生飘移,但为保证采样的正确性应该由同一个晶振源来产生系统各个部分所需要的时钟信号,这样能将温度的影响降低到最小。 However, due to the high operating temperature drilling electromagnetic wave resistivity measurement system, generates the sampling frequency of the crystal temperature rise occurs due to drift, but to ensure the accuracy of the sampling clock signal is generated should be required for each part of the system by the same source crystal , so that the influence of temperature can be reduced to a minimum.

[0090] 在本实施例中,如图9所示,所述幅值信息与相位信息生成装置105包括:混频装置1050,用于对所述两路电磁波采样信号分别进行正弦和余弦混频变换,生成混频信号,其公式为I (n) =X (n) COSCO 0和Q (n) =X (n) sin ω 其中X (η)为电磁波采样信号;低通滤波装置1051,用于对所述混频信号进行低通滤波,生成混频信号的同相分量和正交分量:Xff/M = a(/?)cosd(n) [0090] In the present embodiment, as shown in FIG. 9, the amplitude information 105 and phase information generating means comprises: mixing means 1050, for the two-way electromagnetic sampled signals are sine and cosine mixers converted to generate a mixed signal, which is formula I (n) = X (n) COSCO 0 and Q (n) = X (n) sin ω wherein X (η) is an electromagnetic wave sampled signal; low-pass filtering means 1051, with the mixed signal to low-pass filtering the mixed signal to generate in-phase and quadrature components: xff / M = a (/?) cosd (n)

χΒί)(η) = α(η)ύηφ{η) '其Φ a(n) ^ ;巾畐it ί言肩与才目言肩、if χΒί) (η) = α (η) ύηφ {η) 'which Φ a (n) ^; it ί Bi towel was made the shoulder and shoulder mesh words, if

算装置1052,用于根据所述的同相分量和正交分量,由公式o(w) = ^jxlil2(w) + xBLf (η),和#(«) = arctan(^) ^求出反映地层电阻率的每一路电磁波采样数字信号的幅值信息和相位 Calculation means 1052, for the in-phase and quadrature components of the, by the formula o (w) = ^ jxlil2 (w) + xBLf (η), and # ( «) = arctan (^) ^ reflected determined formation the amplitude and phase of each sampled digital signal channel wave resistivity

xBI信息。 xBI information.

[0091] 图10为本发明实施例的幅值信息与相位信息生成装置105进行算法处理过程的原理框图。 [0091] Figure 10 block diagram of amplitude information and phase information according to the algorithm generating unit 105 of the embodiment of the process of the present invention. 被采样的信号分别经过正弦和余弦混频变换,其公式为I(n)=X(n)cos ω Qn和Q (n) =X (n) sin ω 0η,再经过FIR低通滤波器后产生同相分量和正交分 Signal is sampled sine and cosine, respectively, through mixing transform, the formula is I (n) = X (n) cos ω Qn and Q (n) = X (n) sin ω 0η, and then through the low-pass filter FIR the in-phase component and a quadrature component

χ (n) = a{n)cm0(n) χ (n) = a {n) cm0 (n)

量,其中a(n)为反映地层电阻率的低频信号。 Amount, where a (n) to reflect the formation resistivity low-frequency signal. 最后由公式 Finally, by the formula

H(IJ) = f.M+VW,和#(W) = arCtan(^},可以分别求出反映地层电阻率的信号的幅值信息和相位信息。 H (IJ) = f.M + VW, and # (W) = arCtan (^}, can be obtained amplitude and phase information of the signal reflects the formation resistivity, respectively.

[0092] 在本实施例中,幅值比和相位差生成装置106用于根据所述两路电磁波采样数字信号的幅值信息和相位信息,生成所述两路电磁波采样数字信号的幅值比和相位差,包括: [0092] In the present embodiment, the magnitude of the phase difference generating means 106 according to the amplitude information and phase information of the two-way electromagnetic sampled digital signal, the amplitude of the electromagnetic wave to generate the two sampled digital signal and the ratio and the phase difference, comprising:

