CN102699761B - Error identification method of five-axis numerically controlled machine tool based on S-shaped test specimen - Google Patents

Error identification method of five-axis numerically controlled machine tool based on S-shaped test specimen Download PDF

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CN102699761B
CN102699761B CN201210213951.8A CN201210213951A CN102699761B CN 102699761 B CN102699761 B CN 102699761B CN 201210213951 A CN201210213951 A CN 201210213951A CN 102699761 B CN102699761 B CN 102699761B
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error
test specimen
machine tool
serpentine
lathe
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CN102699761A (en
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杜丽
崔浪浪
赵波
王伟
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University of Electronic Science and Technology of China
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Abstract

The invention relates to an error identification method of a five-axis numerically controlled machine tool based on an S-shaped test specimen. The error identification method comprises the steps of: 1. cutting an S-shaped specimen; 2. measuring a normal error of the S-shaped specimen cut in the step 1; 3. building a mapping relation database of the normal error of the S-shaped specimen and a machine tool factor; 4. tracing back to a main factor of affecting the precision of the machine tool; and 5. applying the machine tool factor obtained from the quantitative identification of a BP (back-propagation) neural network in the step 4. The method has the beneficial effects that not only can the precision of the machine tool be judged by adopting the method, but also an optimization scheme of the precision of the machine tool can be provided when the precision of the machine tool can not achieve the requirements, and the machine tool factor of affecting the precision of the machine tool is adjusted from a quantity value, so that the requirements of high precision of the machine tool can be achieved.

Description

Based on serpentine, detect the error identification method of the five-axle number control machine tool of test specimen
Technical field
The invention belongs to numerical control machine tool technique field, relate in particular to the technical field of the error-detecting of five-axle number control machine tool.
Background technology
5-shaft linkage numerical control lathe (abbreviation five-axle number control machine tool) in development the status in advanced manufacturing industry and in the overall technology horizontal process that improves the industries such as military project, space flight and aviation, the energy role great.Therefore, the machining accuracy of 5-shaft linkage numerical control lathe, working (machining) efficiency are had higher requirement.Digit Control Machine Tool factor can be divided into static factor and the large class of dynamic factor two, wherein static accuracy is under chip-load and under the operating mode that lathe does not move or movement velocity is very low, to detect not having, lifting due to high-grade, digitally controlled machine tools manufacturing equipment technology, static accuracy can only reflect the machining accuracy of high-grade lathe in limited aspect, and dynamic accuracy is only the principal element that affects high-grade, digitally controlled machine tools machining accuracy.
The thought of the error identification of 5-shaft linkage numerical control lathe is by the detection and assessment of machine tooling error is evaluated the processing characteristics of lathe.The error identification method of at present more conventional five-axle number control machine tool mainly contains following several:
(1) the nine line identification methods based on laser interferometer: the marrow of nine line identification methods is only to check that in lathe stage coordinates system, site error and the straightness error on 9 straight lines realized the identification to 21 basic geometric errors of lathe.First select translation shaft motion in three translation shaft and two other axle keeps static, in stage coordinates system, select three straight lines, measure the displacement error of each point on three straight lines.And when measuring straight line displacement error wherein, measure the straightness error of mutually vertical both direction, when measuring another straight-line displacement error, measure the straightness error of a direction, based on measuring the straightness error and the displacement error that come, set up 6 linear equations, solving equation group just can obtain 6 elementary errors of kinematic axis, in like manner just can solve 12 elementary errors of two other translation shaft.The correction angle that finally departs from benchmark by reading laser interferometer straight line when measuring straightness error just can obtain 3 error of perpendicularitys.
(2) the error identification method based on ball bar method: the two ends of ball bar are comprised of steel ball with high precision, and one end is fixed, the other end is connecting a high accuracy displacement sensor.Locate by the magnetic suction base of three-point fix at two steel ball two ends, and one end is adsorbed on main shaft, and the other end is adsorbed on workbench, as shown in Figure 1.It is mainly used for measuring the measurement of Digit Control Machine Tool two-axle interlocking precision, can measure X-Y respectively, the two-axle interlocking precision of X-Z and Y-Z plane.When workbench is made circumference moving interpolation with respect to main shaft, form the arc track of a simulation cutting, sensor gathers the variation of two steel ball spacings and passes to computer, through software diagnosis analysis, obtain the circularity precision of two-axle interlocking and isolate various individual errors, as backlass, oppositely jump punching, servoly do not mate, ratio is not mated, linearity, perpendicularity, circular error and lateral clearance etc.
