CN102689100B - Autonomous mobile robot system for plasma metal-inert-gas (MIG) composite welding - Google Patents

Autonomous mobile robot system for plasma metal-inert-gas (MIG) composite welding Download PDF

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CN102689100B
CN102689100B CN201210185746.5A CN201210185746A CN102689100B CN 102689100 B CN102689100 B CN 102689100B CN 201210185746 A CN201210185746 A CN 201210185746A CN 102689100 B CN102689100 B CN 102689100B
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welding
mig
plasma
wheel
robot
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CN102689100A (en
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桂仲成
李永龙
董娜
陈博翁
肖唐杰
贺骥
姜周
徐立强
张帆
吴建东
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Dongfang Electric Co., Ltd.
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Dongfang Electric Corp
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Abstract

The invention belongs to the technical field of welding of robots, and in particular relates to an autonomous mobile robot system for plasma metal-inert-gas (MIG) composite welding. The system comprises a robot body, a control system and a plasma MIG composite welding system, wherein the robot body comprises a crawling mechanism and an operating mechanism; the control system comprises a sensing system, a robot body control box and a robot master control system; and the plasma MIG composite welding system comprises a digitized MIG welding power supply, a plasma power supply, a wire feeding machine, shielding gas, a plasma welding gun and an MIG welding gun. The system has the advantages that a plasma MIG composite welding robot can adapt to an all-position welding mode of a large-sized steel structure; due to the adoption of an adsorption type crawling mechanism, the system can flexibly move; and due to the adoption of a laser welding seam tracking sensor and the arrangement of a macro-environment monitoring and molten pool monitoring system, the system can meet swinging requirements, control requirements and movement requirements in the all-position welding process of large thick plates.

Description

A kind of autonomous formula robot system for plasma MIG composite welding
Technical field
The invention belongs to robotic welding technology field, is a kind of autonomous formula robot system for plasma MIG composite welding specifically.
Background technology
MIG weldering refers to metal inert gas arc welding; this welding method is to utilize the electric arc burning between the welding wire sent to continuously and workpiece to make thermal source; the gas being sprayed by welding torch nib protects the protective gas of the common use of melting pole gas shielded arc welding that electric arc welds to have argon gas; helium, carbon dioxide gas or these mist.During take argon gas or helium as protection gas, be called metal inert gas arc welding (being called in the world MIG weldering); The major advantage of melting pole gas shielded arc welding is to carry out easily the welding of various positions, also has speed of welding very fast, the advantage that deposition rate is higher simultaneously.
For the welding of large scale structure, plasma MIG composite welding can improve welding efficiency and welding quality, but because the weight and volume of plasma MIG welding rifle after compound is no longer applicable to welder's manual operations, the robot system that needs exploitation to connect for plasma MIG welding.Plasma MIG welding connects and is suitable for large scale structure thick plates, and the disposable through welding 25mm of energy also can reduce welding sermon while being applied to multi-layer multi-pass welding.For large scale structure, this body structure of parts, weight impact are not suitable for rotation or rotate, and existing special for automatic welding tractor need to be laid track mostly, and track flexibility is limited in scope, and laying operation is loaded down with trivial details; On the other hand, the plasma MIG welding of large-scale component connects automation and cannot apply stationary machine hand.
Welding robot system is generally by welding load carrier, welding system, composition of the control system.Load carrier is divided into again fixed industry mechanical arm, rail mounted dolly, autonomous formula mechanism; Welding system is made up of the source of welding current, welding gun, protection gas, wire feeder etc.; Control system is responsible for motion, tracking, welding quality control of load carrier etc.That be usually used at present large-scale steel structure welding is rail mounted robot welding system, this system is made up of robot orbit, robot and welding system, when use, need to carry out in advance track laying, be only applicable to lay the straight weld of track, and the flexibility of track within the specific limits, cannot adapt to the conversion of weld seam form.
If number of patent application is 201010180754.1, the applying date is on May 14th, 2010, name is called the patent of invention of " welding setting device, welding robot system and welding establishing method ", its main technical schemes is: a kind of multiple-bead deposit setting device simultaneously, possess: lamination pattern determination portion, it determines the lamination pattern of the welding bead corresponding with the joint of object based on each input data and lamination pattern data base value; Individual operation welding bead determination portion, it is in the lamination pattern of two joints of object, when the difference of the area of section of the deposited metal amount while representing welding bead to combine exceedes predetermined threshold value, after getting rid of with welding bead a side's large area of section welding bead as individual operation, determine the combination of welding simultaneously; Weld all condition determination portions, its definite each welding bead welding condition of giving the corresponding current value of speed and seam formation position with the welding wire calculating based on input welding condition that comprises; Operation program generating unit, it generates the robot motion programs of the welding condition based on definite, and is set in robot controller.The welding robot system of above-mentioned patent adopts rail mounted to arrange, cannot realize soldering joint automatic tracking identification and autonomous function, and this welding system is applicable to the welding of streamline form and is not suitable for large-scale steel structure members to carry out autonomous welding, weld seam type difference is larger.
And for example number of patent application is 201019063009.6, the applying date is on February 5th, 2010, name is called the patent of invention of " a kind of welding robot workstation system for injection molding machine frame ", comprise welding robot, welder, robot Mobile Slide, welding gun cooling device, intelligent locating tracking means and robot control cabinet, welding robot is arranged on robot Mobile Slide; Welder is connected with welding robot and welding gun cooling device respectively; Robot control cabinet is connected with welding robot, robot Mobile Slide, welder and intelligent locating tracking means respectively, for controlling movement and the welding of welding robot, the welding robot system of above-mentioned patent adopts rail mounted robot welding system, cannot realize that robot body automatic tracking welding seam moves freely and complete welding and this robot welds for injection molding machine frame, weld seam type scope is very limited.
