CN102664440A - Sliding-mode-principle-based rapid charging control method for hybrid energy storage system of electric automobile - Google Patents

Sliding-mode-principle-based rapid charging control method for hybrid energy storage system of electric automobile Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102664440A
CN102664440A CN2012101546432A CN201210154643A CN102664440A CN 102664440 A CN102664440 A CN 102664440A CN 2012101546432 A CN2012101546432 A CN 2012101546432A CN 201210154643 A CN201210154643 A CN 201210154643A CN 102664440 A CN102664440 A CN 102664440A
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current
ultracapacitor
current transformer
voltage
control
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CN102664440B (en
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刘方诚
刘进军
张斌
张昊东
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Jiangsu Hanwate Electric Power Technology Co. Ltd.
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Xian Jiaotong University
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Abstract

The invention provides a sliding-mode-principle-based rapid charging control method for a hybrid energy storage system of an electric automobile. The rapid charging control method comprises the steps of firstly, controlling the current of a storage battery to be modulating periodic positive-negative alternating pulse current to realize rapid charging; secondly, absorbing the energy fed back to a direct-current bus when the storage battery is used for discharging by utilizing a supercapacitor so as to prevent the pumping of the voltage of the direct-current bus; and finally, when the storage battery is charged, adjusting the output current of the supercapacitor to realize the control on the storage energy of the supercapacitor and further preventing the voltage of the supercapacitor from exceeding the upper limit born by the device, wherein the influence on the performance of the system caused by the change of the work points is reduced as the control of a controller of the supercapacitor adopts a sliding mode control method. Being known from the simulation result, the sliding-mode-principle-based rapid charging control method can well control the current of the storage battery so as to enable the current to form into positive and negative pulses, and meets the stability of the voltage of the direct-current bus and the control on the terminal voltage of the supercapacitor.

Description

Electric automobile mixed energy storage system control method for quickly charging based on the sliding formwork principle
[technical field]
The present invention relates to new forms of energy (electric automobile) technical field, particularly utilize hybrid accumulator to realize the control method of accumulator of electric car positive negative pulse stuffing quick charge.
[background technology]
Since the seventies in last century, the energy and environmental protection become one of focus of world's main flow concern gradually.Serious day by day along with the continuous increase of energy resource consumption and problem of environmental pollution, countries in the world be to coming into effect energy-saving and emission-reduction plan targetedly, wherein how restricting vehicle tail gas become basically each country required in the face of and problem to be solved arranged.Electric automobile is because of its low emission, and the characteristics of low noise and getting most of the attention are considered to the best substitute of traditional fuel-engined vehicle.
Yet at present in the middle of the application and research of electric automobile; Have two comparatively tangible 'bottleneck' restrictions extensively popularizing of electric automobile: the one, the life-span of storage battery; Except the material that continuous improvement battery is adopted; Among existing research, multiple energy storage device is made up the condition of work that the mixed energy storage system that uses also can effectively improve storage battery according to its different characteristic, prolong the useful life of storage battery; Another is the long charging interval of storage battery, can influence the cruising of electric automobile.Under the low situation of current charging terminal popularity rate, had influence on the marketing of electric automobile.
Find that through literature search to the problem that how to shorten the charge in batteries time, the researcher is through being controlled to battery current periodically positive negative impulse current realization quick charge.Among the initial charger design, adopt additional discharge resistance to realize negative-going pulse.The part Study scheme adopts the additional magnetic components and parts to realize the energy feedback, promotes efficient, but under the large-power occasions situation, the volume and weight of required magnetic element all can influence the overall performance of electric automobile.Also having the part Study scheme is to adopt two way convertor to realize the energy feedback; Also there is drawback in this scheme under large-power occasions; The energy that promptly is fed back to dc bus can cause DC bus-bar voltage pump liter, influence control effect, or even influence the stability of a system.
Below provide the pertinent literature of retrieval:
[1]W.B.BurLen?and?J.H.Big,U.S.patent?No.3597613.
[2]W.B.BdettandR.V.Ladrson,U.S.Patent?No.3614583.
