CN102646745B - Photovoltaic device and solar battery - Google Patents

Photovoltaic device and solar battery Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102646745B
CN102646745B CN201210095940.4A CN201210095940A CN102646745B CN 102646745 B CN102646745 B CN 102646745B CN 201210095940 A CN201210095940 A CN 201210095940A CN 102646745 B CN102646745 B CN 102646745B
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microballoon
photovoltaic
nano wire
incidence
receiving
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CN102646745A (en
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潘锋
梁军
周航
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Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School
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Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/50Photovoltaic [PV] energy

Abstract

The invention discloses a photovoltaic device and a solar battery comprising the photovoltaic device. The photovoltaic device comprises three regions including a transparent electrode region, a window region and an absorbing region, wherein at least one face of six faces of in-light faces and back faces of the three regions is provided with a low-dimensional composite interface structure formed by contacting nano wires or nano micro-ball points. The solar battery prepared by the photovoltaic device disclosed by the invention utilizes a bionic low-dimensional composite interface structure to collect sunlight and takes the nano wires or the nano micro-balls as surface plasmons, so as to further enhance light trapping effects. Meanwhile, controllable doping can be formed through controllable point contact and a potential field which can reduce a hole and electron compounding possibility and is good for transmitting holes or electrons is provided, so that the separating efficiency and the transportation capability of electron holes are improved and the efficient photovoltaic effect is realized; and through regulating and controlling a doping interface, energy band engineering is adjusted, the photovoltaic current and/or voltage is improved and the photovoltaic conversion capability is improved.

Description

A kind of photovoltaic device and solar cell
Technical field
The present invention relates to photoelectric conversion material field, particularly relate to a kind of photovoltaic device and the solar cell containing this photovoltaic device.
Background technology
The mankind enter 21st century, and environmental pollution and energy shortage more and more govern the sustainable development of society.The renewable energy technologies such as solar energy represent the developing direction of clean energy resource, and the solar energy power generating as most sustainable development desired characteristics will enter mankind's energy resource structure and becomes the important component part of basic energy resource.China also it can be used as the important foundation condition of the novel society of creating policy sustainable development to list in national medium & long term sci-tech development program.From wide significance, the tellurian energy all comes from the sun after all.Except nuclear energy and geothermal energy etc. can think the energy that stores to get off in earth forming process, other all energy all comes from the huge energy that thermonuclear reaction that the sun occurs discharges, and comprises regenerative resource and fossil energy.The total radiation energy that the sun is launched is approximately 3.75 × 10 26w, consider earth atmosphere reflection and absorb after, the solar energy that in 1 year, earth surface accepts is up to 1.05 × 10 18kWh is approximately the beginning of this century 10,000 times of whole world primary energy total amount consumed.The sun brings light to the mankind, also brings inexhaustible, nexhaustible natural energy resources to the mankind, makes us see following hope.
Improve the efficiency of solar cell, must from following four aspect seeking breakthroughs: 1) realize the absorption of solar cell to the full spectrum of sunlight, namely fall into luminous effect; 2) efficiency that photon converts electronics to is strengthened, i.e. photoelectric effect; 3) improve the transport of photo-generated carrier and improve the ability of electrode collection, i.e. photovoltaic effect; 4) photovoltaic voltage is increased, that is photovoltaic effect.In current research, low-dimensional materials composite interface structures application in solar cells and start to receive publicity on the aspect that affects of light absorption, mainly study in following several respects:
(1) one of the present inventor has prepared non pinetallic nano line (silicon nanowires), is applied to silicon-base thin-film battery and obtains sunken light effect [1];
(2) Vassilios utilizes metal nano ball to form light trapping structure [2];
(3) Daniel Inns utilizes nonmetal microballoon (silicon receive microballoon) to realize light trapping structure as cell light catoptric arrangement [3];
(4) HarryA.Atwater passes through the contact of analog computation metal nano ball and solar cell, can realize triple effect, a) forms light trapping structure at battery surface; B) light trapping structure is formed at semiconductor layer and transparency electrode interface; C) form surface plasmons structure to realize falling into light function in extinction district and back electrode interface [4];
(5) one of the present inventor is at cell backside by copper nano-wire and cadmium telluride cells back contacts, and heavily doped by annealing, acquisition tunnel junction structure, improves battery performance [5].
But by the compound interface engineering of controlled low-dimensional materials and battery, system breaks through and falls into the application in solar cells of luminous effect, photoelectric effect and photovoltaic effect and not yet have relevant research report to the impact of light absorption as above.
List of references
[1]Hang Zhou,Alan Colli,Arman Ahnood,Yang Yang,Nalin Rupesinghe,TimButler,Ibraheem Haneef,Pritesh Hiralal,Arokia Nathan,Gehan A.J.Amaratunga,Arrays of Parallel Connected CoaxialMultiwall-Carbon-Nanotube-Amorphous-Silicon Solar Cells,Adv.Mater.,21,3919-3923,2009.
[2]Vassilios Yannopapas,Nikolay V.Vitanov,Ultra-subwavelength focusing oflight by a monolayer of metallic nanoshells with an adsorbed defect,phys.stat.sol.(RRL)2,287-289,2008.
[3]Daniel Inns,Lei Shi,Armin G.Aberle,Silica Nanospheres as Back SurfaceReflectors for Crystalline Silicon Thin-film Solar Cells,Prog.Photovolt:Res.Appl.,16,187-194,2008.
[4]Harry A.Atwater,Albert Polman,“Plasmonics for improved photovoltaicdevices”Nature Material,9,205-213,2010.
[5]Jun Liang,Hui Bi,Dongyun Wan,Fuqiang Huang,Novel CuNanowires/Graphene as Back Contact for CdTe Solar Cells,Adv.Func.Mater.,22,1267-1271,2012.
Summary of the invention
The object of the application is to provide a kind of photovoltaic device, and the solar cell containing this photovoltaic device.
To achieve these goals, the application have employed following technical scheme:
This application discloses a kind of photovoltaic device, comprise transparent electrical polar region, window region, uptake zone, there is at the incidence surface at least one district of transparent electrical polar region, window region, uptake zone the low-dimensional composite interface structures formed with nano wire and/or microballoon point cantact of receiving.
Further, in the photovoltaic device of the application, there is at the back side of its uptake zone the low-dimensional composite interface structures formed with nano wire and/or microballoon point cantact of receiving.
In the execution mode of the application, nano wire, the material of microballoon received are metal material or nonmetallic materials or metal and nonmetallic composite material; Wherein metal material is selected from copper, nickel, zinc, tin, magnesium, aluminium, manganese, chromium, cadmium, tellurium, indium, antimony, titanium, gold, platinum, molybdenum, one or several in silver; Nonmetallic materials are selected from silicon, germanium, selenium, carbon, boron nitride, cadmium sulfide, zinc sulphide, titanium dioxide, silicon dioxide, zinc oxide, copper sulfide, vanadium oxide, lithium compound and their alloy, and polystyrene, polythiophene, one or several in fullerene and their derivative, described carbon comprises at least one in Graphene, CNT (carbon nano-tube) and ambiguity carbon; Metal and nonmetallic composite material comprise the composite material that metal material wraps up nonmetallic materials, or the composite material of nonmetallic materials coated metal material.
Further, the diameter of nano wire is 5nm-500nm, and the length of nano wire is 50nm-5mm, and the spacing between nano wire is 10nm-100 μm.
Further, the diameter of microballoon received is 50nm-500 μm, and the spacing received between microballoon is 0-100 μm.
In the execution mode of the application, point cantact comprises nano wire or receives microballoon and basal plane and forms the point cantact of alloy, nano wire or receive microballoon and basal plane and do not form at least one in the point cantact of alloy; Wherein, nano wire or receive microballoon and basal plane and formed in the point cantact of alloy, the diameter of alloy or the degree of depth be the 0.1-10 of nanowire diameter doubly, or receive microsphere diameter 0.01-10 doubly.
In the photovoltaic device of the application, the material of uptake zone is selected from least one in two or six compounds of group, three or five compounds of group, silicon materials, organic photoelectrical material, dye sensitization material.
Further, two or six compounds of group are selected from least one in CdTe material, CuInSe material, CuInGaSe material, CuZnSeS material; Three or five compounds of group are selected from least one in GaAs material, InP material, InGaP material; Silicon materials are the one in monocrystalline silicon, polysilicon, silicon thin film, nanocrystal silicon particle; Organic photoelectrical material is selected from least one in the blue or green zinc of phthalein, methyl leaf woods, anthracene, biphenyl, half cyanines class and derivative and polythiophene; Dye sensitization material comprises TiO 2and coloring agent, described coloring agent comprises inorganic material or organic material, described inorganic material comprises ruthenium dye, and described organic material is selected from least one in indoline-like dyestuff, Coumarins dyestuff, triphen amine dyestuff, cyanine type dye, square type dye, dialkyl benzene amine dyestuff, carbazoles dyestuff, fluorenes class dyestuff, perylene kinds dyestuff, tetrahydro chinolines dyestuff, porphyrin dyestuff, phthalocyanines dye.
In the photovoltaic device of the application, the dimension of uptake zone is in one in nano particle, block, film and pellicular cascade, film and block lamination.
Disclosed herein as well is a kind of solar cell containing above-mentioned photovoltaic device.