Tsing-Hua University has developed the attached autonomous welding robot of crawler type magnetic, and crawler type absorption travel mechanism absorption reliability is good but steering behaviour is poor, causes robot motion's very flexible, job position to adjust difficulty.Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology has developed magnetic wheel type autonomous welding robot, and magnetic wheel type absorption travel mechanism kinematic dexterity is good but adsorption capacity is poor, cannot apply for the large heavy duty soldering gun of plasma MIG.So problem that existing plasma MIG welding welding robot exists kinematic dexterity and adsorption capacity not to have concurrently.
Summary of the invention
In order to overcome the existing problem that exists kinematic dexterity and adsorption capacity not to have concurrently for the autonomous formula robot of plasma MIG composite welding, now special proposition can meet large-scale steel structure vertical position welding, have flexibility and adsorption capacity concurrently, a kind of autonomous formula robot system for plasma MIG composite welding of high-effect high-quality Intelligent welding.
For achieving the above object, technical scheme of the present invention is as follows:
For an autonomous formula robot system for plasma MIG composite welding, comprise robot body, control system and plasma MIG composite welding system, it is characterized in that:
Robot body comprises climbing mechanism and operating mechanism: described climbing mechanism comprise adopt drive steering integrated magnet-wheel front-wheel module, adopt permanent magnetism gap adsorbent equipment trailing wheel module, be connected the vehicle frame of front and back wheel and be arranged on the motor drive controller on vehicle frame; Described operating mechanism comprises crosshead shoe and swing mechanism, the compound welding gun of swing mechanism front end clamping plasma MIG, the crosshead shoe that the free degree of horizontal and vertical directions is combined by two lead screw guide rails assembled units is realized, and swing mechanism adopts stepper motor collocation worm type of reduction gearing;
Described control system comprises sensor-based system, robot body control cabinet and robot master control system;
Described plasma MIG composite welding system comprises the digitlization MIG source of welding current, plasma power supply, wire-feed motor, protection gas, plasma gun and MIG welding gun;
Annexation between MIG welding gun, plasma gun, the MIG source of welding current, plasma power supply and plasma MIG composite welding system and the annexation of welding gun, the source of welding current and the welding system of other welding systems exist obviously different, but above-mentioned difference and specifically how to connect be that those skilled in the art know.
Robot body, control system and plasma MIG composite welding system three are connected by cable.
Described front-wheel module and trailing wheel module are arranged on respectively vehicle frame two ends, and in trailing wheel module, place is provided with trailing wheel chassis, and trailing wheel is provided with permanent magnet on chassis;
Front-wheel module, for driving steering integrated magnet-wheel, comprises permanent magnet and wheel, and the permanent magnet of front-wheel adopts the magnetized annular permanent magnet of through-thickness; Trailing wheel module adopts permanent magnetism gap suction type, comprise permanent magnetism gap adsorbent equipment and wheel, permanent magnetism gap adsorbent equipment comprises around wheel and is arranged on the permanent magnet on trailing wheel chassis, permanent magnetism gap adsorbent equipment is arranged on chassis around trailing wheel, between described permanent magnetism gap adsorbent equipment and magnetic conduction wall, be non-contacting, by regulating the distance between chassis and magnetic conduction wall to set the air gap between permanent magnetic adhesion device and magnetic conduction wall;
Described climbing mechanism adopts tricycle structure, and each wheel is driving wheel, relies on the differential of two trailing wheels and the controlled steering angle of front-wheel to realize turning to and rectilinear motion on magnetic conduction wall.
Described operating mechanism comprises crosshead shoe transverse axis, the crosshead shoe longitudinal axis, linking arm, weld seam tracking sensor connector, welding gun connector, crosshead shoe transverse axis and the crosshead shoe longitudinal axis are to be made up of stepper motor and precision ball screw guide rail respectively, weld seam tracking sensor is arranged on the front end of weld joint tracking connector, and welding gun connector is arranged on the end of linking arm.
Described sensor-based system comprises laser tracking transducer, environmental monitoring sensor and molten bath monitoring sensor; operating mechanism and environmental monitoring installation of sensors are on climbing mechanism; operating mechanism end is installed laser tracking transducer, molten bath monitoring sensor and the compound welding gun of plasma MIG; robot body control cabinet is arranged on climbing mechanism; robot body control cabinet is connected by cable with robot master control system, and the source of welding current, wire-feed motor, protection gas are connected by cable with the compound welding gun of plasma MIG.
The working method of described robot control system is: operator utilizes remote control handheld box control to move near starting the arc position, completed again the adjustment of initial point position by robot sensing's control system, finally realizing weld groove center position by autonomous classification tracking weld seam follows the tracks of, robot control system adopts PCC or other Industrial PC as master control system, the groove central point deviation signal control body that laser Method Seam Tracking Sensing System gathers and operating mechanism motion; The control of plasma MIG composite welding system comprises switching value control, technological parameter setting, plasma arc and the starting the arc of MIG arc and receives arc coordination control.
Described robot control system adopts multiple degrees of freedom The Cloud Terrace to realize the monitoring of macroscopical welding surroundings, completes the front starting point macrotechnique of weldering; Adopt molten bath monitoring sensor to realize the attitude adjustment of microcosmic plasma gun and MIG rifle, the molten bath monitoring of welding process, The Cloud Terrace belongs to sensor-based system.
Plasma gun and MIG rifle are arranged along weld groove direction, plasma gun is in the front of welding traffic direction, MIG rifle is at plasma gun rear, the compound welding gun of plasma MIG is that plasma gun head and MIG rifle head are integrated on a welding gun, and plasma MIG composite welding robot control system utilizes X20DI9371 input module, X20DO9322 output module to be connected with Plasma Welding power supply, the MIG source of welding current; MIG source of welding current external interface is a relay, and when after relay closes, the MIG source of welding current starts welding, and after relay disconnects, the MIG source of welding current stops welding; In welding process, control according to set logical sequence, it is characterized in that in Igniting pattern, first start plasma welding machine, after the 2S of interval, restart the MIG source of welding current, and open robot feed motion; Receive in arc process, Plasma Welding power supply, the MIG source of welding current, robot are closed simultaneously.