[3]C.C.Hua?and?M.Y.Lin,“A?Study?of?Charging?Control?of?Lead-Acid?Battery?for?Electric?Vehicles,”International?Symposium?on?Industrial?Electmnies,lSlE?2000,pp.135-140.
[4]Hsieh,Y.C.;Moo,C.S.;Wu,C.K.;Cheng,J.C.;,"A?non-dissipative?reflex?charging?circuit,"Telecommunications?Energy?Conference,2003.INTELEC'03.The?25th?International,vol.,no.,pp.679-683,23-23Oct.2003
[5]Tseng,K.C.;Liang,T.J.;Chen,J.F.;Chang,M.T.,"High?frequency?positive/negative?pulse?charger?with?power?factor?correction,"Power?Electronics?Specialists?Conference,2002.pesc?02.2002IEEE?33rdAnnual,vol.2,no.,pp.671-675vol.2,2002
[6]Cheng,P.H.;Chen,C.L.;,"High?efficiency?and?nondissipative?fast?charging?strategy,"Electric?Power?Applications,IEE?Proceedings-,vol.150,no.5,pp.539-545,9Sept.2003
[7]Wang,J.B.;Chuang,C.Y,"Design?considerations?of?microprocessor-controlled?multiphase?battery?charger?with?fast-charging?strategy,"Electric?Power?Applications,IET,vol.1,no.2,pp.143-152,March?2007
[summary of the invention]
To the defective or the deficiency of above-mentioned existing theory and technical existence, the objective of the invention is to propose a kind of electric automobile mixed energy storage system control method for quickly charging based on the sliding formwork principle.This control method can not added under the condition of extra means; Realization is for the positive negative pulse stuffing charging of storage battery; The amplitude of current impulse, frequency and duty ratio all can be modulated by battery types; Effectively kept DC bus-bar voltage in addition, can adjust the energy of ultracapacitor simultaneously, kept system stability through the current limit of adjustment ultracapacitor.
To achieve these goals, the present invention adopts following technical scheme:
Control method based on the electric automobile mixed energy storage system quick charge of sliding formwork principle is characterized in that, may further comprise the steps:
Step 1, according to predefined charge in batteries current waveform profile, control storage battery converting device is with the periodicity positive negative impulse current And Storage battery is charged, wherein The amplitude of charge in batteries pulse, the duty ratio of charging pulse are D P, Be the amplitude of discharge pulse, the duty ratio of discharge pulse is D N
Step 2 is at charging station current transformer control loop, with the DC bus-bar voltage reference value With DC bus-bar voltage instantaneous value v DcSubtract each other, send into voltage regulator, obtain the current-order of charging station current transformer
Step 3 is with charging station current transformer current-order With charging station current transformer current instantaneous value i StationSubtract each other, difference is sent into current regulator, obtain charging station current transformer control modulating wave, do relatively obtaining charging station current transformer drive signal with the carrier wave of PWM modulator;
Step 4 is at ultracapacitor current transformer control loop, with the DC bus-bar voltage reference value With DC bus-bar voltage instantaneous value v DcSubtract each other, obtain difference DELTA v Dc, multiply by proportionality coefficient K, obtain the electric current loop instruction of super capacitor current transformer The value of proportionality coefficient K is greater than 10;
Step 5 is instructed ultracapacitor current transformer electric current loop Send into saturation element and carry out amplitude limit, then with ultracapacitor current transformer current instantaneous value i SCSubtract each other, obtain difference DELTA i SC
Step 6 is utilized the Δ v that obtains among step 4 and the step 5 DcWith Δ i SCSum is sent into the integration saturation element, calculates the modulation signal M of super capacitor current transformer, and computing formula is following:
M=K 1Δv dc+K 2Δi SC+K 3∫(Δv dc+Δi SC)dt (1)
K wherein 1, K 2, K 3Coefficient value be positive number;
Step 7, the terminal voltage v of measurement ultracapacitor SCStagnate and encircle logic determines, according to the terminal voltage v of ultracapacitor SCChange the saturation value of the super capacitor current transformer current reference value among the step 5, as the terminal voltage v of ultracapacitor SCThe higher limit v that is higher than the terminal voltage of ultracapacitor SC_HI, then the saturation element lower limit among the step 5 is set to-i SC-setTerminal voltage v when ultracapacitor SCBe lower than the lower limit v of the terminal voltage of ultracapacitor SC_LO, then the saturation element lower limit among the step 5 is set to 0; Wherein need satisfy relation:
| i SC - set | > | i batt - × v batt × D P v SC × ( 1 - D P - D N ) | - - - ( 2 )
Among this formula, D PThe duty ratio of expression charging pulse, The amplitude of expression discharge pulse, D NThe duty ratio of expression discharge pulse, v BattBe accumulator voltage, v SCIt is the ultracapacitor terminal voltage.