Owing to adopting above technical scheme, beneficial effect of the present invention is:
The photovoltaic device of the application and solar cell, use for reference the special construction of moth eyeball surface, the interface of photovoltaic material is designed low-dimensional composite interface structures, adds the luminous flux injecting photovoltaic material, improve the collection of photovoltaic material to sunlight, realize its light regime function.Meanwhile, using nano wire and/or receive microballoon as surface plasmons (SPP), strengthen further and fall into luminous effect, strengthen when not weakening electric property and fall into light effect.In addition, when forming low-dimensional composite interface structures, point cantact is controlled, the doping of forming region, the degree of depth and controlled diameter, provide one and can reduce hole and electron recombination chance, be beneficial to again the potential field of transporting holes or electronics, thus improve separative efficiency and the transport capacity of electron hole, the time (speed) that the life-span of photo-generated carrier (photon converts electrons to) and electrode are gathered matches, the photoelectron produced can synchronously become " voltaic electronics ", realizes efficient photovoltaic effect.And by the regulation and control of point cantact to doped interface, regulate energy band engineering, improve photovoltaic electric current and/or voltage, improve photovoltaic transfer capability.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is CdTe solar battery structure schematic diagram in the embodiment of the present application;
Fig. 2 is CIGS solar battery structure schematic diagram in the embodiment of the present application;
Fig. 3 is three or five race GsAs solar battery structure schematic diagrames in the embodiment of the present application;
Fig. 4 is crystal-silicon solar cell structural representation in the embodiment of the present application;
Fig. 5 is thin film silicon solar battery structure schematic diagram in the embodiment of the present application;
Fig. 6 is dye-sensitized solar cells structural representation in the embodiment of the present application;
Fig. 7 is the structural representation of the different layers point cantact of nano wire and photovoltaic device photovoltaic material in the embodiment of the present application, the incidence surface point cantact of 71 expression nano wires and transparent electrical polar region, 72 represent nano wires and the back side of transparent electrical polar region or the incidence surface point cantact of window region, 73 represent nano wires and the back side of window region or the incidence surface point cantact of uptake zone, the back point contact of 74 expression nano wires and uptake zone;
Fig. 8 receives structural representation Figure 81 of different layers point cantact of microballoon and photovoltaic device photovoltaic material to represent and receive the incidence surface point cantact of microballoon and transparent electrical polar region in the embodiment of the present application, 82 represent and receive the back side of microballoon and transparent electrical polar region or the incidence surface point cantact of window region, 83 represent and receive the back side of microballoon and window region or the incidence surface point cantact of uptake zone, and the back point contact of microballoon and uptake zone is received in 84 expressions;
Fig. 9 is nano wire and/or the structural representation of microballoon and photovoltaic material incidence surface and back point contact received in the embodiment of the present application, the wherein back point contact of 91 expression nano wires and transparent electrical polar region incidence surface and uptake zone, 92 represent and receive the back point contact of microballoon and transparent electrical polar region incidence surface and uptake zone, 93 represent nano wire and transparent electrical polar region incidence surface point cantact, receive microballoon and uptake zone back point contact, 94 represent and receive microballoon and transparent electrical polar region incidence surface point cantact, nano wire and uptake zone back point contact;
Figure 10 is structural representation Figure 101 that in the embodiment of the present application, nano wire passes transparent electrical polar region and window region incidence surface point cantact, and nano wire passes structural representation Figure 102 of the incidence surface point cantact of transparent electrical polar region and window region and uptake zone;
Figure 11 is the incidence surface point cantact that in the embodiment of the present application, nano wire passes photovoltaic material and one of them district, simultaneously, the structural representation of nano wire and uptake zone rear-face contact, 111 represent that nano wire passes the incidence surface point cantact of transparent electrical polar region and window region, the back point contact of nano wire and uptake zone simultaneously, 112 represent that nano wire passes the incidence surface point cantact of transparent electrical polar region and window region and uptake zone, the back point contact of nano wire and uptake zone simultaneously;
Figure 12 is the incidence surface point cantact that in the embodiment of the present application, nano wire passes photovoltaic material and one of them district, simultaneously, receive the structural representation of microballoon and uptake zone rear-face contact, 121 represent that nano wire passes the incidence surface point cantact of transparent electrical polar region and window region, receive the back point contact of microballoon and uptake zone simultaneously, 122 represent the incidence surface point cantact of nano wires through transparent electrical polar region and window region and uptake zone, receive the back point contact of microballoon and uptake zone simultaneously;
Figure 13 receives the different layers point cantact of microballoon and photovoltaic device photovoltaic material in the embodiment of the present application, simultaneously, receive the structural representation of back point contact of microballoon and uptake zone, 131 represent and receive microballoon and the back side, transparent electrical polar region or window region incidence surface point cantact, receive the back point contact of microballoon and uptake zone simultaneously, 132 represent and receive microballoon and the back side, window region or uptake zone incidence surface point cantact, receive the back point contact of microballoon and uptake zone simultaneously;
Figure 14 receives the different layers point cantact of microballoon and photovoltaic device photovoltaic material in the embodiment of the present application, simultaneously, the structural representation of the back point contact of nano wire and uptake zone, 141 represent and receive microballoon and the back side, transparent electrical polar region or window region incidence surface point cantact, the back point contact of nano wire and uptake zone simultaneously, 142 represent and receive microballoon and the back side, window region or uptake zone incidence surface point cantact, while nano wire and the back point contact of uptake zone.
Embodiment
In a kind of execution mode of the application, the incidence surface in described transparent electrical polar region, window region, uptake zone and the back side amount in six faces, and at least one mask has the low-dimensional composite interface structures formed with nano wire and/or microballoon point cantact of receiving.The implementation wherein " forming low-dimensional composite interface structures with nano wire and/or microballoon point cantact of receiving " is, 11) when only having a mask to have low-dimensional composite interface structures, adopting nano wire or receiving microballoon and basal plane point cantact; Or the part in this face adopts nano wire point cantact, other parts adopt receives microballoon point cantact; 12) when multiple mask has low-dimensional composite interface structures, one of them or several adopt nano wire point cantact to form low-dimensional composite interface structures, and its lap adopts to be received microballoon point cantact and form low-dimensional composite interface structures.It should be noted that, in above-mentioned six faces, when two faces contact wherein, when multiple are carried out nano wire and/or microballoon point cantact of receiving formation low-dimensional composite interface structures, face and a nano wire in two contact-making surfaces and/or microballoon point cantact of receiving only is selected to form low-dimensional composite interface structures.
Present inventor is upper design low-dimensional composite interface structures at photovoltaic material (transparent electrical polar region, window region, the uptake zone) interface (incidence surface, the back side) of photovoltaic device, the special construction design on this low-dimensional composite interface structures surface, be conducive to increasing the luminous flux injecting photovoltaic cell, improve the collection of photovoltaic device to sunlight.Meanwhile, using nano wire and/or receive microballoon as surface plasmons (SPP), strengthen the sunken luminous effect of photovoltaic device further, strengthen when not weakening electric property and fall into light effect.In addition, nano wire and/or receive microballoon and interface and carry out controlled point cantact in the low-dimensional composite interface structures of the application, form zones of different, the doping of the degree of depth and diameter, add one at the interface of electrode and photovoltaic material and can reduce hole and electron recombination chance, be conducive to again the potential field of transporting holes or electronics, improve separative efficiency and the transport capability of electron hole, the time (speed) that the life-span of photo-generated carrier (photon converts electrons to) and electrode are gathered matches, the photoelectron produced can synchronously become " voltaic electronics ", realize efficient photovoltaic effect.
The application further improves in execution mode, in the low-dimensional composite interface structures that the back side design of uptake zone is formed with nano wire and/or microballoon point cantact of receiving; Meanwhile, the incidence surface of the incidence surface of transparent electrical polar region and window region and the back side, uptake zone amounts in five faces, and at least one mask has nano wire and/or receives the low-dimensional composite interface structures that microballoon point cantact formed.It should be noted that, in above-mentioned five faces, when two faces contact wherein, when multiple are carried out nano wire and/or microballoon point cantact of receiving formation low-dimensional composite interface structures, face and a nano wire in two contact-making surfaces and/or microballoon point cantact of receiving only is selected to form low-dimensional composite interface structures.The implementation wherein " forming low-dimensional composite interface structures with nano wire and/or microballoon point cantact of receiving " as hereinbefore.
The application preferred embodiment in, specifically comprise, in the low-dimensional composite interface structures that the back side design of uptake zone is formed with nano wire and/or microballoon point cantact of receiving; Meanwhile, the low-dimensional composite interface structures that the incidence surface design nano wire in one of them district of transparent electrical polar region, window region, uptake zone and/or microballoon point cantact of receiving are formed.This comprises again four kinds of implementations preferred embodiment, 21) the low-dimensional composite interface structures of the back side and incidence surface all adopts nano wire; 22) the low-dimensional composite interface structures of the back side and incidence surface all adopts and receives microballoon; 23) the low-dimensional composite interface structures at the back side adopts nano wire, and the low-dimensional composite interface structures of incidence surface adopts receives microballoon; 24) the low-dimensional composite interface structures at the back side adopts and receives microballoon, and the low-dimensional composite interface structures of incidence surface adopts nano wire.It should be noted that, above-mentioned 21), 22), 23), 24) in, the back side refers to the back side of uptake zone, and incidence surface refers to the incidence surface in one of them district of electrode district, window region, uptake zone.
Aforementioned the application preferred embodiment in, adopt two low-dimensional composite interface structures to realize strengthening sunken luminous effect respectively, improve photovoltaic effect two functions.Utilize the low-dimensional composite interface structures of bionical moth eyeball surface structure to improve sunlight collecting at incidence surface, strengthen and fall into light effect, moth still can catch faint light between black night, differentiates barrier; The display of research report, this is relevant to the special construction of moth eyeball surface, and think that the special construction of moth eyeball surface can form a kind of refractive index continually varying high-performance anti-reflection interface with air, this interface anti-reflection angle is large, almost can carry out full spectral absorption to all directions sunlight.Present inventor uses for reference the special construction of moth eyeball surface, and design low-dimensional composite interface structures improves sunlight collecting, strengthens and fall into light effect; Simultaneously, at the back side, uptake zone by the doping of controlled point cantact, low-dimensional composite interface structures provides one can reduce hole and electron recombination chance, is conducive to again the potential field of transporting holes or electronics, improve collection and the transfer ability of electric charge, realize efficient photovoltaic effect.It should be noted that, in the application, strengthening sunken luminous effect, improving photovoltaic effect is not two effects be separated completely concerning low-dimensional composite interface structures itself.
It should be noted that, during the incidence surface point cantact of nano wire and window region, its implementation comprises two kinds: the first, nano wire between transparent electrical polar region and window region with window region incidence surface point cantact, as 72 of Fig. 7; The second, nano wire through the incidence surface point cantact of transparent electrical polar region and window region, as 101 of Figure 10,111 of Figure 11 and Figure 12 121.During the incidence surface point cantact of nano wire and uptake zone, its implementation also comprises two kinds: the first, nano wire between window region and uptake zone with uptake zone incidence surface point cantact, as 73 of Fig. 7; The second, nano wire through the incidence surface point cantact of transparent electrical polar region and window region and uptake zone, as 102 of Figure 10,112 of Figure 11 and Figure 12 122.
In all execution modes of the application, nano wire, the material of microballoon received comprise metal material, nonmetallic materials, metal and nonmetallic composite material; Wherein metal material is selected from copper, nickel, zinc, tin, magnesium, aluminium, manganese, chromium, cadmium, tellurium, indium, antimony, titanium, gold, platinum, molybdenum, one or several in silver; Nonmetallic materials are selected from silicon, germanium, selenium, carbon, boron nitride, cadmium sulfide, zinc sulphide, titanium dioxide, silicon dioxide, zinc oxide, copper sulfide, vanadium oxide, oxidate for lithium, lithium acidulants and their alloy, and polystyrene, polythiophene, one or several in fullerene and their derivative, described carbon comprises at least one in Graphene, CNT (carbon nano-tube) and ambiguity carbon; Metal and nonmetallic composite material comprise the composite material that metal material wraps up nonmetallic materials, the composite material of nonmetallic materials coated metal material.The diameter of nano wire, length and spacing adjust within the scope of diameter 5nm-500nm, length 50nm-5mm, spacing 10nm-100 μm according to the character of the concrete material adopted; Receive the particle diameter of microballoon and spacing same according to the concrete material adopted particle diameter 50nm-500 μm, adjust within the scope of spacing 0-100 μm.