Described plasma MIG composite welding system, robot system main control system carries out communication by RS485 and the MIG source of welding current, completes welding parameter setting and welding parameter is adjusted online by host computer control interface, and welding starts and stops.
The steering integrated magnet-wheel concrete structure of described driving is: roll rotating shaft one end and be arranged on car body fixed frame, other end turntable lower supporting plate connects, turntable upper backup pad, turret supports column is connected with turntable lower supporting plate, turntable cover plate is connected with turntable upper backup pad, taper roll bearing is arranged in two gripper shoes, steering spindle is bearing on taper roll bearing, steering spindle is connected with 60 tooth straight-tooth gears, angular transducer power shaft and steering spindle are affixed, angular transducer support bar is connected with turntable upper backup pad, angular transducer is connected with angular transducer support bar, steer motor installing plate is connected with turntable upper backup pad, turn to reducing motor to be connected with steer motor installing plate, 20 tooth straight bevel gears are fixed in and turn on reducing motor output shaft, the 40 tooth straight bevel gears that are meshed are with it mounted on bevel gear shaft, bevel gear shaft is supported by the first deep groove ball bearing that is arranged on turntable upper backup pad, the opposite side of bevel gear shaft connects by flat key with 19 tooth straight-tooth gears, 19 tooth straight-tooth gears engage with 60 tooth straight-tooth gears, the lower end of steering spindle is connected with turning to substrate, wheel left side installing plate, wheel right side installing plate, drive motors installing plate is connected with turning to substrate, drive reducing motor to be connected with drive motors installing plate, small synchronous pulley axle is affixed with the output shaft of driving reducing motor, small synchronous pulley is connected and is arranged on small synchronous pulley axle by flat key, wheel permanent-magnet body and wheel yoke are connected and are arranged on axletree by flat key, axletree is bearing between wheel left side installing plate and wheel right side installing plate by the first deep groove ball bearing and the second deep groove ball bearing, large synchronous pulley connects the opposite side that is arranged on axletree by flat key, between large synchronous pulley and small synchronous pulley, connected by Timing Belt, between tensioning running roller and tensioning running roller support bar, be connected by screw, tensioning running roller support bar is arranged on the installing plate of wheel left side by screw, drive between reducing motor and axletree and pass through toothed belt transmission, steering driving mechanism also comprises steering spindle, steering spindle bottom is provided with drive mechanism for wheel and roller, described steer axis and wheel axis perpendicular quadrature.
The invention has the advantages that:
1, climbing mechanism of the present invention adopts complex method and the full driving of three-wheel or the differential driving wheel-type move mode of the absorption of contact magnet-wheel and non-contact gap absorption, robot can move, reliably adsorb and implement vertical position welding operation in manipulating object table surface all-position independent and flexible, and overall system performance is good.
2, the present invention adopts the control mode of " macroscopical remote control, microcosmic autonomous ", can autonomous classification follow the tracks of weld seam, possesses the setting of remote welding parameter and adjusts online function; Adopt multiple degrees of freedom The Cloud Terrace to realize workpiece environmental monitoring, complete the front starting point macrotechnique of weldering; Adopt molten bath monitoring sensor to realize the attitude adjustment of microcosmic plasma gun and MIG rifle, the molten bath monitoring of welding process.Possess macroscopical welding surroundings monitoring function, realized intelligent welding.
3, plasma MIG composite welding robot can adapt to all position welding seam form of large-scale steel structure, adopt absorption type climbing mechanism, motion flexibly, adopt laser seam tracking sensor, possess macro environment and monitor and molten bath monitoring system, in the time of large slab all-position welding, can meet and swing requirement, control requirement and motion requirement.
4, the method for plasma and MIG composite welding is the complex function of same welding gun with two kinds of welding procedures, can easily realize two kinds of welding manners.
5, operation of the present invention and swing mechanism are applicable to creeping-type welding robot, provide Y-axis and two frees degree of Z axis by the crosshead shoe of operating mechanism, the welding gun that is leading portion clamping by swing mechanism provides a rotary freedom around X-axis to realize oscillating function.Crosshead shoe adopts high precision ball lead screw guide rails to coordinate stepper motor combination to form, and positioning precision can reach 0.02mm, to guarantee the craft precision requirement of welding gun tracking weld seam.Swing mechanism provides rotary freedom by worm and gear collocation stepper motor for welding gun, and output torque is not less than 10Nm, can make welding gun realize centered by any swing angle to swing to weld.
6, the linking arm arm of operating mechanism of the present invention exhibition can manual adjustments, and maximum arm exhibition can reach 450mm.The clamping device clip position of weld seam tracking sensor can manual adjustments, X-axis adjustable extent 120mm, the maximum adjustable extent 350mm of Y-axis, Z axis adjustable extent 100mm, larger adjustable space scope guarantees that weld seam tracking sensor position under multiple welding procedure can adapt to the various attitude demands of welding gun.
7, drive between reducing motor and axletree and pass through toothed belt transmission, by regulating transmission centre-to-centre spacing can obtain larger installing space, thereby the driving reducing motor of installation relatively high power improves driving moment.
8, be provided with and independently turn to the free degree and make steer axis and wheel axis perpendicular quadrature, can realize the independent steering of wheel, improve climbing robot kinematic dexterity.
9, be provided with passive banking degree of freedom and by rolling confinement block constrained side tilt angle in positive and negative 10 degree, make climbing robot there is good curved surface adaptive capacity.