[0093] 如果第一路电磁波采样数字信号的幅值为al(t),相位为CJ)l(t)»如果第二路电磁波采样数字信号的幅值为a2(t),相位为cp2(t),则所述两路电磁波采样数字信号的幅值比和相位差分别为:a(t)=al (t)/a2(t),cp(t),l(t)-cp2(t)0 [0093] If the amplitude of the first channel signal is sampled digital wave al (t), the phase is CJ) l (t) »electromagnetic wave if the amplitude of the second channel is sampled digital signal a2 (t), the phase of CP2 ( t), then the amplitude ratio and phase difference of the electromagnetic two sampled digital signals are: a (t) = al (t) / a2 (t), cp (t), l (t) -cp2 (t ) 0

[0094] 在本实施例中,电阻率图板生成装置107用于根据所述的四组幅值比和四组相位差,根据图表反演生成所述电磁波功率信号的电阻率图板,包括: [0094] In the present embodiment, the sheet resistivity of FIG generating means 107 according to four sets of amplitude ratio and phase difference of the four groups, the resistivity of the electromagnetic wave generating plate of FIG power signal is a graph of the inversion, comprising :

[0095] 图11为利用本发明实施例的随钻电磁波电阻率测量装置及测量方法进行算法处理后的效果图。 [0095] Figure 11 apparatus and measuring method for measuring the effect of the view of the arithmetic processing electromagnetic wave resistivity while drilling with the present embodiment of the invention. 其中,信号21为模拟地层的调制信号,信号22为被地层调制的电磁波信号,信号23、24为经过正交处理的Q分量和I分量,信号25为经过低通滤波后的I分量和Q分量合成恢复出的模拟地层信号。 Wherein the modulation signal, into an analog signal 21 of the formation, the formation being modulated signal 22 to an electromagnetic wave signal, the signal 23 is processed through the quadrature components I and Q components of the signal 25 is low-pass filtered after the I component and Q component synthesis recovered analog signal ground. 从图中可以看出:原来的模拟地层调制波与利用本方法恢复出的模拟地层调制波具有高度的一致性,即在相位和幅值上具有一致性,并没有因为采样频率不满足奈奎斯特采样定律造成恢复后的模拟地层调制波严重失真。 As it can be seen from the figure: the original analog modulated wave formation and use of the present method for recovering an analog ground wave modulated high consistency, i.e. consistency in phase and amplitude, and not because the sampling frequency does not satisfy Naikui Manchester sampling law resulting analog modulation wave formation after the resumption of serious distortion.

[0096] 本发明实施例的这种基于高频欠采样算法的随钻电磁波电阻率测量方法及测量装置,硬件电路简单、模拟器件少,并且温度对器件的影响弱。 [0096] This embodiment of the present invention is based on high frequency electromagnetic wave resistivity while drilling measuring method and apparatus of the under-sampling algorithm, a simple hardware circuit, Analog Devices less, and a weak effect of temperature on the device. 本发明能够通过较低的采样率对电磁波信号进行采样(这是因为对于高温AD器件来说高采样率与高精度是一对相互冲突的技术参数指标),这样可以选用采样频率较低但采样精度高的高温AD器件,对电磁波信号进行采样,可以提高测量系统的精度,降低整个系统工作频率减少整套系统的功率损耗。 The present invention can be sampled (This is because the high-temperature high sampling rate for AD devices and high-precision index is a pair of conflicting technical parameters) of the electromagnetic wave signal by a low sampling rate, so that a lower sampling frequency can be selected, but the sampling AD device temperature with high accuracy, an electromagnetic wave signal is sampled, the system can improve the measurement accuracy, reduce the overall system operating frequency to reduce power consumption of the entire system.

[0097] 以上所述的具体实施例,对本发明的目的、技术方案和有益效果进行了进一步详细说明,所应理解的是,以上所述仅为本发明的具体实施例而已,并不用于限定本发明的保护范围,凡在本发明的精神和原则之内,所做的任何修改、等同替换、改进等,均应包含在本发明的保护范围之内。 [0097] The foregoing specific embodiments of the object, technical solutions, and advantages of the invention will be further described in detail, should be understood that the above descriptions are merely embodiments of the present invention, it is not intended to limit the scope of the present invention, all within the spirit and principle of the present invention, any changes made, equivalent substitutions and improvements should be included within the scope of the present invention.