In all execution modes of the application, point cantact is divided into two kinds, a kind ofly be nano wire or receive microballoon and basal plane and form the point cantact of alloy, in this case, nano wire or receive microballoon and basal plane and to react formation alloy, the diameter of alloy or the degree of depth according to the material specifically selected, nanowire diameter 0.1-10 doubly, or receive microsphere diameter 0.01-10 times of scope between; Another kind is nano wire or receives microballoon and basal plane and do not form the point cantact of alloy, in this case, and nano wire or receive microballoon and basal plane and can not to react formation alloy.It should be noted that, the degree of depth of alloy refers to nano wire or receives microballoon and basal plane and forms alloy, and this alloy is absorbed in the degree of depth of basal plane plane; The diameter of alloy refers to the diameter of alloy in basal plane plane.Wherein the degree of depth of alloy and diameter control by controlling nano wire or receiving the temperature and time of microballoon and basal plane point cantact, and the diameter of temperature higher, time more ankylose gold is larger in principle, the degree of depth is darker.
In all execution modes of the application, the material of uptake zone is selected from least one in two or six compounds of group, three or five compounds of group, silicon materials; Wherein two or six compounds of group are selected from least one in CdTe material, CuInSe material, CuInGaSe material, CuZnSeS material; Three or five compounds of group are selected from least one in GaAs material, InP material, InGaP material; Silicon materials are the one in monocrystalline silicon, polysilicon, silicon thin film, nanocrystal silicon particle; Organic photoelectrical material is selected from least one in the blue or green zinc of phthalein, methyl leaf woods, anthracene, biphenyl, half cyanines class and derivative and polythiophene; Dye sensitization material comprises TiO 2and coloring agent, described coloring agent comprises inorganic material or organic material, described inorganic material comprises ruthenium dye, and described organic material is selected from least one in indoline-like dyestuff, Coumarins dyestuff, triphen amine dyestuff, cyanine type dye, square type dye, dialkyl benzene amine dyestuff, carbazoles dyestuff, fluorenes class dyestuff, perylene kinds dyestuff, tetrahydro chinolines dyestuff, porphyrin dyestuff, phthalocyanines dye; Uptake zone is nano particle or block or film and pellicular cascade or film and block lamination.In the execution mode of the application, the material of window region is selected from CdS, ZnS, AlInP 2, GaAs, AlGaAs, at least one in silicon.Transparent electrical polar region is ZnO:Al (AZO) transparency electrode, In 2o 3: Sn (ITO) transparency electrode, SnO 2: F (FTO) transparency electrode, TiO 2: at least one in Nb (NTO) transparency electrode, the thickness 50nm-1 μm of transparency electrode.
In the execution mode of the application, the preparation method of transparent electrical polar region comprises: at least one in vapor transportation (HVPE), Sputter, CVD, vapour deposition method, electrochemical process; The preparation method of window region comprises: Sputter, vapour deposition method, CVD, chemical thought (CBD), nearly vacuum sublimation (CSS), at least one in electrochemical process; The preparation method of uptake zone comprises: at least one in CSS, electrochemical deposition, Sputter, HVPE, CVD.
The basal plane mentioned in the application, refers to nano wire or receives the face of formation low-dimensional composite interface structures that microballoon combines with it.
Solar cell prepared by the photovoltaic device adopting the application to provide, owing to having low-dimensional composite interface structures in photovoltaic device, the special construction design of the bionical moth eyeball surface of this low-dimensional composite interface structures, be conducive to increasing the luminous flux injecting photovoltaic cell, improve the collection of photovoltaic device to sunlight.Meanwhile, using nano wire and/or receive microballoon as surface plasmons (SPP), strengthen the sunken luminous effect of photovoltaic device further, strengthen when not weakening electric property and fall into light effect, realize light regime function.In addition, nano wire and/or receive microballoon and interface and carry out controlled point cantact in the low-dimensional composite interface structures of the application, add one at the interface of electrode and photovoltaic material and can reduce hole and electron recombination chance, be conducive to again the potential field of transporting holes or electronics, improve separative efficiency and the transport capability of electron hole, the time (speed) that the life-span of photo-generated carrier (photon converts electrons to) and electrode are gathered matches, the photoelectron produced can synchronously become " voltaic electronics ", realizes efficient photovoltaic effect.Further, in low-dimensional composite interface structures, by control point contact to the regulation and control of doping, regulate energy band engineering, improve cell photovoltaic electric current, improve photovoltaic transfer capability, thus improve the efficiency of solar cell.
By reference to the accompanying drawings the application is described in further detail below by specific embodiment.Following examples are only further detailed the application, should not be construed as the restriction to the application.Following examples 3-20 description order is the preparation order of solar cell in actual mechanical process.
Embodiment one receives the preparation of microballoon
Microballoon of receiving used in this application can oneself preparation or directly buy commercialization and receive microballoon.
The preparation method of microballoon of receiving comprises: the first polymer seeds of synthesizing monodisperse, these monodisperse polymer seeds obtain by dispersin polymerization and surfactant-free emulsion polymerization, dispersin polymerization is monomer (as styrene), and initator (AIBN) and stabilizer (PVA) etc. are dissolved in second alcohol and water.Then adopt heated polymerizable method, by stir speed (S.S.), temperature and time controling, obtained uniform particle diameter receives microballoon (as polystyrene microsphere).
For the microballoon of receiving directly bought, as polystyrene receives microballoon (the product 53532-1G-F of Sigma-Aldrich company), silicon dioxide microsphere (the product TOND-180 of Longkou City Rui Long High Seience Technology Co., Ltd.), receive microballoon and the suspended solvents bought are mixed, be prepared into and receive microsphere suspension liquid, control to receive the volume of microballoon consumption and suspended solvents, suspension concentration is controlled between 1mg/L-1g/L.Wherein suspended solvents is water or ethanol.During mixing, the stir speed (S.S.) of magnetic stirrer is 100-1000 rpm.
Receiving microballoon and basal plane point cantact adopts evaporation self-assembly method, the surface of photoelectric material is coated on by above-mentioned microsphere suspension liquid of receiving, the liquid of the temperature evaporation suspension between room temperature to 60 degree Celsius, what microballoon of receiving carried out in the gas and liquid phase interface of suspension that efficient assembling forms adjacent densification receives microballoon film, is deposited on basal plane.
The spacing of microballoon on basal plane of receiving first is made by Semiconductor microstructure processing mode on basal plane has specific distance micro-structural template, the microballoon that makes to receive can only occupy some specific positions, thus control to receive depositing them position, what controllably preparation had a desired spacing arrangement receives microballoon film.
Receive microballoon and basal plane when forming alloy, by receive the certain temperature and time of the control of point cantact of microballoon and basal plane control component element mutually between thermal diffusion, form the alloyed region of desired depth and diameter.
The preparation of embodiment two nano wire
The implementation of the point cantact of nano wire and basal plane is, directly on basal plane, generate nano wire, its spacing first makes the micro-structural template with specific distance by Semiconductor microstructure processing mode on basal plane, make the nano wire generated can only occupy some specific positions, thus control nanowire deposition position, controllably preparation has the nano wire of desired spacing arrangement.
The preparation method of metal nanometer line is for metal nanometer lines such as copper, silver, nickel.Template is porous alumina membrane, thered is provided (CAS number:Ultrathin Free-standingPorous Anodic Alumina) by Shanghai Hao Hang Chemical Co., Ltd., with this template for work electrode, sheet metal (copper, silver, nickel) is to electrode, and potentiostatic electrodeposition legal system is for metal nanometer line (copper, silver, nickel etc.).Sedimentation potential-0.4V is to 4V, and sedimentation time is 10 minutes to 6 minutes.After deposition, remove alumina formwork with the sodium hydroxide solution of 6mol/L, obtain metal and receive micro-line.The spacing of nano wire is controlled by the hole spacing of selected foraminous die plate.Controlled the diameter of nano wire by the empty size of the foraminous die plate chosen, controlled the length of nano wire by the length of sedimentation time.
The formation of alloy can be by the temperature and time that the control of the point cantact of nano wire and basal plane is certain control component element mutually between thermal diffusion, form the alloyed region of desired depth and diameter.
The preparation method of non pinetallic nano line, for ZnO, with ZnO nano particle for Seed Layer, controls grain spacing by semiconductor microactuator processing mode, adopts CVD method, O 2pass into Zn steam under atmosphere, controlled diameter and the length of ZnO nano-wire by temperature and time.
Embodiment three has the CdTe solar cell of low-dimensional materials composite construction, and transparent electrical polar region incidence surface receives microballoon
Transparent electrical polar region incidence surface receives the preparation of microballoon: adopt evaporation self-assembly method, embodiment one received the suspension of microballoon in the surface of glass, the liquid of the temperature evaporation suspension between room temperature to 60 degree Celsius, microballoon of receiving carries out efficient assembling and forms fine and close microballoon film of receiving in the gas and liquid phase interface of suspension, be deposited on the incidence surface of transparent electrical polar region.The spacing of microballoon on basal plane of receiving first is made by Semiconductor microstructure processing mode on basal plane has specific distance micro-structural template, the microballoon that makes to receive can only occupy some specific positions, thus control to receive depositing them position, what controllably preparation had a specific distance arrangement receives microballoon film.
Prepared by transparency conducting layer: adopt sputtering method to prepare AZO electro-conductive glass, glass substrate temperature is room temperature, carrier gas is argon gas or argon hydrogen gaseous mixture (wherein hydrogen is less than 10%), reaction pressure is 0.1Pa, gas flow 5sccm (standard cubic centimeter per minute, standard cubic centimeters per minute), power is 50W, and range is 5cm.Deposit thickness is about 600nm.Obtain electro-conductive glass, i.e. transparent electrical polar region.
Prepared by Window layer: adopt sputtering method to prepare CdS layer, Conducting Glass temperature is room temperature, and reaction pressure is 0.1Pa, and power is 100W, and target is CdS target, wherein N 2as carrier gas, gas flow 5sccm.Deposit thickness is about 100nm.
Prepared by light-absorption layer: adopt sputtering method to prepare CdTe layer, above-mentioned underlayer temperature is 300 DEG C, and reaction pressure is 0.1Pa, and power is 100W, and argon gas or argon oxygen gas mixture are as carrier gas, and gas flow 5sccm, target is CdTe target, and deposit thickness is about 1 ~ 7 μm.
The preparation of back electrode: adopt sputtering method to prepare ZnTe/ZnTe:Cu/Cu composite bed, above-mentioned underlayer temperature is 300 DEG C, reaction pressure is 0.1Pa, and power is 100W, and argon gas or argon oxygen gas mixture are as carrier gas, gas flow 5sccm, target is ZnTe target, ZnTe:Cu target and Cu target, and deposit thickness is respectively 20nm, 70nm, 300nm.
It is that the microballoon of receiving of 50nm, 100nm, 200nm, 300nm, 500nm applies that this example have employed particle diameter respectively, and the adjacent dense arrangement of microballoon of receiving, the spacing received between microballoon is zero.