10, inclination confinement block is realized the function of constrained side degree of tilt by mechanical position limitation.
11, described steering structure and wheel rolling are all provided with independently driving mechanism.
12, the advantage that autonomous formula robot is combined with plasma MIG welding rifle is that whole welding robot system can realize plasma MIG welding and connect in autonomous, and speed of welding is fast, be the 2-3 of traditional MIG/MAG weldering doubly; Compared with conventional MIG/MAG, fusion penetration is larger; Lower because of sweating heat input, heat affected area is narrower, is difficult for causing parts distortion; Spatter significantly reduces; Welding quality is good; Plasma power supply and traditional MIG power supply organic assembling, unified coordination controlled, and makes plasma-MIG composite heat power supply solder technology become the upgrading of traditional MIG/MAG.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is structure chart of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is robot body figure of the present invention.
Fig. 3 is climbing mechanism structural representation of the present invention.
Fig. 4 is climbing mechanism trailing wheel module diagram of the present invention.
Fig. 5 is operating mechanism schematic diagram of the present invention.
Fig. 6 is sequential chart of the present invention.
Fig. 7 is permanent magnetism gap adsorbent equipment structural representation.
Fig. 8 is for driving steering integrated magnet-wheel structural representation.
Fig. 9 is the cutaway view that front-wheel is crossed steering spindle and bevel gear shaft.
Figure 10 is magnet-wheel cutaway view.
1 operating mechanism in accompanying drawing, 2 molten bath monitoring sensors, the compound welding gun of 3 plasma MIG, 4 laser tracking transducers, 5 weld seams, 6 climbing mechanisms, 7 multiple degrees of freedom The Cloud Terraces, 8 robot body control cabinets, 9 cables, 10 welding objects, 11 wire-feed motor, the 12MIG source of welding current, 13 protection gas, 14 Plasma Welding power supplys, 15 robot master control systems, 16 remote control operation boxes;
17 front-wheel modules, 18 vehicle frames, 19 motor drive controllers, 20 trailing wheel modules;
21 permanent magnets, 22 chassis, 23 wheels, 24 turbine and worm decelerators, 25 planetary reducers, 26 motors;
27 Timing Belts, 28 decelerators, 29 turn to soleplate, 30 .20 tooth straight bevel gears;
31 steering spindles, 32.60 tooth roller gears, 33.19 tooth roller gears, 34 bevel gear shafts, 35.40 tooth straight bevel gears.
36 front-wheel module permanent magnets, 37 yokes.
41 crosshead shoe transverse axis, the 42 crosshead shoe longitudinal axis, 43 linking arms, 44 weld seam tracking sensor connectors, 45 wig-wag connectors, 46 swing mechanisms, 47 welding guns, 48 weld seam tracking sensors.
The specific embodiment
Comprise robot body, control system and a plasma MIG composite welding system for the autonomous formula robot system of plasma MIG composite welding, robot body comprises climbing mechanism and operating mechanism: described climbing mechanism comprise adopt drive steering integrated magnet-wheel front-wheel module, adopt permanent magnetism gap adsorbent equipment trailing wheel module, be connected the vehicle frame of front and back wheel and be arranged on the motor drive controller on vehicle frame; Described operating mechanism comprises crosshead shoe and swing mechanism, the compound welding gun of swing mechanism front end clamping plasma MIG, the crosshead shoe that the free degree of horizontal and vertical directions is combined by two lead screw guide rails assembled units is realized, and swing mechanism adopts stepper motor collocation worm type of reduction gearing; Control system comprises sensor-based system, robot body control cabinet and robot master control system; Plasma MIG composite welding system comprises the digitlization MIG source of welding current, plasma power supply, wire-feed motor, protection gas, the compound welding gun of plasma MIG; Robot body, control system and plasma MIG composite welding system three are connected by cable.
Front-wheel module and trailing wheel module are arranged on respectively vehicle frame two ends, and in trailing wheel module, place is provided with trailing wheel chassis, and trailing wheel is provided with permanent magnet on chassis; Front-wheel module, for driving steering integrated magnet-wheel, comprises permanent magnet and wheel, and the permanent magnet of front-wheel adopts the magnetized annular permanent magnet of through-thickness; Trailing wheel module adopts permanent magnetism gap suction type, comprise permanent magnetism gap adsorbent equipment and wheel, permanent magnetism gap adsorbent equipment comprises around wheel and is arranged on the permanent magnet on trailing wheel chassis, permanent magnetism gap adsorbent equipment is arranged on chassis around trailing wheel, between described permanent magnetism gap adsorbent equipment and magnetic conduction wall, be non-contacting, by regulating the distance between chassis and magnetic conduction wall to set the air gap between permanent magnetic adhesion device and magnetic conduction wall; Climbing mechanism adopts tricycle structure, and each wheel is driving wheel, relies on the differential of two trailing wheels and the controlled steering angle of front-wheel to realize turning to and rectilinear motion on magnetic conduction wall.
Operating mechanism comprises crosshead shoe transverse axis, the crosshead shoe longitudinal axis, linking arm, weld seam tracking sensor connector, welding gun connector, crosshead shoe transverse axis and the crosshead shoe longitudinal axis are to be made up of stepper motor and precision ball screw guide rail respectively, weld seam tracking sensor is arranged on the front end of weld joint tracking connector, and welding gun connector 57 is arranged on the end of linking arm.
Sensor-based system comprises laser tracking transducer, environmental monitoring sensor and molten bath monitoring sensor; operating mechanism and environmental monitoring installation of sensors are on climbing mechanism; operating mechanism end is installed laser tracking transducer, molten bath monitoring sensor and the compound welding gun of plasma MIG; robot body control cabinet is arranged on climbing mechanism; robot body control cabinet is connected by cable with robot master control system, and the source of welding current, wire-feed motor, protection gas are connected by cable with the compound welding gun of plasma MIG.