The present invention further improves and is: for making things convenient for power measurement and charging, the charging station current transformer is unidirectional current transformer, can only be with energy from charging station to the electric automobile transmission, can't be to feedback charging station feedback energy.
The present invention further improves and is: voltage saturation link higher limit is 0 in the step 6, and promptly ultracapacitor current transformer control loop Voltage loop is at dc bus instantaneous voltage v DcBe lower than the DC bus-bar voltage reference value The time output valve perseverance be 0.
The present invention further improves and is: the modulation signal of super capacitor current transformer is generated by formula (1) in the step 6.
M=K 1Δv dc+K 2Δi SC+K 3∫(Δv dc+Δi SC)dt (1)
Compared with prior art; The present invention has following beneficial effect: the present invention provides the electric automobile mixed energy storage system control method for quickly charging based on the sliding formwork principle; At first battery current is controlled to the periodic positive and negative ALT pulse electric current that can modulate and realizes quick charge; Next is fed back to dc bus when utilizing ultracapacitor to be absorbed in battery discharging energy prevents DC bus-bar voltage pump liter, at last when charge in batteries; Output current through regulating ultracapacitor is realized the control for the ultracapacitor stored energy; In order to avoid the voltage of ultracapacitor surpasses the device tolerance upper limit, wherein adopt sliding-mode control for the control of ultracapacitor controller, reduce the influence of changing operate-point for systematic function.Can see that from simulation result the present invention can control battery current well makes it form positive negative pulse stuffing, and satisfy the stable of DC bus-bar voltage and for the control of ultracapacitor terminal voltage.
[description of drawings]
Fig. 1 is the charging system for electric automobile structure chart based on mixed energy storage system;
Fig. 2 is the control block diagram of charging station current transformer;
Fig. 3 is the battery current reference waveform;
Fig. 4 is the control block diagram of storage battery converting device;
Fig. 5 is the stagnant ring logic comparison diagram in the ultracapacitor control loop;
Fig. 6 is the control block diagram of ultracapacitor current transformer;
Fig. 7 is a DC bus-bar voltage under the A operating mode, battery current, the simulation waveform figure of ultracapacitor voltage;
Fig. 8 is a DC bus-bar voltage under the B operating mode, battery current, the simulation waveform figure of ultracapacitor voltage;
Fig. 9 is a DC bus-bar voltage under the C operating mode, battery current, the simulation waveform figure of ultracapacitor voltage.
[embodiment]
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing the present invention is done and to describe in further detail.
With reference to Fig. 1, comprise storage battery, ultracapacitor, charging station current transformer, storage battery converting device and ultracapacitor current transformer based on the charging system for electric automobile of mixed energy storage system.Generally; Power measurement and charging for ease, charging station current transformer are unidirectional current transformers, promptly can only energy be provided to electric automobile and can't be to the charging station feedback energy; What Fig. 2 represented is the control block diagram of charging station current transformer, with the DC bus-bar voltage reference value With DC bus-bar voltage instantaneous value v DcSubtract each other, send into voltage regulator, obtain the current-order of charging station current transformer With charging station current transformer current-order With charging station current transformer current instantaneous value i StationSubtract each other, difference is sent into current regulator, obtain charging station current transformer control modulating wave, do relatively obtaining charging station current transformer drive signal with the carrier wave of PWM modulator.Positive negative pulse stuffing charging current such as Fig. 3 that storage battery adopted, positive pulse is a charging pulse, the charging pulse amplitude does The duty ratio of charging pulse is D P, negative pulse is a discharge pulse, Be the amplitude of discharge pulse, the duty ratio of discharge pulse is D NControl block diagram such as Fig. 4 of storage battery converting device, storage battery converting device are controlled to and realize charging current waveform shown in Figure 3, and concrete performing step is with the charging current waveform reference value as shown in Figure 3 of storage battery and the transient current i of storage battery BattSubtract each other, difference is sent into adjuster, generate storage battery converting device control modulating wave, do relatively obtaining charging station current transformer drive signal with the carrier wave of PWM modulator.