Claims (12)

1.一种随钻电磁波电阻率测量方法,其特征在于,所述随钻电磁波电阻率测量方法包括: 产生特定频率的电磁波功率信号; 通过发射天线线圈将所述电磁波功率信号发射到地层中; 通过两个接收天线线圈分别接收含有被测地层信息的电磁波功率信号,生成两路含有被测地层信息的电磁波功率信号;对所述的两路含有被测地层信息的电磁波功率信号分别进行带通滤波,并将经过带通滤波后的两路含有被测地层信息的电磁波功率信号通过AD采样后生成两路电磁波采样数字信号; 对所述两路电磁波采样信号的每一路电磁波采样数字信号进行混频变换和低通滤波,生成每一路电磁波采样数字信号的幅值信息和相位信息; 根据所述两路电磁波采样数字信号的幅值信息和相位信息,生成所述两路电磁波采样数字信号的幅值比和相位差; 根据所述的幅值比和相位 An electromagnetic wave resistivity measurement while drilling method, wherein said electromagnetic wave resistivity measurement while drilling method comprising: generating an electromagnetic wave of a specific frequency power signal; transmitting antenna coil by the electromagnetic power signal transmitted to the formation; electromagnetic wave power signal by the power of two signal receiving antenna coil receives information containing the measured formation, producing two strata containing the test information; electromagnetic power signal containing information measured for the formation of each of the two bandpass filter, and through two bandpass filtered information containing formation measured electromagnetic wave power signal generating two digital signals sampled by the AD sampling; samples for each channel electromagnetic wave digital signal of the two sampled signal is mixed frequency conversion and low-pass filtering, generating amplitude and phase information of an electromagnetic wave in each channel sampled digital signal; amplitude information and phase information of the two-way electromagnetic sampled digital signal, the two electromagnetic generating web sampled digital signals ratio and phase difference values; amplitude ratio and phase according to ,根据图表反演生成所述电磁波功率信号的电阻率图板; 其中,产生特定频率的电磁波功率信号并通过发射天线线圈发射到地层中的步骤包括: 通过信号锁相环产生所需频率的电磁波功率信号; 将所述电磁波功率信号通过D类功率放大器,生成调谐所需的交流功率信号; 所述交流功率信号根据调谐驱动信号,调谐生成正弦高压功率激励信号; 将所述的正弦高压功率激励信号加载到所述发射天线线圈上,并通过所述发射天线线圈分别发射到地层中。 The graph of FIG plate resistivity inversion to generate the electromagnetic wave power signal; wherein the formation step, generating a specific frequency electromagnetic wave power signal and transmitted through the transmit antenna coil comprising: generating an electromagnetic wave signal through a desired frequency phase locked loop power signals; wave power signal by the D power amplifier to generate an alternating power signal required tuning; said AC power signal tuner drive signal, the tuner generates a sinusoidal excitation signal based on high-voltage power; the sinusoidal excitation voltage power signal loaded on the transmitting antenna coil, and transmitted through the transmit antenna coil, respectively, into the formation.
2.如权利要求1所述的随钻电磁波电阻率测量方法,其特征在于,所述通过发射天线线圈将电磁波功率信号发射到地层中,包括: 通过四个发射天线线圈将所述电磁波功率信号发射到地层中,所述电磁波功率信号的为500KHZ或2MHz,分时发送,通过两个接收天线线圈接收所述电磁波功率信号,生成四组幅值比和四组相位差。 2. The electromagnetic wave resistivity measurement while drilling method according to claim 1, wherein the electromagnetic power signal transmitted to the formation by the transmitting antenna coil, comprising: four transmitting antennas by the electromagnetic coil power signal emitted into the formation, the electromagnetic wave or power signal is 500KHZ 2MHz, time-division transmission, by the two receiving antenna coil receives electromagnetic power signal generating four sets of four amplitude ratio and phase difference.