(3) based on NAS 979(American National space flight standard) detect the error identification of test specimen: U.S. NAS 979 has formulated " circle-rhombus-square " shape test specimen cutting experiment standard, by this detection test specimen of trial cut, detect respectively lathe along the linearity of X coordinate, perpendicularity between X, Y, Z coordinate, and the positional precision etc. in hole on the linearity of NC Interpolation, circularity and X-Y plane.Because there is linear relationship between the error of each reference axis of lathe and stroke, the corresponding size of this standard regulation cutting test specimen is determined according to the stroke of each coordinate of lathe.The operating accuracy that makes like this to utilize small-size test piece to detect large stroke is more reasonable.
Below above-mentioned several error identification methods are compared:
The nine line identification methods based on laser interferometer are only to do in straight-line situation 21 individual event geometric errors of lathe are carried out to identification at lathe single shaft, do not reflect the quality of fit of each axle in multi-shaft interlocked situation.And each kinematic axis of lathe is to detect individual event geometric error in situation at a slow speed in zero load, can not reflect lathe dynamic property machine tooling performance to material impact.Therefore concerning machine tool error identification, testing result can not reflect the processing characteristics of lathe completely.
Error identification based on ball bar method has greatly promoted the detection of Digit Control Machine Tool dynamic property, by the Kinematic Error Analysis to particular track, can instead solve the intrinsic static geometric error of lathe or multi-shaft interlocked dynamic accuracy, this contributes to detect the dynamic movement process of lathe.But, detection means based on ball bar is all for lathe special exercise track, and trail change is situation comparatively stably, profile for quick variation curved surface is just difficult to realize, and detection of dynamic is all to carry out under the operating mode not loading at lathe, the motion state in this and actual cut has larger gap.
Based on NAS 979, detect the error identification method of test specimen, the NAS979 test specimen being formed by hole, circle, rhombus and 3 degree inclination squares proposing, mainly for three axis numerically controlled machine, test, lack machine dynamic characteristics demand in reflection Machining of Curved Surface, a lot of difficult processing parts have some higher requirements on 3D boundary.
By above error identification method, can be found out, current NC Machine Error discrimination method can not reflect the machinability of lathe comprehensively, and is mainly the identification of the in the situation that of unloaded low speed, the static factor of lathe being carried out.Although NAS979 test specimen adopts the method for trial cut equally, rotating speed and load have been guaranteed, because its geometrical property simply can not reflect the performance of lathe dynamic property and processed complex curved surface.Thereby cannot reach the requirement of Digit Control Machine Tool high manufacturing accuracy.
Chinese invention patent CN200710048269.7 and U.S. cognate invention patent US8061052B2 thereof disclosed " serpentine of integrated detecting precision of numerical control milling machine detects test specimen and detection method thereof " are detection test specimen and the methods of a kind of calibrating machine tool processing characteristics of recently proposing, as shown in Figure 2.The feature that has incorporated aviation thin-walled in test specimen profile, not only can reflect the static accuracy of lathe, and has paid close attention to the dynamic accuracy of lathe.Test specimen curvature changes with surface configuration, has around the corner the angle of switching converting characteristic, by cutting serpentine test specimen, can reflect to a certain extent 5-shaft linkage numerical control machine tooling error.In Fig. 2,1 represents serpentine test specimen base side, lateral thickness is 30mm, and 2 represent the profile that is processed into of serpentine test specimen, and 3 represent serpentine test specimen base upper surface, 4 represent the position of cutter in processing serpentine test specimen process, and 5 represent the attitude of cutter in processing serpentine test specimen process.This detection method only relates to the judge to machine finish, just grade, the machining accuracy of lathe is carried out to one and evaluates qualitatively.About lathe factor, the mechanism that affects of machine finish is not related to completely.Therefore,, when machine finish does not reach while requiring, the method can not provide the scheme of a concrete adjustment lathe factor and improve machine finish.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is for the detection method of serpentine test specimen, only machine tool accuracy to be passed judgment on and can not be provided the mechanism that affects on machine finish at present in order to overcome, thereby according to this, affect the shortcoming that mechanism provides the scheme of optimizing machine tool accuracy, proposed a kind of error identification method that detects the five-axle number control machine tool of test specimen based on serpentine.
Technical scheme of the present invention is: based on serpentine, detect the error identification method of the five-axle number control machine tool of test specimen, comprise the steps:
Step 1. cutting serpentine test specimen;
The normal error of the serpentine test specimen after 1 cutting of step 2. measuring process;
Step 3. is set up the mapping relations database of serpentine test specimen normal error and lathe factor;
Step 4. is traced to the source affects the principal element of machine tool accuracy;
Step 5. uses BP neutral net to quantize the lathe factor obtaining in identification step 4.