Yet in charging process, storage battery need be to dc bus feedback portion of energy, if this part energy can not be by timely absorption, DC bus-bar voltage will the pump liter so, has influence on the stability of system.In order to address this problem, the ultracapacitor Be Controlled absorbs the energy of storage battery to the dc bus feedback, keeps the stability of a system.So simultaneously; For the energy that limits ultracapacitor is no more than the higher limit that can bear, also need judge, for avoiding the frequent variations of system's control structure for the energy storage state of ultracapacitor; Adopt stagnant ring logic to compare, as the terminal voltage v of ultracapacitor like Fig. 5 SCThe higher limit v that is higher than the terminal voltage of ultracapacitor SC_HI, then the saturation element lower limit among the step 5 is set to-i SC-setTerminal voltage v when ultracapacitor SCBe lower than the lower limit v of the terminal voltage of ultracapacitor SC_LO, then the saturation element lower limit is set to 0; Change the amplitude limit value of ultracapacitor discharging current.Thereby among the endergonic process of storage battery, control ultracapacitor current transformer comes the release portion energy, thereby reaches the purpose of control ultracapacitor voltage, specifically controls block diagram such as Fig. 6.
Fig. 7, Fig. 8, Fig. 9 are respectively the simulation waveform under three kinds of operating mode A, B, C, and each duty parameter is following:
1. Be 1.4C, D PBe 0.5, For-1.7C, D NBe 0.1, the cycle is 200ms;
2. Be 1.4C, D PBe 0.6, For-2.1C, D NBe 0.15, the cycle is 500ms;
3. Be 0.7C, D PBe 0.5, For-1C, D NBe 0.15, the cycle is 500ms;
Wherein The amplitude of charge in batteries pulse, the duty ratio of charging pulse are D P, Be the amplitude of discharge pulse, the duty ratio of discharge pulse is D N, C is the capacity of expression storage battery.
The Control Parameter of analogue system is following:
K=50,K 1=K 2=K 3=10;
Can find out from simulation result; No matter be under any operating mode; Battery current has been realized the positive negative impulse current charging curve of design in advance, but has verified the waveform modularity of this control method, and meanwhile DC bus-bar voltage is kept constant; Ultracapacitor voltage value also has been limited within the certain limit, has avoided the influence for the stability of a system.