Embodiment four has the CdTe solar cell of low-dimensional materials composite construction, and window region incidence surface receives microballoon
Prepared by transparency conducting layer: adopt LPCVD to deposit FTO electro-conductive glass, underlayer temperature is 400 DEG C, and reaction pressure is 3kPa, and precursors is Tetramethyltin (TMT), Bromotrifluoromethane (CBrF 3) gas provides F source, passes into O simultaneously 2and N 2, wherein N2 is as carrier gas.Deposit thickness is about 500nm.
Receive the preparation of microballoon: be coated on above-mentioned transparency conducting layer by the suspension of microballoon received of embodiment one by spin coater, the liquid of the temperature evaporation suspension between room temperature to 60 degree Celsius, deposition over transparent conductive layer.It is pointed out that receiving microballoon is herein the equal of the back point contact with transparent electrical polar region, but and then transparent electrical polar region is exactly window region, therefore, also can be understood as and receiving microballoon is the incidence surface point cantact with window region.
Prepared by Window layer: adopt sputtering method preparation, Conducting Glass temperature is room temperature, and reaction pressure is 0.1Pa, and power is 100W, and target is CdS target, wherein N 2as carrier gas, gas flow 5sccm.Deposit thickness is about 100nm.
Prepared by light-absorption layer: adopt sputtering method preparation, above-mentioned underlayer temperature is 300 DEG C, and reaction pressure is 0.1Pa, and power is 100W, and argon gas or argon oxygen gas mixture are as carrier gas, and gas flow 5sccm, target is CdTe target, and deposit thickness is about 1 ~ 7 μm.
The preparation of back electrode: adopt sputtering method to prepare ZnTe/ZnTe:Cu/Cu composite bed, above-mentioned underlayer temperature is 300 DEG C, reaction pressure is 0.1Pa, power is 100W, argon gas or argon oxygen gas mixture as carrier gas, gas flow 5sccm, target is ZnTe target, ZnTe:Cu target and Cu target, deposit thickness is respectively 20nm, 70nm, 300nm.
It is that the microballoon of receiving of 5nm, 10nm, 20nm, 30nm, 50nm applies that this example have employed particle diameter respectively, receive spacing random distribution in spin coating process of microballoon, or the spacing of microballoon on basal plane of receiving first is made by Semiconductor microstructure processing mode on basal plane has specific distance micro-structural template, the microballoon that makes to receive can only occupy some specific positions, thus control to receive depositing them position, what controlled preparation had a specific distance arrangement receives microballoon film.
Embodiment five has the CdTe solar cell of low-dimensional materials composite construction, and light-absorption layer incidence surface receives microballoon
Prepared by transparency conducting layer: adopt LPCVD to deposit FTO electro-conductive glass, underlayer temperature is 400 DEG C, and reaction pressure is 3kPa, and precursors is Tetramethyltin (TMT), Bromotrifluoromethane (CBrF 3) gas provides F source, passes into O simultaneously 2and N 2, wherein N2 is as carrier gas.Deposit thickness is about 500nm.
Prepared by Window layer: adopt chemical bath legal system for CdS layer, reactant is ammonium acetate, cadmium acetate, ammoniacal liquor and thiocarbamide.First add deionized water by airtight container, be heated to 80 DEG C, add cadmium acetate, ammonium acetate, ammoniacal liquor, deposit thickness is about 100nm.
Receive the preparation of microballoon: the suspension of microballoon received of embodiment one is coated on the back side, window region by spin coater, the liquid of the temperature evaporation suspension between room temperature to 60 degree Celsius, is deposited on window region.It is pointed out that receiving microballoon is herein the equal of the back point contact with window region, but and then window region is exactly uptake zone, therefore, also can be understood as and receiving microballoon is the incidence surface point cantact with uptake zone.
Prepared by light-absorption layer: nearly vacuum sublimation prepares CdTe thin film, and underlayer temperature is 500 DEG C, and argon gas or argon oxygen gas mixture are as carrier gas, and reaction pressure 1kPa, evaporation source is CdTe, and deposit thickness is about 7 μm.
The preparation of back electrode: adopt sputtering method to prepare ZnTe/ZnTe:Cu/Cu composite bed, above-mentioned underlayer temperature is 300 DEG C, reaction pressure is 0.1Pa, power is 100W, argon gas or argon oxygen gas mixture as carrier gas, gas flow 5sccm, target is ZnTe target, ZnTe:Cu target and Cu target, deposit thickness is respectively 20nm, 70nm, 300nm.
It is that the microballoon of receiving of 5nm, 10nm, 20nm, 30nm, 50nm applies that this example have employed particle diameter respectively, receive the spacing of microballoon in spin coating process random distribution, or the spacing of microballoon on basal plane of receiving first is made by Semiconductor microstructure processing mode on basal plane has specific distance micro-structural template, the microballoon that makes to receive can only occupy some specific positions, thus control to receive depositing them position, what controllably preparation had a specific distance arrangement receives microballoon film.
Embodiment six has the CdTe solar cell of low-dimensional materials composite construction, and microballoon is received at the light-absorption layer back side
Prepared by transparency conducting layer: adopt LPCVD to deposit FTO electro-conductive glass, underlayer temperature is 400 DEG C, and reaction pressure is 3kPa, and precursors is Tetramethyltin (TMT), Bromotrifluoromethane (CBrF 3) gas provides F source, passes into O simultaneously 2and N 2, wherein N 2as carrier gas.Deposit thickness is about 500nm.
Prepared by Window layer: adopt chemical bath legal system for CdS layer, reactant is ammonium acetate, cadmium acetate, ammoniacal liquor and thiocarbamide.First add deionized water by airtight container, be heated to 80 DEG C, add cadmium acetate, ammonium acetate, ammoniacal liquor, deposit thickness is about 100nm.
Prepared by light-absorption layer: nearly vacuum sublimation prepares CdTe thin film, and underlayer temperature is 500 DEG C, and argon gas or argon oxygen gas mixture are as carrier gas, and reaction pressure 1kPa, evaporation source is CdTe, and deposit thickness is about 7 μm.
The preparation of microballoon is received at the light-absorption layer back side: adopt evaporation self-assembly method, embodiment one received the suspension of microballoon on light-absorption layer, the liquid of the temperature evaporation suspension between room temperature to 60 degree Celsius, microballoon of receiving carries out efficient assembling and forms fine and close microballoon film of receiving in the gas and liquid phase interface of suspension, be deposited on light-absorption layer.
The preparation of back electrode: adopt sputtering method to prepare ZnTe/ZnTe:Cu composite bed, above-mentioned underlayer temperature is 300 DEG C, reaction pressure is 0.1Pa, power is 100W, argon gas or argon oxygen gas mixture as carrier gas, gas flow 5sccm, target is ZnTe target, ZnTe:Cu target, deposit thickness is respectively 20nm and 70nm.Adopt print process to print black lead wash overleaf, anneal 30 minutes in 200 DEG C of air, thickness is about 10 μm
This example have employed respectively and receives microspherulite diameter is that the microballoon of receiving of 50nm, 100nm, 200nm, 300nm, 500nm applies, the adjacent dense arrangement of microballoon of receiving, the spacing received between microballoon can be zero, also can random distribution, also the spacing of microballoon on basal plane of can receiving first can be made by Semiconductor microstructure processing mode on basal plane has specific distance micro-structural template, the microballoon that makes to receive can only occupy some specific positions, thus control to receive depositing them position, what controllably preparation had a specific distance arrangement receives microballoon film.
Embodiment seven has the CdTe solar cell of low-dimensional materials composite construction, and transparency electrode incidence surface receives microballoon, light-absorption layer back side nano wire
Prepared by transparency conducting layer: adopt Sputter to deposit NTO electro-conductive glass, underlayer temperature is 200 DEG C, and carrier gas is argon gas or argon hydrogen gaseous mixture (wherein hydrogen is less than 10%), reaction pressure is 0.1Pa, gas flow 5sccm, power is 50W, and range is 5cm.Deposit thickness is about 600nm.Obtain electro-conductive glass.
Transparent electrical polar region incidence surface receives the preparation of microballoon: adopt evaporation self-assembly method, embodiment one received the suspension of microballoon in the incidence surface of transparent electrical polar region, the liquid of the temperature evaporation suspension between room temperature to 60 degree Celsius, microballoon of receiving carries out efficient assembling and forms fine and close microballoon film of receiving in the gas and liquid phase interface of suspension, be deposited on transparent electrical polar region incidence surface.
Prepared by Window layer: adopt chemical bath legal system for CdS layer, reactant is ammonium acetate, cadmium acetate, ammoniacal liquor and thiocarbamide.First add deionized water by airtight container, be heated to 80 DEG C, add cadmium acetate, ammonium acetate, ammoniacal liquor, deposit thickness is about 100nm.
Prepared by light-absorption layer: nearly vacuum sublimation prepares CdTe thin film, and underlayer temperature is 500 DEG C, and argon gas or argon oxygen gas mixture are as carrier gas, and reaction pressure 1kPa, evaporation source is CdTe, and deposit thickness is about 7 μm.
The preparation of extinction district back side nano wire: the spacing on basal plane is first made by Semiconductor microstructure processing mode on basal plane has specific distance micro-structural template, make to guide nano wire synthesis and growth can only occupy some specific positions, thus control nanowire deposition position, controllably preparation has the nano wire of specific distance arrangement.Concrete, adopt template electrochemically depositing copper, silver, the metal nanometer lines such as nickel.Above-mentioned template is Woelm Alumina, and with this template for work electrode, sheet metal (copper, silver, nickel) is to electrode, and potentiostatic electrodeposition legal system is for metal nanometer line (copper, silver, nickel etc.).Sedimentation potential-0.4V is to 4V, and sedimentation time is 10 minutes to 6 minutes.After deposition, remove alumina formwork with the sodium hydroxide solution of 6mol/L, obtain metal nanometer line.
The preparation of back electrode: adopt sputtering method to prepare ZnTe/ZnTe:Cu/Cu composite bed, above-mentioned underlayer temperature is 300 DEG C, reaction pressure is 0.1Pa, power is 100W, argon gas or argon oxygen gas mixture as carrier gas, gas flow 5sccm, target is ZnTe target, ZnTe:Cu target and Cu target, deposit thickness is respectively 20nm, 70nm, 300nm.
This example have employed respectively and receives microspherulite diameter is that the microballoon of receiving of 50nm, 100nm, 200nm, 300nm, 500nm applies, the adjacent dense arrangement of microballoon of receiving, the spacing received between microballoon can be zero, also can random distribution, also the spacing of microballoon on basal plane of can receiving first can be made by Semiconductor microstructure processing mode on basal plane has specific distance micro-structural template, the microballoon that makes to receive can only occupy some specific positions, thus control to receive depositing them position, what controllably preparation had a specific distance arrangement receives microballoon film.The diameter of extinction district back side nano wire is 5nm-500nm, and length is 50nm-5mm, and the spacing between nano wire is 10nm-100 μm.