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows: the present invention is by the method for trial cut serpentine test specimen, reverse the tracing to the source out of serpentine test specimen normal error measuring based on three coordinate machine produces the lathe factor of major effect to machine tooling, and by the principal element of further having determined of neutral net, machine tool accuracy affected to level.Therefore, adopt the method to pass judgment on machine tool accuracy, and do not reach the prioritization scheme that can also provide machine tool accuracy while requiring when machine tool accuracy, from value, on affecting the lathe factor of machine tool accuracy, adjust, thereby reach the high-precision requirement of lathe.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the ball bar structural representation that the error identification method based on ball bar method adopts.
Fig. 2 is the structural representation of serpentine test specimen.
Fig. 3 is main flow chart of the present invention;
Fig. 4 is the normal error schematic diagram of the serpentine test specimen after step 2 cutting of the present invention;
Fig. 5 a is the serpentine test specimen normal error under the gain effect of position in the embodiment of the present invention;
Fig. 5 b is the serpentine test specimen normal error under acceleration effect in the embodiment of the present invention.
The specific embodiment
Below in conjunction with the drawings and specific embodiments, the present invention is described further:
As shown in Figure 3, based on serpentine, detect the error identification method of the five-axle number control machine tool of test specimen, comprise the steps:
Step 1. cutting serpentine test specimen: the lathe for certain machining accuracy to be detected cuts the experiment of serpentine test specimen.
Certain domestic Five-axis numerical control milling machine that in the present embodiment, the lathe model of the lathe of certain machining accuracy to be detected is V5-1030ABJ, the specific targets of serpentine test specimen and working angles thereof refer to Chinese invention patent CN200710048269.7 and the disclosed content of U.S. cognate invention patent US8061052B2 thereof.
The normal error of the serpentine test specimen after 1 cutting of step 2. measuring process: use three coordinate measuring engine measurement to go out the serpentine test specimen normal error after cutting in the present embodiment; Because three coordinate measuring machine is a kind of conventional monitoring and means, therefore for three coordinate measuring machine, the measuring process of serpentine test specimen is not described in detail; Above-mentioned normal error also can adopt other measuring instrument and means to obtain.
The measurement result of the present embodiment as shown in Figure 4, in figure, abscissa represents to measure and counts, ordinate represents the normal error value of measurement point, serpentine Specimen Method presents positive negative value to error amount and distributes, the 60th, point out and occur minimum point (negative value), the 71st occur maximum of points (on the occasion of), three coordinate measuring machine has been measured altogether the normal error value of 75 points (being n=75) on serpentine test specimen;
Step 3. is set up the mapping relations database of serpentine test specimen normal error and lathe factor: based on Digit Control Machine Tool dynamic error model, use the cutting process of the cutting serpentine test specimen of Digit Control Machine Tool to set up the normal error of serpentine test specimen and the mapping relations database of lathe factor.
In the present embodiment, the specific implementation of step 3 comprises the steps:
Step 31. adopts transfer function to set up the dynamic error model of Digit Control Machine Tool: the dynamic error of Digit Control Machine Tool is mainly that the basic exercise structure of lathe and the coordination ability of each axle of servo-drive system and performance are the principal elements that affects lathe dynamic accuracy because Coupled motion mechanical in working angles, control system produces; Adopt transfer function to describe the dynamic motion process of each link of lathe, comprised position ring, speed ring, servomotor ring and machinery ring, each basic link can be represented by corresponding ratio, integration or differentiation function; For single-axis servo motion, the machine tool motion instruction of input, through position ring, speed ring, servomotor ring, realizes the final machinery ring driving, and each motion interlock realizes the cutting movement of Digit Control Machine Tool.
Step 32. utilizes theory of multi body system to set up the mapping relations database of serpentine test specimen normal error and lathe factor: what the dynamic error model in step 31 produced is the movement locus of each axle, and the actual path of cutter is to consist of each real-time track shaft interlock, the rule of its interlock is exactly multi-body movement theory.The marrow of theory of multi body system is, with topological structure, multi-body system is carried out to high level overview and refinement, with lower body array, describes multi-body system topological structure, with eigenmatrix, represents the relative position between body and attitude in multi-body system.The NC Machine Error computation model of setting up by said method will produce one group of normal error of correspondence with it when the some factors of change lathe.Thus, serpentine test specimen normal error and lathe factor mapping relations database E have just been set up i=(a i1, a i2..., a in) E wherein irepresent serpentine test specimen normal error and i the error matrix that factor is corresponding in lathe factor mapping relations database, n represents the error amount number comprising in error matrix, and a is error amount size.