The working method of robot control system is: operator utilizes remote control handheld box control to move near starting the arc position, completed again the adjustment of initial point position by robot sensing's control system, finally realizing weld groove center position by autonomous classification tracking weld seam follows the tracks of, robot control system adopts PCC or other Industrial PC as master control system, the groove central point deviation signal control body that laser Method Seam Tracking Sensing System gathers and operating mechanism motion; The control of plasma MIG composite welding system comprises switching value control, technological parameter setting, plasma arc and the starting the arc of MIG arc and receives arc coordination control.
Robot control system adopts multiple degrees of freedom The Cloud Terrace to realize the monitoring of macroscopical welding surroundings, completes the front starting point macrotechnique of weldering; Adopt molten bath monitoring sensor to realize the attitude adjustment of microcosmic plasma gun and MIG rifle, the molten bath monitoring of welding process, The Cloud Terrace belongs to sensor-based system.
Plasma gun and MIG rifle are arranged along weld groove direction, plasma gun is in the front of welding traffic direction, MIG rifle is at plasma gun rear, the compound welding gun of plasma MIG is that plasma gun head and MIG rifle head are integrated on a welding gun, and plasma MIG composite welding robot control system utilizes X20DI9371 input module, X20DO9322 output module to be connected with Plasma Welding power supply, the MIG source of welding current; MIG source of welding current external interface is a relay, and when after relay closes, the MIG source of welding current starts welding, and after relay disconnects, the MIG source of welding current stops welding; In welding process, control according to set logical sequence, it is characterized in that in Igniting pattern, first start plasma welding machine, after the 2S of interval, restart the MIG source of welding current, and open robot feed motion; Receive in arc process, Plasma Welding power supply, the MIG source of welding current, robot are closed simultaneously.
Plasma MIG composite welding system, robot system main control system carries out communication by RS485 and the MIG source of welding current, completes welding parameter setting and welding parameter is adjusted online by host computer control interface, and welding starts and stops.
As shown in Figure 1, plasma MIG composite welding autonomous formula robot system is made up of robot body, control system, plasma MIG composite welding system.Robot body comprises operating mechanism and climbing mechanism; control system comprises that (multiple degrees of freedom The Cloud Terrace, laser tracking transducer and molten bath monitoring sensor, robot body control cabinet and robot master control system, plasma MIG composite welding system comprises plasma power supply, the MIG source of welding current, wire-feed motor, protection gas to sensor-based system.
Robot system can be divided into " part on machine " of walking on operation workpiece and be installed on " part under machine " outside operation workpiece from space.Machine top is divided and is comprised robot body (operating mechanism, climbing mechanism), robot body control cabinet, sensor-based system, welding gun, and sensor-based system is mainly made up of laser tracking transducer, environmental monitoring sensor and molten bath monitoring sensor.Operating mechanism and environmental monitoring installation of sensors are on climbing mechanism, and operating mechanism end is installed laser tracking transducer, molten bath monitoring sensor and welding gun, and robot body control cabinet is arranged on climbing mechanism.Robot system machine bottom is divided and is comprised main control system, straighforward operation, the source of welding current, wire-feed motor, protection gas.On machine, the robot control cabinet of part is connected by cable with the main control system of part under machine, and the source of welding current, wire-feed motor, protection gas are connected by cable with the welding gun of part on machine.Cable comprises fulgurite, tracheae and holding wire.Operating mechanism end is with oscillator of welding gun, and the compound welding gun of plasma MIG clamps and attitude-adjusting system.
Part on machine: comprise robot body (operating mechanism, climbing mechanism), robot body control cabinet, sensor-based system (multiple degrees of freedom The Cloud Terrace, laser tracking transducer and molten bath monitoring sensor), welding gun.Operating mechanism and multiple degrees of freedom The Cloud Terrace are arranged on climbing mechanism, and operating mechanism end is installed laser tracking transducer, molten bath monitoring sensor, welding gun, and robot body control cabinet is arranged on climbing mechanism.Wherein climbing mechanism is collectively referred to as robot body with the operating mechanism being arranged on climbing mechanism.
Part under machine: comprise robot master control system, remote control operation box, the MIG source of welding current, Plasma Welding power supply, wire-feed motor, protection gas.On machine, the robot body control cabinet of part is connected by cable with the robot master control system of part under machine, and the MIG source of welding current, Plasma Welding power supply, wire-feed motor, protection gas are connected by cable with the welding gun of part on machine.Cable comprises fulgurite, water pipe, tracheae and holding wire.
As shown in Figure 2, robot body comprises climbing mechanism and operating mechanism.
As shown in Figure 3 and Figure 4, climbing mechanism comprises that employing drives the vehicle frame of the front-wheel module of steering integrated magnet-wheel, the trailing wheel module that adopts permanent magnetism gap adsorbent equipment, connection front and back wheel and is arranged on the motor drive controller on vehicle frame.Wherein, trailing wheel chassis adopts mild steel (as Q235) manufacture, except as supporting the function of rear-wheel structure, also forms a part for magnetic circuit as yoke be arranged on the permanent magnet on trailing wheel chassis around wheel together with.After motor, connect two stage reducer band motor car wheel, the first order is planetary reducer, and the second level is turbine and worm decelerator, and turbine and worm decelerator is connected by screw and is arranged on trailing wheel chassis.Magnet-wheel is made up of 1 permanent magnet and 2 yokes.Described permanent magnet adopts the magnetized annular permanent magnet of through-thickness, and permanent magnet can adopt high performance permanent magnetic materials as manufactures such as NdFeB, and yoke adopts mild steel (as Q235 etc.) to manufacture.