Embodiment eight has the CdTe solar cell of low-dimensional materials composite construction, and window region incidence surface receives microballoon, extinction district back side nano wire
Prepared by transparency conducting layer: adopt LPCVD at polyimides (PI) deposited on substrates FTO electro-conductive glass, underlayer temperature is 400 DEG C, reaction pressure is 3kPa, and precursors is Tetramethyltin (TMT), Bromotrifluoromethane (CBrF 3) gas provides F source, passes into O simultaneously 2and N 2, wherein N 2as carrier gas.Deposit thickness is about 500nm.
Receive the preparation of microballoon: the suspension of microballoon received of embodiment one to be coated on the back side of transparent electrical polar region by spin coater, the liquid of the temperature evaporation suspension between room temperature to 60 degree Celsius, is deposited on transparent electrical polar region.It is pointed out that receiving microballoon is herein the equal of the back point contact with transparent electrical polar region, but and then transparent electrical polar region is exactly window region, therefore, also can be understood as and receiving microballoon is the incidence surface point cantact with window region.
Prepared by Window layer: adopt chemical bath legal system for CdS layer, reactant is ammonium acetate, cadmium acetate, ammoniacal liquor and thiocarbamide.First add deionized water by airtight container, be heated to 80 DEG C, add cadmium acetate, ammonium acetate, ammoniacal liquor, deposit thickness is about 100nm.
Prepared by light-absorption layer: nearly vacuum sublimation prepares CdTe thin film, and underlayer temperature is 500 DEG C, and argon gas or argon oxygen gas mixture are as carrier gas, and reaction pressure 1kPa, evaporation source is CdTe, and deposit thickness is about 7 μm.
Extinction district receives at the back side preparation of micro-line: adopt template electrochemically depositing copper, silver, the metal nanometer lines such as nickel.Above-mentioned template is Woelm Alumina, and with this template for work electrode, sheet metal (copper, silver, nickel) is to electrode, and potentiostatic electrodeposition legal system is for metal nanometer line (copper, silver, nickel etc.).Sedimentation potential-0.4V is to 4V, and sedimentation time is 10 minutes to 6 minutes.After deposition, remove alumina formwork with the sodium hydroxide solution of 6mol/L, obtain metal nanometer line.
The preparation of back electrode: adopt sputtering method to prepare ZnTe/ZnTe:Cu/Cu composite bed, above-mentioned underlayer temperature is 300 DEG C, reaction pressure is 0.1Pa, and power is 100W, and argon gas or argon oxygen gas mixture are as carrier gas, gas flow 5sccm, target is ZnTe target, ZnTe:Cu target and Cu target, and deposit thickness is respectively 20nm, 70nm, 300nm.
It is that the microballoon of receiving of 5nm, 10nm, 20nm, 30nm, 50nm applies that window region incidence surface receives the particle diameter that have employed of microballoon, spacing on basal plane first can be made by Semiconductor microstructure processing mode on basal plane has specific distance micro-structural template, make guiding receive microballoon synthesis and growth can only occupy some specific positions, thus control to receive depositing them position, controllably preparation has the microballoon of receiving of specific distance arrangement.The spacing random distribution in spin coating process of microballoon received can be zero, also can random distribution, also the spacing of microballoon on basal plane of can receiving first can be made by Semiconductor microstructure processing mode on basal plane has specific distance micro-structural template, the microballoon that makes to receive can only occupy some specific positions, thus control to receive depositing them position, what controllably preparation had a specific distance arrangement receives microballoon film.The diameter of extinction district back side nano wire is 5nm-500nm, and length is 50nm-5mm, and the spacing between nano wire is 10nm-100 μm.
Embodiment nine has the CdTe solar cell of low-dimensional materials composite construction, and light-absorption layer incidence surface receives microballoon, back side nano wire
Prepared by transparency conducting layer: adopt LPCVD to deposit FTO electro-conductive glass, underlayer temperature is 400 DEG C, and reaction pressure is 3kPa, and precursors is Tetramethyltin (TMT), Bromotrifluoromethane (CBrF 3) gas provides F source, passes into O simultaneously 2and N 2, wherein N 2as carrier gas.Deposit thickness is about 500nm.
The preparation of transparent buffer layer: adopt sputtering method to prepare SnO 2layer, glass substrate temperature is room temperature, and carrier gas is argon gas or argon hydrogen gaseous mixture (wherein hydrogen is less than 10%), and reaction pressure is 0.1Pa, gas flow 5sccm, and power is 50W, and range is 7cm.Deposit thickness is about 200nm.
Prepared by Window layer: adopt sputtering method to prepare CdS layer, Conducting Glass temperature is room temperature, and reaction pressure is 0.1Pa, and power is 100W, and target is CdS target, wherein N 2as carrier gas, gas flow 5sccm.Deposit thickness is about 70nm.
Receive the preparation of microballoon: the suspension of microballoon received of embodiment one is coated on the back side, window region by spin coater, the liquid of the temperature evaporation suspension between room temperature to 60 degree Celsius, is deposited on window region.It is pointed out that receiving microballoon is herein the equal of the back point contact with window region, but and then window region is exactly uptake zone, therefore, also can be understood as and receiving microballoon is the incidence surface point cantact with uptake zone.
Prepared by light-absorption layer: adopt sputtering method preparation, above-mentioned underlayer temperature is 300 DEG C, and reaction pressure is 0.1Pa, and power is 100W, and argon gas or argon oxygen gas mixture are as carrier gas, and gas flow 5sccm, target is CdTe target, and deposit thickness is about 5 ~ 7 μm.
Extinction district receives at the back side preparation of micro-line: adopt template electrochemically depositing copper, silver, the metal nanometer lines such as nickel.Above-mentioned template is Woelm Alumina, and with this template for work electrode, sheet metal (copper, silver, nickel) is to electrode, and potentiostatic electrodeposition legal system receives micro-line (copper, silver, nickel etc.) for metal.Sedimentation potential-0.4V is to 4V, and sedimentation time is 10 minutes to 6 minutes.After deposition, remove alumina formwork with the sodium hydroxide solution of 6mol/L, obtain metal and receive micro-line.
The preparation of back electrode: adopt sputtering method to prepare ZnTe/ZnTe:Cu/Cu composite bed, above-mentioned underlayer temperature is 300 DEG C, reaction pressure is 0.1Pa, power is 100W, argon gas or argon oxygen gas mixture as carrier gas, gas flow 5sccm, target is ZnTe target, ZnTe:Cu target and Cu target, deposit thickness is respectively 20nm, 70nm, 300nm.
It is that the microballoon of receiving of 5nm, 10nm, 20nm, 30nm, 50nm applies that window region incidence surface receives the particle diameter that have employed of microballoon, the spacing of microballoon received can be zero in spin coating process, also can random distribution, also the spacing of microballoon on basal plane of can receiving first can be made by Semiconductor microstructure processing mode on basal plane has specific distance micro-structural template, the microballoon that makes to receive can only occupy some specific positions, thus control to receive depositing them position, what controllably preparation had a specific distance arrangement receives microballoon film.The diameter of extinction district back side nano wire is 5nm-500nm, and length is 50nm-5mm, and the spacing between nano wire is 10nm-100 μm.
Embodiment ten has the CIGS solar cell of low-dimensional materials composite construction, and transparency electrode incidence surface receives microballoon
Prepared by conductive layer: adopt sputtering method to prepare Mo layer on a glass substrate as electrode, glass substrate temperature is room temperature, and carrier gas is argon gas or argon hydrogen gaseous mixture (wherein hydrogen is less than 10%), reaction pressure is 0.1Pa, gas flow 5sccm, power is 100W, and range is 5cm.Deposit thickness is about 600nm.Obtain Mo electrode.
Prepared by light-absorption layer: adopt sputtering method to prepare cigs layer on substrate, underlayer temperature is 200 DEG C, and carrier gas is argon gas or argon hydrogen gaseous mixture (wherein hydrogen is less than 10%), reaction pressure is 0.1Pa, gas flow 5sccm, power is 100W, and range is 5cm.Deposit thickness is about 1.5 μm.Obtain CIGS light-absorption layer.
Selenizing: under inert gas atmosphere, with selenium metal for selenium source, anneal at 500 DEG C 30min.
Prepared by Window layer: adopt chemical bath legal system for CdS layer, reactant is ammonium acetate, cadmium acetate, ammoniacal liquor and thiocarbamide.First add deionized water by airtight container, be heated to 60 DEG C, add cadmium acetate, ammonium acetate, ammoniacal liquor, deposit thickness is about 70nm.
The preparation of transparent buffer layer: adopt sputtering method making ZnO layer, glass substrate temperature is room temperature, and carrier gas is argon gas or argon hydrogen gaseous mixture (wherein hydrogen is less than 10%), reaction pressure is 0.1Pa, gas flow 5sccm, power is 50W, and range is 7cm.Deposit thickness is about 50nm.
The preparation of transparency electrode: adopt sputtering method to prepare AZO layer, glass substrate temperature is room temperature, and carrier gas is argon gas or argon hydrogen gaseous mixture (wherein hydrogen is less than 10%), and reaction pressure is 0.1Pa, gas flow 5sccm, and power is 100W, and range is 5cm.Deposit thickness is about 500nm.
Transparency electrode incidence surface receives the preparation of microballoon: adopt evaporation self-assembly method, embodiment one received the suspension of microballoon in the incidence surface of transparent electrical polar region, the liquid of the temperature evaporation suspension between room temperature to 60 degree Celsius, microballoon of receiving carries out efficient assembling and forms fine and close microballoon film of receiving in the gas and liquid phase interface of suspension, be deposited on the incidence surface of transparent electrical polar region.
It is that the microballoon of receiving of 50nm, 100nm, 200nm, 300nm, 500nm applies that this example have employed particle diameter respectively, the adjacent dense arrangement of microballoon of receiving, the spacing received between microballoon can be zero, also can random distribution, also the spacing of microballoon on basal plane of can receiving first can be made by Semiconductor microstructure processing mode on basal plane has specific distance micro-structural template, the microballoon that makes to receive can only occupy some specific positions, thus control to receive depositing them position, what controllably preparation had a specific distance arrangement receives microballoon film.
Embodiment 11 has the CIGS solar cell of low-dimensional materials composite construction, and window region incidence surface receives microballoon
Prepared by conductive layer: adopt sputtering method to prepare Mo layer on a glass substrate as electrode, glass substrate temperature is room temperature, and carrier gas is argon gas or argon hydrogen gaseous mixture (wherein hydrogen is less than 10%), reaction pressure is 0.1Pa, gas flow 5sccm, power is 100W, and range is 5cm.Deposit thickness is about 600nm.Obtain Mo electrode.