3.如权利要求1所述的随钻电磁波电阻率测量方法,其特征在于,在通过两个接收天线线圈分别接收含有被测地层信息的电磁波功率信号的步骤以后,对所述的两路含有被测地层信息的高频电磁波功率信号分别进行带通滤波的步骤以前,还包括: 对所述两路含有被测地层信息的电磁波功率信号进行自适应调谐; 对自适应调谐后的信号通过前置放大器,进行前置放大处理; 对进行前置放大处理后的信号进行二次放大处理,生成进行带通滤波的电磁波信号。 3. The method of measuring electromagnetic wave resistivity of the drilling of claim 1, wherein, after step two receiving antenna coil receives the electromagnetic wave signal including power information measured by the formation of the two containing before the step of bandpass filtering the measured signal power of high frequency electromagnetic wave formation information respectively, further comprising: the two electromagnetic power signal measured formation adaptive tuning information are contained; the front of the signal tuned by the adaptive amplifier, a preamplifier process; performs signal preamplifiers secondary amplification process, for generating an electromagnetic wave signal bandpass filtering.
4.如权利要求1所述的随钻电磁波电阻率测量方法,其特征在于,所述对所述两路电磁波采样信号的每一路电磁波采样数字信号进行混频变换和低通滤波,生成每一路电磁波采样数字信号的幅值信息和相位信息的步骤包括: 对所述每一路电磁波采样数字信号进行正弦和余弦混频变换,生成混频信号,其公式为I (n) = X(n) cos ω0η和Q(n) = X (n) sin ω Qn,其中X (η)为电磁波采样信号; 对所述混频信号进行低通滤波,生成混频信号的同相分量和正交分量: χκ.(η) = α(/?) cos <?(/?),其中a⑴为反映地层电阻率的低频信号; 根据所述的同相分量和正交分量,由公式a(n) = ^xbi2(n) + XbqzW,和#(«) = arctan(^),求出反映地层电阻率的每一路电磁波采样数字信号的幅值信息和相xBl位信息。 4. A method of measuring electromagnetic wave resistivity of the drilling of claim 1, wherein said converting and for mixing low-pass filtering for each channel of the digital signal sampling the electromagnetic wave two sample signal generating each channel step amplitude information and phase information of an electromagnetic wave sampled digital signal includes: the electromagnetic wave in each channel sampled digital sine and cosine signal for mixing converted to generate a mixed signal, which is formula I (n) = X (n) cos ω0η and Q (n) = X (n) sin ω Qn, where X (η) sampling an electromagnetic wave signal; the low-pass filtering the mixed signal, the mixed signal to generate in-phase and quadrature components: χκ. (η) = α (? /) cos <(/?), where the formation resistivity a⑴ reflect frequency signal;? in-phase component and said quadrature component, by the formula a (n) = ^ xbi2 (n ) + XbqzW, and # ( «) = arctan (^), amplitude information obtaining formation resistivity reflected wave sampled digital signals for each channel and phase xBl bit information.
5.如权利要求4所述的随钻电磁波电阻率测量方法,其特征在于,根据所述两路电磁波采样数字信号的幅值信息和相位信息,生成所述两路电磁波采样数字信号的幅值比和相位差,包括: 如果第一路电磁波采样数字信号的幅值为al (t),相位为如果第二路电磁波采样数字信号的幅值为a2(t),相位为φ2(Γ),则所述两路电磁波采样数字信号的幅值比和相位差分别为:a(t) = al (t) /a2 (t),f(t)=fl(t)-f2(t) = 5. The electromagnetic wave resistivity measurement while drilling method according to claim 4, characterized in that the amplitude information and phase information of the two-way electromagnetic sampled digital signal, generating two electromagnetic said amplitude sampled digital signals ratio and phase difference, comprising: an electromagnetic wave if the amplitude of the first channel is a digital signal sampled al (t), if the magnitude of the second phase of the electromagnetic path is sampled digital signal a2 (t), the phase is φ2 (Γ), then the amplitude ratio and phase difference two-way electromagnetic sampled digital signals are: a (t) = al (t) / a2 (t), f (t) = fl (t) -f2 (t) =
6.如权利要求2所述的随钻电磁波电阻率测量方法,其特征在于,根据所述的四组幅值比和四组相位差,根据图表反演生成所述电磁波功率信号的电阻率图板,包括: 根据所述四组幅值比和四组相位差,结合所述地层所在地区中岩心取样岩石物理测量的结果,并参考所述地区临井测量的电阻率,生成电阻率图板。 6. The electromagnetic wave resistivity measurement while drilling method according to claim 2, characterized in that, in accordance with the amplitude ratio and the four sets of four groups according to the phase difference, according to the graph of FIG resistivity inversion to generate the electromagnetic power signal plate, comprising: four groups based on the amplitude ratio and phase difference of the four groups, in conjunction with the results of the physical Region formation rock coring measured, and with reference to the measured resistivity Pro well region, generating resistive plate of FIG. .