The detailed process of step 3 can be with reference to Lee by the National University of Defense technology holy happy write < < precision and ultra-precision machine tool accuracy modeling technology > > mono-book, and therefore this step is not described in detail as the common practise of the art.
In the present embodiment, the cutting process that cuts serpentine test specimen in experiment is input in set up error model, the a certain factor of change lathe just can obtain corresponding serpentine Specimen Method to error amount, this example has been considered altogether 17 lathe factors, each factor is considered two kinds of operating modes, therefore in mapping database, comprised 34 groups of serpentine test specimen normal errors, as shown in table 1, U i, 1, U i, 2the the first operating mode numbering and the second operating mode numbering, for example U in table 1 that represent respectively i factor 1,1, U 1,2the first operating mode and the second operating mode that represent respectively position gain, the coding rule of other numbering is identical, and adopting the object of numbering is for the ease of extracting the training sample of BP neutral net the database from serpentine test specimen normal error and lathe factor mapping relations.
Table one
Fig. 5 a, 5b is that two groups of serpentine Specimen Methods in serpentine test specimen normal error and lathe factor mapping relations database are to error amount.Fig. 5 a be serpentine Specimen Method under position gain effect to error amount, Fig. 5 b is that serpentine Specimen Method under acceleration effect is to error amount.In Fig. 5 a and Fig. 5 b, abscissa represents cutting process instruction point, and ordinate represents that serpentine Specimen Method is to error amount, and normal error value presents positive negative value and distributes.
Step 4. is traced to the source affects the principal element of machine tool accuracy: by the normal error of measurement result input serpentine test specimen of the serpentine test specimen after cutting and the mapping relations database of lathe factor, use the approximately principle of selecting of fuzzy membership to calculate the approach degree value with respect to mapping relations database to the normal error of this cutting serpentine test specimen, press the larger principle of approach degree, trace to the source out on the larger lathe factor of machine tool accuracy impact;
In the present embodiment, the specific implementation of step 4 comprises the steps:
Step 41. degree of membership is calculated: degree of membership is explained degree degree of membership that certain element belongs to set more close to 1, represents that element belongs to the degree of set higher, and it is lower that degree of membership more belongs to the degree of set close to 0 expression element.For serpentine test specimen error distribution results, select normal fuzzy membership function to calculate, as the formula (1).To test cutting error (being the serpentine test specimen normal error obtaining in step 2) matrix B=(x 1, x 2..., x n) substitution formula (1) calculates for E idegree of membership μ b.
&mu; B ( x ) = e - k ( x - a ) 2 ( k > 0 ) Formula (1)
Wherein: a is E iin error amount (a i1, a i2..., a in) in one; X is the error amount (x in cutting error matrix B 1, x 2..., x n) in one; K is constant, k=20 in the present embodiment, and constant k also can be chosen other value that is greater than zero as required.
Step 42. approach degree value is calculated: because the similarity degree between two set of the larger explanation of approach degree value is higher, on the contrary lower, in order to determine B and E isimilarity degree, by the degree of membership μ calculating bin the absolute hamming formula of substitution (2), calculate corresponding approach degree value, according to the maximum principle of approach degree, finally trace to the source out and affect the principal element of machine tool accuracy.
&sigma; H ( E , B ) = 1 - 1 n &Sigma; i = 1 n | 1 - &mu; B ( x i ) | Formula (2)
Wherein: μ b(x i) be i the degree of membership that error amount is corresponding in B; σ h(E, B) be B with respect to the subsides progress value of E, n is natural number, in the present embodiment the quantity correspondence of n the measurement point number of serpentine Specimen Method to error matrix B.
Concrete computational process below by a specific embodiment description of step 4.
Value E i=(0.1465 ,-0.1477 ,-0.1514), B=(0.2906 ,-0.2861 ,-0.2847), constant K=20 in formula (1), using formula (1) obtains &mu; B ( x 1 ) = e - 20 [ - 0.2906 - ( - 0.1465 ) ] 2 = 0.6601 , In like manner can calculate μ b(x 2)=0.6818, μ b(x 3)=0.7009; To in the result substitution formula (2) in formula (1), obtain B with respect to the subsides progress value of E:
&sigma; H , ( E i , B ) = 1 - 1 3 [ ( 1 - 0.6601 ) + ( 1 - 0.6818 ) + ( 1 - 0.7009 ) ] = 0.6809 .