The present invention proposes a kind of electric automobile mixed energy storage system control method for quickly charging based on the sliding formwork principle, may further comprise the steps:
Step 1, according to predefined charge in batteries current waveform profile, control storage battery converting device is with the periodicity positive negative impulse current And Storage battery is charged, wherein The amplitude of charge in batteries pulse, the duty ratio of charging pulse are D P, Be the amplitude of discharge pulse, the duty ratio of discharge pulse is D N
Step 2 is at charging station current transformer control loop, with the DC bus-bar voltage reference value With DC bus-bar voltage instantaneous value v DcSubtract each other, send into voltage regulator, obtain the current-order of charging station current transformer
Step 3 is with charging station current transformer current-order With charging station current transformer current instantaneous value i StationSubtract each other, difference is sent into current regulator, obtain charging station current transformer control modulating wave, do relatively obtaining charging station current transformer drive signal with the carrier wave of PWM modulator;
Step 4 is at ultracapacitor current transformer control loop, with the DC bus-bar voltage reference value With DC bus-bar voltage instantaneous value v DcSubtract each other, obtain difference DELTA v Dc, multiply by proportionality coefficient K, obtain the electric current loop instruction of super capacitor current transformer The value of proportionality coefficient K should be much larger than 10;
Step 5 is instructed ultracapacitor current transformer electric current loop Send into saturation element and carry out amplitude limit, then with ultracapacitor current transformer current instantaneous value i SCSubtract each other, obtain difference DELTA i SC
Step 6 is utilized the Δ v that obtains among step 4 and the step 5 DcWith Δ i SCSum is sent into the integration saturation element, calculates the modulation signal M of super capacitor current transformer, and computing formula is following:
M=K 1Δv dc+K 2Δi SC+K 3∫(Δv dc+Δi SC)dt (1)
K wherein 1, K 2, K 3The coefficient value ratio be 1:1:1;
Step 7, the terminal voltage v of measurement ultracapacitor SCStagnate and encircle logic determines, according to the terminal voltage v of ultracapacitor SCChange the saturation value of the super capacitor current transformer current reference value among the step 5, as the terminal voltage v of ultracapacitor SCThe higher limit v that is higher than the terminal voltage of ultracapacitor SC_HI, then the saturation element lower limit among the step 5 is set to-i SC-setTerminal voltage v when ultracapacitor SCBe lower than the lower limit v of the terminal voltage of ultracapacitor SC_LO, then the saturation element lower limit among the step 5 is set to 0; Wherein need satisfy relation:
| i SC - set | > | i batt - × v batt × D P v SC × ( 1 - D P - D N ) | - - - ( 2 ) .
Among this formula, D PThe duty ratio of expression charging pulse, The amplitude of expression discharge pulse, D NThe duty ratio of expression discharge pulse, v BattBe accumulator voltage, v SCIt is the ultracapacitor terminal voltage;
Provided a kind of electric automobile mixed energy storage system control method for quickly charging among the present invention based on the sliding formwork principle.And utilize MATLAB/Simulink that this control method has been carried out simulating, verifying.Can see that from the result of emulation this method can realize the accumulator positive negative pulse charging well, and it is constant to keep DC bus-bar voltage, can also control ultracapacitor voltage simultaneously, thereby keep the stability of a system.

Claims (3)

1. based on the electric automobile mixed energy storage system control method for quickly charging of sliding formwork principle, it is characterized in that, may further comprise the steps:
Step 1, according to predefined charge in batteries current waveform profile, control storage battery converting device is with the periodicity positive negative impulse current And Storage battery is charged, wherein The amplitude of charge in batteries pulse, the duty ratio of charging pulse are D P, Be the amplitude of discharge pulse, the duty ratio of discharge pulse is D N
Step 2 is at charging station current transformer control loop, with the DC bus-bar voltage reference value With DC bus-bar voltage instantaneous value v DcSubtract each other, send into voltage regulator, obtain the current-order of charging station current transformer
Step 3 is with charging station current transformer current-order With charging station current transformer current instantaneous value i StationSubtract each other, difference is sent into current regulator, obtain charging station current transformer control modulating wave, do relatively obtaining charging station current transformer drive signal with the carrier wave of PWM modulator;
Step 4 is at ultracapacitor current transformer control loop, with the DC bus-bar voltage reference value With DC bus-bar voltage instantaneous value v DcSubtract each other, obtain difference DELTA v Dc, multiply by proportionality coefficient K, obtain the electric current loop instruction of super capacitor current transformer The value of proportionality coefficient K is greater than 10;
Step 5 is instructed ultracapacitor current transformer electric current loop Send into saturation element and carry out amplitude limit, then with ultracapacitor current transformer current instantaneous value i SCSubtract each other, obtain difference DELTA i SC
Step 6 is utilized the Δ v that obtains among step 4 and the step 5 DcWith Δ i SCSum is sent into the integration saturation element, calculates the modulation signal M of super capacitor current transformer, and computing formula is following:
M=K 1Δv dc+K 2Δi SC+K 3∫(Δv dc+Δi SC)dt (1)
K wherein 1, K 2, K 3Coefficient value be positive number;
Step 7, the terminal voltage v of measurement ultracapacitor SCStagnate and encircle logic determines, according to the terminal voltage v of ultracapacitor SCChange the saturation value of the super capacitor current transformer current reference value among the step 5, as the terminal voltage v of ultracapacitor SCThe higher limit v that is higher than the terminal voltage of ultracapacitor SC_HI, then the saturation element lower limit among the step 5 is set to-i SC-setTerminal voltage v when ultracapacitor SCBe lower than the lower limit v of the terminal voltage of ultracapacitor SC_LO, then the saturation element lower limit among the step 5 is set to 0; Wherein need satisfy relation:
| i SC - set | > | i batt - × v batt × D P v SC × ( 1 - D P - D N ) | - - - ( 2 )
Among this formula, D PThe duty ratio of expression charging pulse, The amplitude of expression discharge pulse, D NThe duty ratio of expression discharge pulse, v BattBe accumulator voltage, v SCIt is the ultracapacitor terminal voltage.