7.一种随钻电磁波电阻率测量装置,其特征在于,所述随钻电磁波电阻率测量装置包括: 电磁波功率信号产生装置,用于产生特定频率的电磁波功率信号; 发射天线线圈,用于将产生的所述电磁波功率信号发射到地层中; 两个接收天线线圈,用于接收含有被测地层信息的电磁波功率信号,生成两路含有被测地层信息的电磁波功率信号; 电磁波采样信号生成装置,用于对所述的两路含有被测地层信息的电磁波功率信号分别进行带通滤波,并将经过带通滤波后的两路含有被测地层信息的电磁波功率信号通过AD采样后生成两路电磁波采样数字信号; 幅值信息与相位信息生成装置,用于对所述两路电磁波采样信号的每一路电磁波采样数字信号进行混频变换和低通滤波,生成每一路电磁波采样数字信号的幅值信息和相位信息; 幅值比和相位差生成装置,用 An electromagnetic wave resistivity measurement while drilling apparatus, wherein said electromagnetic wave resistivity measurement while drilling apparatus comprising: an electromagnetic wave power signal generating means for generating an electromagnetic wave power of a specific frequency signal; transmitting antenna coil, for the electromagnetic wave transmitted to the generated power signal formation; two receiving antenna coil for receiving electromagnetic waves comprising a power signal measured formation information, generating two electromagnetic power signal containing information measured formation; electromagnetic sampling signal generating means, the power signal measured for electromagnetic wave containing information on the formation of the two band pass filtering, respectively, and through two band-pass filtered measured formation comprising a power information signal generating two electromagnetic waves by the AD sampling sampled digital signal; amplitude information and phase information generation means for sampling a digital signal for each channel of said electromagnetic wave two-way mixes sampled signal conversion and low-pass filtering, the amplitude information of each channel to generate an electromagnetic wave sampled digital signals and phase information; amplitude ratio and phase difference generating means for 根据所述两路电磁波采样数字信号的幅值信息和相位信息,生成所述两路电磁波采样数字信号的幅值比和相位差; 电阻率图板生成装置,用于根据所述的幅值比和相位差,根据图表反演生成所述电磁波功率信号的电阻率图板; 其中,所述电磁波功率信号产生装置包括: 信号发生装置,用于通过信号锁相环产生所需频率的电磁波功率信号; D类功率放大器,用于将所述电磁波功率信号驱动输出到调谐装置; 调谐装置,用于根据调谐驱动信号,调谐生成正弦高压功率激励信号并加载到所述发射天线线圈上,通过所述发射天线线圈分别发射到地层中。 The amplitude information and phase information of the two-way electromagnetic sampled digital signal, the amplitude ratio and phase difference generating two electromagnetic sampled digital signal; FIG plate resistivity generating means for, according to the ratio of the magnitude and a phase difference plate of FIG resistivity of the electromagnetic wave power signal to generate a graph of the inversion; wherein said electromagnetic power signal generating means comprises: signal generating means for generating an electromagnetic wave power signal through a desired frequency signal phase-locked loop ; D power amplifier for driving the electromagnetic wave output power signal to the tuning means; tuning means for tuning in accordance with a drive signal, the tuning voltage power generating sinusoidal excitation signal and loaded onto the transmitting antenna coil, through the transmitting antenna coils are emitted into the formation.
8.如权利要求7所述的随钻电磁波电阻率测量装置,其特征在于,所述发射天线线圈的数目为四个,所述生成的电磁波功率信号的为500KHZ或2MHz,分时发送,通过两个接收天线线圈接收所述电磁波功率信号,生成四组幅值比和四组相位差。 8. The drilling of the electromagnetic wave resistivity measurement apparatus of claim 7, wherein the number of the transmitting antenna coil is four, or is 500KHZ 2MHz, the time division transmission power of the electromagnetic wave signals generated by two receiving antenna coil receives the electromagnetic wave power signal generating four sets of four amplitude ratio and phase difference.