As shown in Figure 5, operating mechanism is mainly made up of crosshead shoe transverse axis, the crosshead shoe longitudinal axis, linking arm, weld seam tracking sensor connector, wig-wag connector.Crosshead shoe transverse axis and the crosshead shoe longitudinal axis are to be made up of stepper motor and precision ball screw guide rail respectively.Transverse axis is arranged on mobile platform by support, and the longitudinal axis is arranged on transverse axis slide block.Transverse axis provides the Y-axis free degree, working range 90mm; The longitudinal axis provides the Z axis free degree, working range 75mm.Crosshead shoe single shaft positioning precision 0.02mm.Linking arm is arranged on longitudinal axis slide block by fixture block, the maximum arm exhibition of linking arm 450mm, and can be by regulating fixture block clip position to carry out manual adjustments.Weld seam tracking sensor connector is clamped on linking arm, and the clip position of manual adjustments connector can provide for weld seam tracking sensor the position range of 350mm.Weld seam tracking sensor is arranged on the front end of connector, when work, to weld seam Emission Lasers bundle and scan weld seam, instructs the action of crosshead shoe and mobile platform.Wig-wag connector is arranged on the end of linking arm, and the height of connector can manual adjustments, for swing mechanism provides the adjusting range of Z-axis direction 80mm.Swing mechanism is arranged on connector, front end clamping welding gun.
Figure 6 shows that robot control system sequential chart.Control system adopts PCC or other Industrial PC as master control system, and each function plate is modularized design.Utilize the FEEDBACK CONTROL robot body climbing mechanism of laser tracking transducer and the motion of operating mechanism; Utilize the actions such as switching value control welding starts, stops; Possess the setting of remote welding parameter and adjust online function; Tool adopts multiple degrees of freedom The Cloud Terrace to realize the monitoring of macroscopical welding surroundings, adopts molten bath monitoring sensor to realize the monitoring of microcosmic welding pool; ; When operation, first start Plasma Welding power supply, after the 2S of interval, restart the MIG source of welding current, and open robot feed motion; Receive in arc process, Plasma Welding power supply, the MIG source of welding current, robot system are closed simultaneously.
Plasma gun and MIG rifle are arranged along weld groove direction, plasma gun is in the front of welding traffic direction, MIG rifle is at plasma gun rear, and plasma MIG composite welding robot control system utilizes X20DI9371 input module, X20DO9322 output module to be connected with Plasma Welding power supply, the MIG source of welding current; MIG source of welding current external interface is a relay, and when after relay closes, the MIG source of welding current starts welding, and after relay disconnects, the MIG source of welding current stops welding.In welding process, control according to set logical sequence, it is characterized in that in Igniting pattern, first start plasma welding machine, after the 2S of interval, restart the MIG source of welding current, and open robot feed motion; Receive in arc process, Plasma Welding power supply, the MIG source of welding current, robot are closed simultaneously, control sequential as shown in Figure 5.
Permanent magnetism gap adsorbent equipment as shown in Figure 7, the Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet being magnetized by 12 thickness directions forms, 6 permanent magnets of the each layout of each trailing wheel, the N utmost point and the S utmost point formation magnetic circuit that is staggered, be arranged on chassis around trailing wheel, between described permanent magnetism gap adsorbent equipment and magnetic conduction wall, be non-contacting, by regulating the distance between chassis and magnetic conduction wall to set the air gap between described permanent magnetic adhesion device and magnetic conduction wall.
Fig. 8 is the three-dimensional model diagram of front-wheel, and Fig. 9 is the cutaway view that front-wheel is crossed steering spindle and bevel gear shaft, and Figure 10 was the cutaway view of front-wheel axletree.Wherein, DC brushless motor and planetary reducer drive bevel gear shaft rotation through 20 tooth straight bevel gears and 40 tooth Straight Bevel Gear Drive, bevel gear shaft drives steering spindle rotation by 19 tooth roller gears and 60 tooth column gear transmission again, steering spindle with turn to soleplate to fix by screw attachment.Front-wheel drive motor and decelerator adopt brush direct current motor and planetary reducer, drive front-wheel by toothed belt transmission.Front-wheel is magnet-wheel, and structure is shown in Fig. 9.Magnet-wheel is made up of 1 front-wheel module permanent magnet and 2 yokes.Described permanent magnet adopts the magnetized annular permanent magnet of through-thickness, and permanent magnet can adopt high performance permanent magnetic materials as manufactures such as NdFeB, and yoke adopts mild steel (as Q235 etc.) to manufacture.
Drive a kind of embodiment of steering integrated magnet-wheel to be, roll rotating shaft one end by the sliding supported condition being arranged on car body fixed frame, the other end and turntable lower supporting plate are affixed by thread connection, turntable upper backup pad, turret supports column and turntable lower supporting plate are connected by screw, turntable cover plate and turntable upper backup pad are connected by screw, two taper roll bearings are arranged in two gripper shoes face-to-face, steering spindle is bearing on these two taper roll bearings, steering spindle is connected by flat key with 60 tooth straight-tooth gears, angular transducer power shaft and steering spindle are affixed, angular transducer support bar and turntable upper backup pad are connected by screw, angular transducer and angular transducer support bar are connected by screw, steer motor installing plate and turntable upper backup pad are connected by screw, turn to reducing motor and steer motor installing plate to be connected by screw, 20 tooth straight bevel gears are fixed in and turn on reducing motor output shaft, the 40 tooth straight bevel gears that are meshed are with it connected and are arranged on bevel gear shaft by flat key, bevel gear shaft is supported by the first deep groove ball bearing that is arranged on turntable upper backup pad, the opposite side of bevel gear shaft connects by flat key with 19 tooth straight-tooth gears, 19 tooth straight-tooth gears engage with 60 tooth straight-tooth gears, the lower end of steering spindle with turn to substrate to be connected by screw, wheel left side installing plate, wheel right side installing plate, drive motors installing plate with turn to substrate to be connected by screw, drive reducing motor and drive motors installing plate to be connected by screw, small synchronous pulley axle is affixed with the output shaft of driving reducing motor, small synchronous pulley is connected and is arranged on small synchronous pulley axle by flat key, wheel permanent-magnet body and wheel yoke are connected and are arranged on axletree by flat key, axletree is bearing between wheel left side installing plate and wheel right side installing plate by the first deep groove ball bearing and the second deep groove ball bearing, large synchronous pulley connects the opposite side that is arranged on axletree by flat key, between large synchronous pulley and small synchronous pulley, connected by Timing Belt, between tensioning running roller and tensioning running roller support bar, be connected by screw, tensioning running roller support bar is arranged on the installing plate of wheel left side by screw.Magnet-wheel comprises front-wheel module permanent magnet and wheel yoke.