Result of calculation for the present embodiment is as shown in table 1, U 1,1, U 5,2, U 6,1three factors that approach degree is larger, corresponding the position gain operating mode 1 of lathe respectively, B axle acceleration operating mode 2, X-axis acceleration operating mode 1.Illustrated that these three factors are the principal elements that affect error.
Step 5. uses BP neutral net to quantize the lathe factor (U obtaining in identification step 4 1,1, U 5,2, U 6,1): for the major influence factors of tracing to the source out in determining step 4 exposure level to serpentine test specimen normal error, to reach from value, characterize the object of principal element on machine finish impact, use BP neutral net to quantize identification to it; Abbreviation based on MATLAB(Matrix Laboratory is the business mathematics software that U.S. MathWorks company produces) set up 3 layers of BP neural network identification model, input is some positions of serpentine test specimen, output is machine tool accuracy index.By the training of neutral net substitution sample, training process is constantly adjusted weights and the threshold value connecting between three layers, thereby realizes the mapping relations of normal error and the machine tool accuracy index value of serpentine test specimen.After training.With the normal error of certain routine serpentine test specimen profile each point, as new input, through the identification of network iteration, produce corresponding machine tool accuracy index value.
To the lathe factor (U obtaining in step 4 1,1, U 5,2, U 6,1) result of tracing to the source is as shown in " factor " in table 2 one:
Table 2
Factor Factor numbering Approach degree Affect level
Position gain ??U 1,1 ??0.6437 ??0.0011
B axle acceleration ??U 5,2 ??0.7161 ??0.6310
X-axis acceleration ??U 6,1 ??0.7375 ??0.3679
In table 2 listed every be the Output rusults of whole lathe factor identification algorithm, comprised three principal elements that this cutting experiment caused to material impact, be respectively B axle acceleration, X-axis acceleration, position gain.Wherein B axle acceleration is larger on the impact of error, and X-axis acceleration takes second place, and position gain impact is minimum.Three's the level that affects is respectively 63.10%, 36.79%, 0.11%, and therefore the preferential B axle acceleration of adjusting when adjusting lathe factor, is secondly X-axis acceleration, is finally position gain.
In step 5 due to BP neutral net and MATLAB be a kind of comparative maturity mathematical computations instrument, therefore the concrete process of establishing for BP neutral net does not elaborate.
Those of ordinary skill in the art will appreciate that, embodiment described here is in order to help reader understanding's principle of the present invention, should be understood to that the protection domain of invention is not limited to such special statement and embodiment.Everyly according to foregoing description, make various possible being equal to and replace or change, be all considered to belong to the protection domain of claim of the present invention.

Claims (2)

1. based on serpentine, detect the error identification method of the five-axle number control machine tool of test specimen, comprise the steps:
Step 1. cutting serpentine test specimen;
The normal error of the serpentine test specimen after 1 cutting of step 2. measuring process;
Step 3. is set up the mapping relations database of serpentine test specimen normal error and lathe factor, E i=(a i1, a i2..., a in) representing serpentine test specimen normal error and i the error matrix that factor is corresponding in lathe factor mapping relations database, n represents the error amount number comprising in error matrix;
Step 4. is traced to the source affects the principal element of machine tool accuracy;
Step 5. uses BP neutral net to quantize the lathe factor obtaining in identification step 4;
The specific implementation of step 4 comprises the steps:
Step 41. degree of membership is calculated: for serpentine test specimen error distribution results, select normal fuzzy membership function to calculate, by the normal error matrix B=(x of the serpentine test specimen obtaining in step 2 1, x 2..., x n) substitution formula (1) calculates for E idegree of membership μ b; Described formula (1) is wherein, a is E iin error amount (a i1, a i2..., a in) in one, k is constant, k>0;
Step 42. approach degree value is calculated: in order to determine normal error matrix B and E isimilarity degree, by the degree of membership μ calculating bin the absolute hamming formula of substitution (2), calculate corresponding approach degree value, according to the maximum principle of approach degree, finally trace to the source out and affect the principal element of machine tool accuracy; Described formula (2) is
2. the error identification method that detects the five-axle number control machine tool of test specimen based on serpentine according to claim 1, is characterized in that, the specific implementation of step 3 comprises the steps:
Step 31. adopts transfer function to set up the dynamic error model of Digit Control Machine Tool;
Step 32. utilizes theory of multi body system to set up the mapping relations database of serpentine test specimen normal error and lathe factor.
CN201210213951.8A 2012-06-27 2012-06-27 Error identification method of five-axis numerically controlled machine tool based on S-shaped test specimen Expired - Fee Related CN102699761B (en)

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