9.如权利要求7所述的随钻电磁波电阻率测量装置,其特征在于,所述电磁波采样信号生成装置包括: 自适应调谐装置,用于对所述两路含有被测地层信息的电磁波功率信号进行自适应调谐; 前置放大器,用于对自适应调谐后的信号进行前置放大处理; 中放装置,用于对进行前置放大处理后的信号进行二次放大处理; 带通滤波器,用于对所述进行二次放大后的电磁波信号进行带通滤波; AD采样装置,用于对所述带通滤波后的电磁波信号进行AD采样,生成两路电磁波采样数字信号。 9. The drilling of the electromagnetic wave resistivity measurement apparatus of claim 7, wherein said sampling signal generating electromagnetic apparatus comprising: an adaptive tuning means comprises an electromagnetic wave power measured for the formation of the two-way information adaptive tuning signal; preamplifier for the signal to be preamplified adaptive tuning process; the discharge means for performing signal processing after the preamplification secondary amplification processing; band-pass filter for the electromagnetic wave signal amplified second band-pass filtering; AD sampling means for said electromagnetic wave signal for AD sampling bandpass filtered, producing two electromagnetic sampled digital signal.
10.如权利要求7所述的随钻电磁波电阻率测量装置,其特征在于,所述幅值信息与相位信息生成装置包括: 混频装置,用于对所述两路电磁波采样信号分别进行正弦和余弦混频变换,生成混频信号,其公式为I (η) = X (n) cosco Qn和Q (η) = X (n) sin ω Qn,其中X (η)为电磁波采样信号; 低通滤波装置,用于对所述混频信号进行低通滤波,生成混频信号的同相分量和正交Xm (η) = α(η) cos φ(η)分量,其中a(n)为反映地层电阻率的低频信号; 幅值信息与相位信息计算装置,用于根据所述的同相分量和正交分量,由公式a{fl) = + ,和她=arctan(.)»求出反映地层电阻率的每一路电ί兹波采样数字信号的幅值信息和相位信息。 10. The drilling of the electromagnetic wave resistivity measurement apparatus of claim 7, wherein said amplitude information and phase information generating means comprises: mixing means for the two sine wave signals are sampled and mixing cosine transform, generating a mixed signal, which is formula I (η) = X (n) cosco Qn and Q (η) = X (n) sin ω Qn, where X (η) is an electromagnetic wave signal samples; low pass filtering means for low pass filtering the mixed signal to generate a mixing signal and a quadrature-phase component Xm (η) = α (η) cos φ (η) component, wherein a (n) is reflected frequency signal formation resistivity; the amplitude information and phase information calculation means according to the in-phase component and quadrature component, by the formula a {fl) = +, and she = arctan () »is obtained reflects the formation amplitude information and phase information of each channel sampled digital electrical signal ί Zibo resistivity.
11.如权利要求10所述的随钻电磁波电阻率测量装置,其特征在于,所述幅值比和相位差生成装置用于根据所述两路电磁波采样数字信号的幅值信息和相位信息,生成所述两路电磁波采样数字信号的幅值比和相位差,包括: 如果第一路电磁波采样数字信号的幅值为al (t),相位为如果第二路电磁波采样数字信号的幅值为a2 (t),相位为<p2(t),则所述两路电磁波采样数字信号的幅值比和相位差分别为:a(t) = al(t)/a2(t),Cp(t)=fl(t)-Cp2(t)e 11. The drilling of the electromagnetic wave resistivity measurement apparatus of claim 10, wherein said amplitude ratio and the phase difference means for generating amplitude and phase information of the two sampled digital signal according to the electromagnetic wave, generating said amplitude ratio and phase difference two-way electromagnetic sampled digital signal, comprising: an electromagnetic wave if the amplitude of the first channel is a digital signal sampled al (t), if the amplitude of the second phase of the electromagnetic wave sampled digital signal path is a2 (t), the phase is <p2 (t), then the amplitude ratio and phase difference of the electromagnetic two sampled digital signals are: a (t) = al (t) / a2 (t), Cp (t ) = fl (t) -Cp2 (t) e
12.如权利要求8所述的随钻电磁波电阻率测量装置,其特征在于,所述电阻率图板生成装置用于根据所述的四组幅值比和四组相位差,根据图表反演生成所述电磁波功率信号的电阻率图板,包括: 根据所述四组幅值比和四组相位差,结合所述地层所在地区中岩心取样岩石物理测量的结果,并参考所述地区临井测量的电阻率,生成电阻率图板。 12. The drilling of the electromagnetic wave resistivity measurement apparatus of claim 8, wherein said generating means resistivity tablet according to four sets of amplitude ratio and phase difference of the four sets, a graph of the inversion FIG generating resistive plate of the electromagnetic wave power signal, comprising: four groups based on the amplitude ratio and phase difference of the four groups, in conjunction with the results of the physical Region formation rock coring measured, and with reference to the well region Pro resistivity measurement, generating resistive plate of FIG.
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