Plasma MIG composite welding system of the present invention, by the digitlization MIG source of welding current, plasma power supply, wire-feed motor, protection gas, plasma MIG, compound welding gun forms.Robot system main control system carries out communication by RS485 and the MIG source of welding current, completes welding parameter setting and welding parameter is adjusted online by host computer control interface, and welding starts and stops.
First the preparation before welding.The layout that checks each system be connected, particularly robot body is adsorbed on workpiece, car body fore-and-aft direction is parallel to weld seam and guarantees that welding gun aims at weld seam substantially.By supervisory control comuter, each executing agency, sensor are checked.
Secondly, carry out the artificial setting of init state.Manually adjust welding gun height and extremely suitable state of posture of welding torch by regulating welding gun clamping and attitude-adjusting system.Utilize supervisory control comuter, the video information of environmental monitoring video camera is carried out to the observation of position while welding, state, move climbing mechanism and crosshead shoe by handheld box, carry out artificial centering.Then, carry out the setting of welding parameter, in supervisory control comuter or handheld box, carry out the setting of weldingvoltage, welding current, wire feed rate, wig-wag wobbling action and climbing mechanism pace.
Finally, start welding by handheld box, carry out the monitoring in molten bath by molten bath CCTV camera.In welding process, laser tracking transducer Real-time Feedback weld seam scanning information also instructs climbing mechanism fine setting direction of advance, instructs two axial motions of operating mechanism fine setting with this, with this guarantee welding gun when the welding all the time exactly along seam track feeding.After having welded, finish welding procedure by handheld box.
Magnetic conduction wall refers to workpiece face, and workpiece refers to welding object, and on workpiece, moves simultaneously.
It is welding gun that those skilled in the art know, that can be used for plasma MIG composite welding system that plasma MIG described in the application meets welding gun, is different from the welding gun of other types.

Claims (9)

1. for an autonomous formula robot system for plasma MIG composite welding, comprise robot body, control system and plasma MIG composite welding system, it is characterized in that:
Robot body comprises climbing mechanism (6) and operating mechanism (1): described climbing mechanism (6) comprise adopt drive steering integrated magnet-wheel front-wheel module (17), adopt permanent magnetism gap adsorbent equipment trailing wheel module (20), be connected the vehicle frame (18) of front and back wheel and be arranged on the motor drive controller (19) on vehicle frame (18); Described operating mechanism (1) comprises crosshead shoe and swing mechanism (46), swing mechanism (46) the front end clamping compound welding gun of plasma MIG (3), the crosshead shoe that the free degree of horizontal and vertical directions is combined by two lead screw guide rails assembled units is realized, and swing mechanism (46) adopts stepper motor collocation worm type of reduction gearing (28);
Control system comprises sensor-based system, robot body control cabinet (8) and robot master control system (15);
Described plasma MIG composite welding system comprises the digitlization MIG source of welding current (3), plasma power supply (12), wire-feed motor (11), protection gas (13), plasma gun and MIG welding gun (14);
Robot body, control system and plasma MIG composite welding system three are connected by cable (9).
2. a kind of autonomous formula robot system for plasma MIG composite welding according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described front-wheel module (17) and trailing wheel module (20) are arranged on respectively vehicle frame (18) two ends, locate to be provided with trailing wheel chassis (22) in trailing wheel module (20), on trailing wheel chassis (22), be provided with permanent magnet (21);
Front-wheel module (17), for driving steering integrated magnet-wheel, comprises permanent magnet (21) and wheel (23), and the permanent magnet (21) of front-wheel adopts the magnetized annular permanent magnet of through-thickness (21); Trailing wheel module (20) adopts permanent magnetism gap suction type, comprise permanent magnetism gap adsorbent equipment and wheel (23), permanent magnetism gap adsorbent equipment comprises around wheel (23) and is arranged on the permanent magnet (21) on trailing wheel chassis (22), permanent magnetism gap adsorbent equipment is arranged on chassis (22) around trailing wheel, between described permanent magnetism gap adsorbent equipment and magnetic conduction wall, be non-contacting, by regulating the distance between chassis (22) and magnetic conduction wall to set the air gap between permanent magnetic adhesion device and magnetic conduction wall;
Described climbing mechanism (6) adopts tricycle structure, and each wheel (23) is driving wheel, relies on the differential of two trailing wheels and the controlled steering angle of front-wheel to realize turning to and rectilinear motion on magnetic conduction wall.
3. a kind of autonomous formula robot system for plasma MIG composite welding according to claim 2, it is characterized in that: described operating mechanism (1) comprises crosshead shoe transverse axis (41), the crosshead shoe longitudinal axis (42), linking arm (43), weld seam tracking sensor (48) connector (44) and wig-wag connector (45), crosshead shoe transverse axis (41) is to comprise respectively stepper motor and precision ball screw guide rail with the crosshead shoe longitudinal axis (42), weld seam tracking sensor (48) is arranged on the front end of connector, wig-wag connector (45) is arranged on the end of linking arm (43), swing mechanism (46) is arranged on wig-wag connector (45), swing mechanism (46) the front end clamping compound welding gun of plasma MIG (3), plasma MIG Combined Welding welding gun (3) clamping and attitude-adjusting system.