Prepared by light-absorption layer: adopt method of steaming altogether to prepare cigs layer on substrate, underlayer temperature is 200 DEG C, and carrier gas is argon gas or argon hydrogen gaseous mixture (wherein hydrogen is less than 10%), and reaction pressure is 0.1Pa, gas flow 5sccm, and operating distance is 5cm.Deposit thickness is about 1.5 μm.Obtain CIGS light-absorption layer.
Prepared by Window layer: adopt chemical bath legal system for CdS layer, reactant is ammonium acetate, cadmium acetate, ammoniacal liquor and thiocarbamide.First add deionized water by airtight container, be heated to 60 DEG C, add cadmium acetate, ammonium acetate, ammoniacal liquor, deposit thickness is about 70nm.
Window region incidence surface receives the preparation of microballoon: the suspension of microballoon received of embodiment one to be coated on the incidence surface of transparent electrical polar region by spin coater, and the liquid of the temperature evaporation suspension between room temperature to 60 degree Celsius, is deposited on the incidence surface of window region.
It is that the microballoon of receiving of 5nm, 10nm, 20nm, 30nm, 50nm applies that this example have employed particle diameter respectively, the spacing of microballoon received can be zero in spin coating process, also can random distribution, also the spacing of microballoon on basal plane of can receiving first can be made by Semiconductor microstructure processing mode on basal plane has specific distance micro-structural template, the microballoon that makes to receive can only occupy some specific positions, thus control to receive depositing them position, what controllably preparation had a specific distance arrangement receives microballoon film.
The preparation of transparent buffer layer: adopt sputtering method making ZnO layer, glass substrate temperature is room temperature, and carrier gas is argon gas or argon hydrogen gaseous mixture (wherein hydrogen is less than 10%), reaction pressure is 0.1Pa, gas flow 5sccm, power is 50W, and range is 7cm.Deposit thickness is about 50nm.
The preparation of transparency electrode: adopt sputtering method to prepare AZO layer, glass substrate temperature is room temperature, and carrier gas is argon gas or argon hydrogen gaseous mixture (wherein hydrogen is less than 10%), and reaction pressure is 0.1Pa, gas flow 5sccm, and power is 100W, and range is 5cm.Deposit thickness is about 500nm.
Embodiment 12 has the CIGS solar cell of low-dimensional materials composite construction, and light-absorption layer incidence surface receives microballoon
Prepared by conductive layer: adopt sputtering method to prepare Mo layer on a glass substrate as electrode, glass substrate temperature is room temperature, and carrier gas is argon gas or argon hydrogen gaseous mixture (wherein hydrogen is less than 10%), reaction pressure is 0.1Pa, gas flow 5sccm, power is 100W, and range is 5cm.Deposit thickness is about 600nm.Obtain Mo electrode.
Prepared by light-absorption layer: adopt method of steaming altogether to prepare cigs layer on substrate, underlayer temperature is 200 DEG C, and carrier gas is argon gas or argon hydrogen gaseous mixture (wherein hydrogen is less than 10%), and reaction pressure is 0.1Pa, gas flow 5sccm, and operating distance is 5cm.Deposit thickness is about 1.5 μm.Obtain CIGS light-absorption layer.
Selenizing: under inert gas atmosphere, with selenium metal for selenium source, anneal at 500 DEG C 30min.
Light-absorption layer incidence surface receives the preparation of microballoon: the suspension of microballoon received of embodiment one to be coated on the incidence surface of transparent electrical polar region by spin coater, and the liquid of the temperature evaporation suspension between room temperature to 60 degree Celsius, is deposited on the incidence surface of window region.
It is that the microballoon of receiving of 5nm, 10nm, 20nm, 30nm, 50nm applies that this example have employed particle diameter respectively, the spacing of microballoon received can be zero in spin coating process, also can random distribution, also the spacing of microballoon on basal plane of can receiving first can be made by Semiconductor microstructure processing mode on basal plane has specific distance micro-structural template, the microballoon that makes to receive can only occupy some specific positions, thus control to receive depositing them position, what controllably preparation had a specific distance arrangement receives microballoon film.
Prepared by Window layer: adopt chemical bath legal system for CdS layer, reactant is ammonium acetate, cadmium acetate, ammoniacal liquor and thiocarbamide.First add deionized water by airtight container, be heated to 60 DEG C, add cadmium acetate, ammonium acetate, ammoniacal liquor, deposit thickness is about 70nm.
The preparation of transparent buffer layer: adopt sputtering method making ZnO layer, glass substrate temperature is room temperature, and carrier gas is argon gas or argon hydrogen gaseous mixture (wherein hydrogen is less than 10%), reaction pressure is 0.1Pa, gas flow 5sccm, power is 50W, and range is 7cm.Deposit thickness is about 50nm.
The preparation of transparency electrode: adopt sputtering method to prepare AZO layer, glass substrate temperature is room temperature, and carrier gas is argon gas or argon hydrogen gaseous mixture (wherein hydrogen is less than 10%), and reaction pressure is 0.1Pa, gas flow 5sccm, and power is 100W, and range is 5cm.Deposit thickness is about 500nm.
Embodiment 13 has the CIGS solar cell of low-dimensional materials composite construction, and microballoon is received at the light-absorption layer back side
Prepared by conductive layer: adopt sputtering method to prepare Mo layer on a glass substrate as electrode, glass substrate temperature is room temperature, and carrier gas is argon gas or argon hydrogen gaseous mixture (wherein hydrogen is less than 10%), reaction pressure is 0.1Pa, gas flow 5sccm, power is 100W, and range is 5cm.Deposit thickness is about 600nm.Obtain Mo electrode.
The preparation of microballoon is received at the light-absorption layer back side: adopt evaporation self-assembly method, embodiment one received the suspension of microballoon on conductive layer, the liquid of the temperature evaporation suspension between room temperature to 60 degree Celsius, microballoon of receiving carries out efficient assembling and forms fine and close microballoon film of receiving in the gas and liquid phase interface of suspension, deposition on the electrically conductive.It should be noted that, due to conductive layer next-door neighbour light-absorption layer, and sunlight from light-absorption layer through to conductive layer, therefore, deposition microballoon of receiving on the electrically conductive also can be understood as and is and light-absorption layer back point contact.
This example have employed respectively and receives microspherulite diameter is that the microballoon of receiving of 50nm, 100nm, 200nm, 300nm, 500nm applies, the adjacent dense arrangement of microballoon of receiving, the spacing received between microballoon can be zero, also can random distribution, also the spacing of microballoon on basal plane of can receiving first can be made by Semiconductor microstructure processing mode on basal plane has specific distance micro-structural template, the microballoon that makes to receive can only occupy some specific positions, thus control to receive depositing them position, what controllably preparation had a specific distance arrangement receives microballoon film.
Prepared by light-absorption layer: adopt sputtering method to prepare cigs layer on substrate, underlayer temperature is 200 DEG C, and carrier gas is argon gas or argon hydrogen gaseous mixture (wherein hydrogen is less than 10%), reaction pressure is 0.1Pa, gas flow 5sccm, power is 100W, and range is 5cm.Deposit thickness is about 1.5 μm.Obtain CIGS light-absorption layer.
Prepared by Window layer: adopt Sputter legal system for ZnS layer, underlayer temperature is room temperature, and carrier gas is argon gas or argon hydrogen gaseous mixture (wherein hydrogen is less than 10%), and reaction pressure is 0.1Pa, gas flow 5sccm, and power is 50W, and range is 7cm.Deposit thickness is about 70nm.
The preparation of transparency electrode: adopt sputtering method to prepare AZO layer, glass substrate temperature is room temperature, and carrier gas is argon gas or argon hydrogen gaseous mixture (wherein hydrogen is less than 10%), reaction pressure is 0.1Pa, gas flow 5sccm, and power is 100W, range is 5cm, and wherein N2 is as carrier gas.Deposit thickness is about 500nm.
Embodiment 14 has the CIGS solar cell of low-dimensional materials composite construction, and transparent electrical polar region incidence surface receives microballoon, extinction district back side nano wire
Prepared by conductive layer: adopt sputtering method on PI substrate, to prepare Mo layer as electrode, glass substrate temperature is room temperature, and carrier gas is argon gas or argon hydrogen gaseous mixture (wherein hydrogen is less than 10%), reaction pressure is 0.1Pa, gas flow 5sccm, power is 100W, and range is 5cm.Deposit thickness is about 600nm.Obtain Mo electrode.
The preparation of extinction district back side nano wire: the spacing on basal plane first can be made by Semiconductor microstructure processing mode on basal plane has specific distance micro-structural template, make to guide nano wire synthesis and growth can only occupy some specific positions, thus control nanowire deposition position, controllably preparation has the nano wire of specific distance arrangement.Such as, adopt template electrochemically depositing copper, silver, the metal nanometer lines such as nickel.Above-mentioned template is Woelm Alumina, and with this template for work electrode, sheet metal (copper, silver, nickel) is to electrode, and potentiostatic electrodeposition legal system is for metal nanometer line (copper, silver, nickel etc.).Sedimentation potential-0.4V is to 4V, and sedimentation time is 10 minutes to 6 minutes.After deposition, remove alumina formwork with the sodium hydroxide solution of 6mol/L, obtain metal nanometer line.
Prepared by light-absorption layer: adopt method of steaming altogether to prepare cigs layer on substrate, underlayer temperature is 200 DEG C, and carrier gas is argon gas or argon hydrogen gaseous mixture (wherein hydrogen is less than 10%), and reaction pressure is 0.1Pa, gas flow 5sccm, and operating distance is 5cm.Deposit thickness is about 1.5 μm.Obtain CIGS light-absorption layer.
Selenizing: under inert gas atmosphere, with selenium metal for selenium source, anneal at 400 DEG C 30min.
Prepared by Window layer: adopt chemical bath legal system for CdS layer, reactant is ammonium acetate, cadmium acetate, ammoniacal liquor and thiocarbamide.First add deionized water by airtight container, be heated to 60 DEG C, add cadmium acetate, ammonium acetate, ammoniacal liquor, deposit thickness is about 70nm.
The preparation of transparent buffer layer: adopt sputtering method making ZnO layer, glass substrate temperature is room temperature, and carrier gas is argon gas or argon hydrogen gaseous mixture (wherein hydrogen is less than 10%), reaction pressure is 0.1Pa, gas flow 5sccm, power is 50W, and range is 7cm.Deposit thickness is about 50nm.
The preparation of transparency electrode: adopt sputtering method to prepare AZO layer, glass substrate temperature is room temperature, and carrier gas is argon gas or argon hydrogen gaseous mixture (wherein hydrogen is less than 10%), and reaction pressure is 0.1Pa, gas flow 5sccm, and power is 100W, and range is 5cm.Deposit thickness is about 500nm.
Transparent electrical polar region incidence surface receives the preparation of microballoon: adopt evaporation self-assembly method, embodiment one received the suspension of microballoon in the incidence surface of transparent electrical polar region, the liquid of the temperature evaporation suspension between room temperature to 60 degree Celsius, microballoon of receiving carries out efficient assembling and forms fine and close microballoon film of receiving in the gas and liquid phase interface of suspension, be deposited on transparent electrical polar region incidence surface.