2. the electric automobile mixed energy storage system control method for quickly charging based on the sliding formwork principle according to claim 1 is characterized in that the charging station current transformer is unidirectional current transformer, can only be with energy from charging station to the electric automobile transmission, oppositely feedback.
3. the electric automobile mixed energy storage system control method for quickly charging based on the sliding formwork principle according to claim 1; It is characterized in that; Voltage saturation link higher limit is 0 in the step 6, and promptly ultracapacitor current transformer control loop Voltage loop is at dc bus instantaneous voltage v DcBe lower than the DC bus-bar voltage reference value The time output valve perseverance be 0.
CN201210154643.2A 2012-05-18 2012-05-18 Sliding-mode-principle-based rapid charging control method for hybrid energy storage system of electric automobile Expired - Fee Related CN102664440B (en)

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Cited By (4)

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CN104184149A (en) * 2014-08-21 2014-12-03 上海电力学院 Voltage fluctuation stabilizing method based on sliding mode control and super-capacitor
CN104283298A (en) * 2014-09-28 2015-01-14 新疆希望电子有限公司 Storage battery and super-capacitor hybrid energy storage charging and discharging current control method
CN104578729B (en) * 2014-12-22 2017-03-29 广州金升阳科技有限公司 A kind of input filter method and the AC/DC switch converters using the method
CN106575106A (en) * 2014-08-15 2017-04-19 帝斯贝思数字信号处理和控制工程有限公司 Simulation apparatus and method for simulating a peripheral circuit arrangement that can be connected to a regulating device

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CN102195328A (en) * 2010-03-09 2011-09-21 通用电气公司 System and method for charging an energy storage system for an electric or hybrid-electric vehicle
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JP2002095174A (en) * 2000-09-13 2002-03-29 Casio Comput Co Ltd Power system and its charging method
KR100949260B1 (en) * 2009-08-13 2010-03-25 정연종 Battery prediction control algorism for hybrid electric vehicle
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Cited By (6)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN106575106A (en) * 2014-08-15 2017-04-19 帝斯贝思数字信号处理和控制工程有限公司 Simulation apparatus and method for simulating a peripheral circuit arrangement that can be connected to a regulating device
CN106575106B (en) * 2014-08-15 2020-07-24 帝斯贝思数字信号处理和控制工程有限公司 Simulation device and method for simulating a peripheral circuit arrangement which can be connected to a control device
CN104184149A (en) * 2014-08-21 2014-12-03 上海电力学院 Voltage fluctuation stabilizing method based on sliding mode control and super-capacitor
CN104184149B (en) * 2014-08-21 2017-05-24 上海电力学院 Voltage fluctuation stabilizing method based on sliding mode control and super-capacitor
CN104283298A (en) * 2014-09-28 2015-01-14 新疆希望电子有限公司 Storage battery and super-capacitor hybrid energy storage charging and discharging current control method
CN104578729B (en) * 2014-12-22 2017-03-29 广州金升阳科技有限公司 A kind of input filter method and the AC/DC switch converters using the method

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