4. a kind of autonomous formula robot system for plasma MIG composite welding according to claim 3, it is characterized in that: described sensor-based system comprises laser tracking transducer (4), environmental monitoring sensor and molten bath monitoring sensor (2), operating mechanism (1) and environmental monitoring installation of sensors are on climbing mechanism (6), operating mechanism (1) end is installed laser tracking transducer (4), molten bath monitoring sensor (2) and the compound welding gun of plasma MIG (3), robot body control cabinet (8) is arranged on climbing mechanism (6), robot body control cabinet is connected by cable with robot master control system, the source of welding current (12), wire-feed motor (11), protection gas (13) is connected by cable (9) with the compound welding gun of plasma MIG (3).
5. a kind of autonomous formula robot system for plasma MIG composite welding according to claim 4, it is characterized in that: the working method of described robot control system is: operator utilizes remote control handheld box control to move near starting the arc position, completed again the adjustment of initial point position by robot sensing's control system, finally realizing weld groove center position by autonomous classification tracking weld seam follows the tracks of, robot control system adopts PCC or other Industrial PC as master control system, the groove central point deviation signal control body that laser Method Seam Tracking Sensing System gathers and operating mechanism motion, the control of plasma MIG composite welding system comprises switching value control, technological parameter setting, plasma arc and the starting the arc of MIG arc and receives arc coordination control.
6. a kind of autonomous formula robot system for plasma MIG composite welding according to claim 4, it is characterized in that: described robot control system adopts multiple degrees of freedom The Cloud Terrace (7) to realize the monitoring of macroscopical welding surroundings, complete the front starting point macrotechnique of weldering; Adopt molten bath monitoring sensor (2) to realize the attitude adjustment of microcosmic plasma gun and MIG rifle, the molten bath monitoring of welding process, The Cloud Terrace belongs to sensor-based system.
7. a kind of autonomous formula robot system for plasma MIG composite welding according to claim 5, it is characterized in that: plasma gun and MIG rifle are arranged along weld groove direction, plasma gun is in the front of welding traffic direction, MIG rifle is at plasma gun rear, the compound welding gun of plasma MIG is that plasma gun head and MIG rifle head are integrated on a welding gun, and plasma MIG composite welding robot control system utilizes X20DI9371 input module, X20DO9322 output module to be connected with Plasma Welding power supply, the MIG source of welding current; MIG source of welding current external interface is a relay, and when after relay closes, the MIG source of welding current starts welding, and after relay disconnects, the MIG source of welding current stops welding; In welding process, control according to set logical sequence, it is characterized in that in Igniting pattern, first start plasma welding machine, after the 2S of interval, restart the MIG source of welding current, and open robot feed motion; Receive in arc process, Plasma Welding power supply, the MIG source of welding current, robot are closed simultaneously.
8. a kind of autonomous formula robot system for plasma MIG composite welding according to claim 6, it is characterized in that: described plasma MIG composite welding system, robot system main control system carries out communication by RS485 and the MIG source of welding current, complete welding parameter setting and welding parameter is adjusted online by host computer control interface, welding starts and stops.
9. a kind of autonomous formula robot system for plasma MIG composite welding according to claim 2, it is characterized in that: the steering integrated magnet-wheel concrete structure of described driving is: roll rotating shaft one end and be arranged on car body fixed frame, other end turntable lower supporting plate connects, turntable upper backup pad, turret supports column is connected with turntable lower supporting plate, turntable cover plate is connected with turntable upper backup pad, taper roll bearing is arranged in two gripper shoes, steering spindle (31) is bearing on taper roll bearing, steering spindle (31) is connected with 60 tooth straight-tooth gears, angular transducer power shaft and steering spindle (31) are affixed, angular transducer support bar is connected with turntable upper backup pad, angular transducer is connected with angular transducer support bar, steer motor installing plate is connected with turntable upper backup pad, turn to reducing motor (26) to be connected with steer motor installing plate, 20 tooth straight bevel gears (30) are fixed in and turn on reducing motor (26) output shaft, the 40 tooth straight bevel gears (35) that are meshed are with it mounted on bevel gear shaft (34), bevel gear shaft (34) is supported by the first deep groove ball bearing that is arranged on turntable upper backup pad, the opposite side of bevel gear shaft (34) connects by flat key with 19 tooth straight-tooth gears, 19 tooth straight-tooth gears engage with 60 tooth straight-tooth gears, the lower end of steering spindle (31) is connected with turning to substrate, wheel left side installing plate, wheel right side installing plate, drive motors installing plate is connected with turning to substrate, drive reducing motor (26) to be connected with drive motors installing plate, little Timing Belt (27) wheel shaft is affixed with the output shaft of driving reducing motor (26), little Timing Belt (27) wheel is connected and is arranged on little Timing Belt (27) wheel shaft by flat key, front-wheel module permanent magnet (21) and wheel yoke (37) are connected and are arranged on axletree by flat key, axletree is bearing between wheel left side installing plate and wheel right side installing plate by the first deep groove ball bearing and the second deep groove ball bearing, large Timing Belt (27) wheel connects by flat key the opposite side that is arranged on axletree, between large Timing Belt (27) wheel and little Timing Belt (27) wheel, connected by Timing Belt (27), between tensioning running roller and tensioning running roller support bar, be connected by screw, tensioning running roller support bar is arranged on the installing plate of wheel left side by screw, drive between reducing motor (26) and axletree by Timing Belt (27) transmission, steering driving mechanism also comprises steering spindle (31), steering spindle (31) bottom is provided with drive mechanism for wheel and roller, described steering spindle (31) line and wheel axis perpendicular quadrature.
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