This example have employed respectively and receives microspherulite diameter is that the microballoon of receiving of 50nm, 100nm, 200nm, 300nm, 500nm applies, the adjacent dense arrangement of microballoon of receiving, the spacing received between microballoon can be zero, also can random distribution, also the spacing of microballoon on basal plane of can receiving first can be made by Semiconductor microstructure processing mode on basal plane has specific distance micro-structural template, the microballoon that makes to receive can only occupy some specific positions, thus control to receive depositing them position, what controllably preparation had a specific distance arrangement receives microballoon film.The diameter of extinction district back side nano wire is 5nm-500nm, and length is 50nm-5mm, and the spacing between nano wire is 10nm-100 μm.
Embodiment 15 has three or five II-VI group solar cells of low-dimensional materials composite construction, and transparent electrical polar region incidence surface receives microballoon
The preparation of light-absorption layer: in N-shaped Ge single crystalline substrate, utilizes MOCVD growing n-type GaAs, wherein Ga source trimethyl gallium source (TMG), and temperature is-16 DEG C, 10ml; Doped source H 2se, 20ml; As source AsH 3, 50ml; Hydrogen is carrier gas, growth temperature 600 DEG C, and thickness is 0.1 μm to 10 μm.
Prepared by Window layer active layer: utilize MOCVD to grow p-type GaAs.Wherein Ga source TMG, temperature is-16 DEG C, 10ml; Doped source DEZ ,-16 DEG C, 2ml; As source AsH 3, 40ml; Hydrogen is carrier gas, growth temperature 600 DEG C, and deposit thickness is about 0.1 μm to 10 μm.
Window region cap layer: utilize MOCVD to grow p-type AlGaAs.Wherein Ga source TMG, temperature is-16 DEG C, 10ml; Al source trimethyl aluminium (TMA), 17 DEG C, 20ml; Doped source DEZ, 25 DEG C, 2ml; As source AsH 3, 50ml; Hydrogen is carrier gas, growth temperature 600 DEG C, and deposit thickness is about 5nm to 10 μm.
The preparation of transparency electrode: adopt TiAu material as transparency electrode, utilize photoetching technique, through development, photoetching offset plate figure on battery front side does.Adopt vapour deposition method, under 2 × 10-2Pa air pressure, successively the Au of Ti and 50nm of evaporation 40nm forms gate electrode at battery surface, obtains transparency electrode after removing photoresist.
The preparation of back electrode: by Au/Ge/Ni alloy evaporation to battery back electrode, operating air pressure is 2 × 10 -2pa, thickness is followed successively by 30nm/20nm/500nm.
Transparent electrical polar region incidence surface receives the preparation of microballoon: the spacing on basal plane first can be made by Semiconductor microstructure processing mode on basal plane have specific distance micro-structural template, make guiding receive microballoon synthesis and growth can only occupy some specific positions, thus control to receive depositing them position, controllably preparation has the microballoon of receiving of specific distance arrangement.Such as, adopt evaporation self-assembly method, embodiment one received the suspension of microballoon in the incidence surface of transparent electrical polar region, the liquid of the temperature evaporation suspension between room temperature to 60 degree Celsius, microballoon of receiving carries out efficient assembling and forms fine and close microballoon film of receiving in the gas and liquid phase interface of suspension, be deposited on transparent electrical polar region incidence surface.
This example have employed respectively and receives microspherulite diameter is that the microballoon of receiving of 50nm, 100nm, 200nm, 300nm, 500nm applies, the adjacent dense arrangement of microballoon of receiving, the spacing received between microballoon can be zero, also can random distribution, also the spacing of microballoon on basal plane of can receiving first can be made by Semiconductor microstructure processing mode on basal plane has specific distance micro-structural template, the microballoon that makes to receive can only occupy some specific positions, thus control to receive depositing them position, what controllably preparation had a specific distance arrangement receives microballoon film.The diameter of extinction district back side nano wire is 5nm-500nm, and length is 50nm-5mm, and the spacing between nano wire is 10nm-100 μm.
Embodiment 16 has the crystal-silicon solar cell of low-dimensional materials composite construction
P-type silicon chip is placed in thermal diffusion furnace, and nitrogen carrier gas is by liquid POCl 3, at 900 DEG C 20 minutes, form n-type area at p-type silicon face, n-type area is as window region, and p-type area is as extinction district, and aluminum steel is drawn as electrode in surface, window region, 350 DEG C of annealing 30 minutes.
The preparation of window region micro-nano-sphere: the spacing on basal plane is first made by Semiconductor microstructure processing mode on basal plane has specific distance micro-structural template, make guiding receive microballoon synthesis and growth can only occupy some specific positions, thus control to receive depositing them position, controllably preparation has the nano wire of specific distance arrangement.Concrete, adopt evaporation self-assembly method, embodiment one received the suspension of microballoon in window region, the liquid of the temperature evaporation suspension between room temperature to 60 degree Celsius, microballoon of receiving carries out efficient assembling and forms fine and close microballoon film of receiving in the gas and liquid phase interface of suspension, be deposited on window region.
The preparation of extinction district back side nano wire: adopt template electrochemically depositing copper, silver, the metal nanometer lines such as nickel.Above-mentioned template is Woelm Alumina, and with this template for work electrode, sheet metal (copper, silver, nickel) is to electrode, and potentiostatic electrodeposition legal system is for metal nanometer line (copper, silver, nickel etc.).Sedimentation potential-0.4V is to 4V, and sedimentation time is 10 minutes to 6 minutes.After deposition, remove alumina formwork with the sodium hydroxide solution of 6mol/L, obtain metal nanometer line.
This example have employed respectively and receives microspherulite diameter is that the microballoon of receiving of 50nm, 100nm, 200nm, 300nm, 500nm applies, the adjacent dense arrangement of microballoon of receiving, the spacing received between microballoon can be zero, also can random distribution, also the spacing of microballoon on basal plane of can receiving first can be made by Semiconductor microstructure processing mode on basal plane has specific distance micro-structural template, the microballoon that makes to receive can only occupy some specific positions, thus control to receive depositing them position, what controllably preparation had a specific distance arrangement receives microballoon film.The diameter of extinction district back side nano wire is 5nm-500nm, and length is 50nm-5mm, and the spacing between nano wire is 10nm-100 μm.
Embodiment 17 has the thin film silicon solar cell of low-dimensional materials composite construction
Transparent electrical polar region incidence surface receives the preparation of microballoon: adopt evaporation self-assembly method, embodiment one received the suspension of microballoon in the surface of glass, the liquid of the temperature evaporation suspension between room temperature to 60 degree Celsius, microballoon of receiving carries out efficient assembling and forms fine and close microballoon film of receiving in the gas and liquid phase interface of suspension, be deposited on the incidence surface of transparent electrical polar region.The spacing of microballoon on basal plane of receiving first is made by Semiconductor microstructure processing mode on basal plane has specific distance micro-structural template, the microballoon that makes to receive can only occupy some specific positions, thus control to receive depositing them position, what controllably preparation had a specific distance arrangement receives microballoon film.
The preparation of transparency electrode: adopt sputtering method to prepare AZO layer, glass substrate temperature is room temperature, and carrier gas is argon gas or argon hydrogen gaseous mixture (wherein hydrogen is less than 10%), reaction pressure is 0.1Pa, gas flow 5sccm, and power is 100W, range is 5cm, wherein N 2as carrier gas.Deposit thickness is about 500nm.
The preparation of Window layer: adopt PECVD to prepare p layer Si film, radio-frequency power 60W, underlayer temperature 250, operating air pressure 130Pa; Reacting gas is the SiH of 1.5sccm flow 4, and the impurity gas B2H6 of 0.1% to 5%; Carrier gas is Ar and H 2, Ar flow 1 is to 100sccm, H 2flow 1 is to 100sccm.P layer window region thickness is 20nm to 500nm.
The preparation of intrinsic layer: adopt PECVD to prepare i layer Si film, radio-frequency power 60W, underlayer temperature 250, operating air pressure 130Pa; Reacting gas SiH flow is 1.5sccm; Carrier gas is Ar and H 2, Ar flow 1 is to 100sccm, H 2flow 1 is to 100sccm.P layer window region thickness is that 20nm is to 5 μm.
The preparation of absorbed layer: adopt PECVD to prepare n layer Si film, radio-frequency power 60W, underlayer temperature 250, operating air pressure 130Pa; Reacting gas SiH 4flow is 1.5sccm, and the impurity gas PH of 0.1% to 5% 3; Carrier gas is Ar and H 2, Ar flow 1 is to 100sccm, H 2flow 1 is to 100sccm.P layer window region thickness is 20nm to 500nm.
The preparation of extinction district back side nano wire: adopt template electrochemically depositing copper, silver, the metal nanometer lines such as nickel.Above-mentioned template is Woelm Alumina, and with this template for work electrode, sheet metal (copper, silver, nickel) is to electrode, and potentiostatic electrodeposition legal system is for metal nanometer line (copper, silver, nickel etc.).Sedimentation potential-0.4V is to 4V, and sedimentation time is 10 minutes to 6 minutes.After deposition, remove alumina formwork with the sodium hydroxide solution of 6mol/L, obtain metal nanometer line.
This example have employed respectively and receives microspherulite diameter is that the microballoon of receiving of 50nm, 100nm, 200nm, 300nm, 500nm applies, the adjacent dense arrangement of microballoon of receiving, the spacing received between microballoon can be zero, also can random distribution, also the spacing of microballoon on basal plane of can receiving first can be made by Semiconductor microstructure processing mode on basal plane has specific distance micro-structural template, the microballoon that makes to receive can only occupy some specific positions, thus control to receive depositing them position, what controllably preparation had a specific distance arrangement receives microballoon film.The diameter of extinction district back side nano wire is 5nm-500nm, and length is 50nm-5mm, and the spacing between nano wire is 10nm-100 μm.
Embodiment 18 has the dye-sensitized solar cells of low-dimensional materials composite construction
The preparation of transparency electrode: adopt sputtering method to prepare AZO layer, glass substrate temperature is room temperature, and carrier gas is argon gas or argon hydrogen gaseous mixture (wherein hydrogen is less than 10%), reaction pressure is 0.1Pa, gas flow 5sccm, and power is 100W, range is 5cm, wherein N 2as carrier gas.Deposit thickness is about 500nm.
Preparation to electrode: under an argon atmosphere Pt is coated in FTO conductive glass surface.
Preparation to electrode incidence surface nano wire: adopt template electrochemically depositing copper, silver, the metal nanometer lines such as nickel.Above-mentioned template is Woelm Alumina, and with this template for work electrode, sheet metal (copper, silver, nickel) is to electrode, and potentiostatic electrodeposition legal system is for metal nanometer line (copper, silver, nickel etc.).Sedimentation potential-0.4V is to 4V, and sedimentation time is 10 minutes to 6 minutes.After deposition, remove alumina formwork with the sodium hydroxide solution of 6mol/L, obtain metal nanometer line.
The preparation of dyestuff: the KI of the iodine of 30mM, 0.3M, imines thulium salt and pyridine inductor are added acetonitrile solvent and obtains electrolyte solution.
Optoelectronic pole drips several dyestuffs, seals with to electrode.Complete dye-sensitized cell.
The preparation of microballoon is received at the back side, transparent electrical polar region: the spacing on basal plane is first made by Semiconductor microstructure processing mode on basal plane has specific distance micro-structural template, make to guide nano wire synthesis and growth can only occupy some specific positions, thus control nanowire deposition position, controllably preparation has the nano wire of specific distance arrangement.Concrete, adopt evaporation self-assembly method, embodiment one received the suspension of microballoon in the back side, transparent electrical polar region, the liquid of the temperature evaporation suspension between room temperature to 60 degree Celsius, microballoon of receiving carries out efficient assembling and forms fine and close microballoon film of receiving in the gas and liquid phase interface of suspension, be deposited on transparent electrical polar region.
This example have employed respectively and receives microspherulite diameter is that the microballoon of receiving of 50nm, 100nm, 200nm, 300nm, 500nm applies, the adjacent dense arrangement of microballoon of receiving, the spacing received between microballoon can be zero, also can random distribution, also the spacing of microballoon on basal plane of can receiving first can be made by Semiconductor microstructure processing mode on basal plane has specific distance micro-structural template, the microballoon that makes to receive can only occupy some specific positions, thus control to receive depositing them position, what controllably preparation had a specific distance arrangement receives microballoon film.
Embodiment 19 has the organic polymer solar cell of low-dimensional materials composite construction
The preparation of transparency electrode: adopt sputtering method to prepare AZO layer, glass substrate temperature is room temperature, and carrier gas is argon gas or argon hydrogen gaseous mixture (wherein hydrogen is less than 10%), reaction pressure is 0.1Pa, gas flow 5sccm, and power is 100W, range is 5cm, wherein N 2as carrier gas.Deposit thickness is about 500nm.
The preparation of the incidence surface nano wire of window region: the spacing on basal plane is first made by Semiconductor microstructure processing mode on basal plane has specific distance micro-structural template, make to guide nano wire synthesis and growth can only occupy some specific positions, thus control nanowire deposition position, controllably preparation has the nano wire of specific distance arrangement.Concrete, adopt template electrochemically depositing copper, silver, the metal nanometer lines such as nickel.Above-mentioned template is Woelm Alumina, and with this template for work electrode, sheet metal (copper, silver, nickel) is to electrode, and potentiostatic electrodeposition legal system is for metal nanometer line (copper, silver, nickel etc.).Sedimentation potential-0.4V is to 4V, and sedimentation time is 10 minutes to 6 minutes.After deposition, remove alumina formwork with the sodium hydroxide solution of 6mol/L, obtain metal nanometer line.The diameter of nano wire can be 5nm-500nm, can length be 50nm-5mm, can the spacing between nano wire be 10nm-100 μm.
The preparation of window region: utilize spin coater, by the spin coating of polymer poly 3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene (PEDOT:PSS, 739332Sigma-Aldrich) aqueous solvent on the transparent electrodes, forms window region.Spin speed is 1000-2000 rpm.
The preparation of macromolecule organic photoelectric coating: by polythiophene and fullerene (P-100 of Ba Xi Instrument Ltd.) by 1: 1 quality proportioning dissolve in chloroform organic solvent fluid, form organic photoelectric coating.
The preparation of organic polymer solar battery thin film: dropped on the electro-conductive glass with transparency conductive electrode by macromolecule organic photoelectric coating, utilize spin coating agent, becomes organic solar batteries film through a 40-60 1000-2000 second rpm spin coating.
The preparation of back electrode: by metals such as aluminium, magnesium, calcium with vacuum thermal evaporation method evaporation to battery back electrode, operating air pressure is 2 × 10 -2pa, thickness is followed successively by 1000nm.
Embodiment 20 has the organic polymer solar cell of low-dimensional materials composite construction
The preparation of transparency electrode: adopt sputtering method to prepare AZO layer, glass substrate temperature is room temperature, and carrier gas is argon gas or argon hydrogen gaseous mixture (wherein hydrogen is less than 10%), reaction pressure is 0.1Pa, gas flow 5sccm, and power is 100W, range is 5cm, wherein N 2as carrier gas.Deposit thickness is about 500nm.
Window region incidence surface receives the preparation of microballoon: the spacing on basal plane is first made by Semiconductor microstructure processing mode on basal plane has specific distance micro-structural template, make guiding receive microballoon synthesis and growth can only occupy some specific positions, thus control to receive depositing them position, controllably preparation has the microballoon of receiving of specific distance arrangement.Concrete, adopt evaporation self-assembly method, embodiment one received the suspension of microballoon in the back side, transparent electrical polar region, the liquid of the temperature evaporation suspension between room temperature to 60 degree Celsius, microballoon of receiving carries out efficient assembling and forms fine and close microballoon film of receiving in the gas and liquid phase interface of suspension, be deposited on the back side, transparent electrical polar region.It should be noted that, because transparent electrical polar region and window region are close to, therefore, also can be understood as and window region point cantact at the microballoon of receiving at the back side, transparent electrical polar region.
The preparation of window region: utilize spin coater, by the spin coating of polymer poly 3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene (PEDOT:PSS, 739332Sigma-Aldrich) aqueous solvent on the transparent electrodes, forms window region.Spin speed is 1000-2000 rpm.
The preparation of macromolecule organic photoelectric coating: by polythiophene and fullerene (P-100 of Ba Xi Instrument Ltd.) by 1: 1 quality proportioning dissolve in chloroform organic solvent fluid, form organic photoelectric coating.
The preparation of organic polymer solar battery thin film: dropped on the electro-conductive glass with transparency conductive electrode by macromolecule organic photoelectric coating, utilize spin coating agent, becomes organic solar batteries film through a 40-60 1000-2000 second rpm spin coating.
The preparation of back electrode: by metals such as aluminium, magnesium, calcium with vacuum thermal evaporation method evaporation to battery back electrode, operating air pressure is 2 × 10 -2pa, thickness is followed successively by 1000nm.
This example have employed respectively and receives microspherulite diameter is that the microballoon of receiving of 50nm, 100nm, 200nm, 300nm, 500nm applies, the adjacent dense arrangement of microballoon of receiving, the spacing received between microballoon can be zero, also can random distribution, also the spacing of microballoon on basal plane of can receiving first can be made by Semiconductor microstructure processing mode on basal plane has specific distance micro-structural template, the microballoon that makes to receive can only occupy some specific positions, thus control to receive depositing them position, what controllably preparation had a specific distance arrangement receives microballoon film.
Above content is the further description done the application in conjunction with concrete execution mode, can not assert that the concrete enforcement of the application is confined to these explanations.For the application person of an ordinary skill in the technical field, under the prerequisite not departing from the application's design, some simple deduction or replace can also be made, all should be considered as the protection range belonging to the application.

Claims (7)

1. a photovoltaic device, comprise transparent electrical polar region, window region, uptake zone, it is characterized in that: the incidence surface in described transparent electrical polar region, window region, uptake zone and the back side amount in six faces, at least one mask has the low-dimensional composite interface structures formed with nano wire and/or microballoon point cantact of receiving;
The diameter of described nano wire is 5nm-500nm, and the length of described nano wire is 50nm-5mm, and the spacing between described nano wire is 10nm-100 μm; The described particle diameter receiving microballoon is 50nm-500 μm, described in the spacing received between microballoon be 0-100 μm;
Described point cantact comprises nano wire and/or receives microballoon and basal plane and forms the point cantact of alloy, or nano wire and/or receive microballoon and basal plane and do not form the point cantact of alloy;
Described nano wire and/or receive microballoon and basal plane and formed in the point cantact of alloy, the diameter of described alloy or the degree of depth be the 0.1-10 of nanowire diameter doubly, or the diameter of described alloy or the degree of depth be receive microsphere diameter 0.01-10 doubly.
2. photovoltaic device according to claim 1, is characterized in that: the back side of described uptake zone has the low-dimensional composite interface structures formed with nano wire and/or microballoon point cantact of receiving;
Meanwhile, the incidence surface of the incidence surface of described transparent electrical polar region and window region and the back side, described uptake zone amounts in five faces, and at least one mask has nano wire and/or receives the low-dimensional composite interface structures that microballoon point cantact formed.
3. photovoltaic device according to claim 1 and 2, is characterized in that: described nano wire, the material of microballoon received are metal material or nonmetallic materials or metal and nonmetallic composite material;
Described metal material be selected from copper, nickel, zinc, tin, magnesium, aluminium, manganese, chromium, cadmium, tellurium, indium, antimony, titanium, gold, platinum, molybdenum, silver one or several;
Described nonmetallic materials are selected from silicon, germanium, selenium, Graphene, CNT (carbon nano-tube), ambiguity carbon, boron nitride, cadmium sulfide, zinc sulphide, titanium dioxide, silicon dioxide, zinc oxide, copper sulfide, vanadium oxide, lithium compound and their alloy, and polystyrene, polythiophene, one or several in fullerene and their derivative;
Described metal and nonmetallic composite material are the composite material that described metal material wraps up described nonmetallic materials, or described nonmetallic materials wrap up the composite material of described metal material.
4. photovoltaic device according to claim 1 and 2, is characterized in that: the material of described uptake zone is selected from least one in two or six compounds of group, three or five compounds of group, silicon materials, organic photoelectrical material, dye sensitization material.
5. photovoltaic device according to claim 4, is characterized in that: described two or six compounds of group are selected from least one in CdTe material, CuInSe material, CuInGaSe material, CuZnSeS material;
Three or five compounds of group are selected from least one in GaAs material, InP material, InGaP material;
Silicon materials are the one in monocrystalline silicon, polysilicon, silicon thin film, nanocrystal silicon particle;
Organic photoelectrical material is selected from least one in the blue or green zinc of phthalein, methyl leaf woods, anthracene, biphenyl, half cyanines class and derivative and polythiophene;
Dye sensitization material comprises TiO 2and coloring agent, described coloring agent comprises inorganic material or organic material, described inorganic material comprises ruthenium dye, and described organic material is selected from least one in indoline-like dyestuff, Coumarins dyestuff, triphen amine dyestuff, cyanine type dye, square type dye, dialkyl benzene amine dyestuff, carbazoles dyestuff, fluorenes class dyestuff, perylene kinds dyestuff, tetrahydro chinolines dyestuff, porphyrin dyestuff, phthalocyanines dye.
6. photovoltaic device according to claim 1 and 2, is characterized in that: the dimension of described uptake zone is the one in nano particle, film, block, film and pellicular cascade, film and block lamination.
7. the solar cell containing the photovoltaic device described in any one of claim 1-6.
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