CN102643966B - Method for forming nanometer gradient structure on surface layer of shaft metallic material - Google Patents

Method for forming nanometer gradient structure on surface layer of shaft metallic material Download PDF

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CN102643966B
CN102643966B CN 201210103152 CN201210103152A CN102643966B CN 102643966 B CN102643966 B CN 102643966B CN 201210103152 CN201210103152 CN 201210103152 CN 201210103152 A CN201210103152 A CN 201210103152A CN 102643966 B CN102643966 B CN 102643966B
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layer
processed workpiece
processing
microns
cutter
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CN 201210103152
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CN102643966A (en
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斯晓
陶乃镕
卢柯
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中国科学院金属研究所
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Abstract

The invention relates to a surface treatment method for forming a nanometer gradient structure on a surface layer of a shaft metallic material. The invention aims to solve the problems that the surface roughness of the material to be treated is higher, the surface smoothness is not high and a nanometer crystal structure is difficult to form on the surface of a workpiece in the prior art. A spherical treatment tool is adopted to roll on the surface of the rotary shaft metallic material, and meanwhile, the spherical treatment tool moves along the axial direction of the workpiece, and plastic deformation is generated on the surface layer of the material, so that grains on the surface layer of a workpiece material are refined to form the nanometer gradient structure, wherein the depth of the deformation layer of the nanometer gradient structure reaches 100-300 micrometers; and the grains on the surface layer of the workpiece material are nanometer grains, submicron grains, deformation grains and initial grains in sequence in size from the surface to the inside. According to the processing method provided by the invention, the integral mechanical property of the material is improved through improving the microstructure of the surface layer, thereby, the service life of the material is prolonged. The processing method provided by the invention is small in investment and is simple and convenient in operation.

Description

A kind of method at axle metalloid material top layer formation nanometer gradient tissue
Technical field
The present invention relates to the process for treating surface at axle metalloid material top layer formation nanometer gradient tissue, the working method that produces viscous deformation at material surface is provided especially, has made the material surface grain-size be followed successively by nano-sized grains, submicron-scale crystal grain, deformed grains and initial grain tissue by surface to inside.
Background technology
At present, the method at axle metalloid material surface formation gradient-structure mainly contains:
1. surface mechanical attrition treatment method
The surface mechanical attrition treatment method is the projectile impact treated material surface by high-speed motion, produce strong viscous deformation at material surface, introduce a large amount of defectives, as dislocation, twin, shear zone etc., when dislocation desity is enough large, dislocation occuring buries in oblivion, recombinates, form nano-sized grains, the grain-size through-thickness is the gradient-structure that increases gradually.Advantage: the material monolithic fatigue property improves, and the nanostructure top layer has higher diffusibility, is conducive to the chemical treatments such as low temperature nitriding.Shortcoming: the treated material surfaceness is larger.
2. rolling depression method
The subject of implementation of rolling depression method is rolling tool, it is a kind of pressure polishing processing, to utilize metal in the cold plasticity characteristics of normal temperature state, by rolling tool, workpiece surface is applied certain pressure, make the workpiece surface metal produce plastic flow, be filled in original residual indentation trough, and reach the raising workpiece surface finish.Due to rolled top layer metal plastic deformation, textura epidermoidea's cold hardening and crystal grain are attenuated, form the fibrous of densification, and formation unrelieved stress layer, hardness and intensity improve, thereby improved wear resistance, solidity to corrosion and the conformability of workpiece surface, roll extrusion is a kind of plastic processing method without cutting.Advantage: workpiece surface roughness reduces, and improves surface hardness, improves fatigue property, reduces wear, and increases the service life.Shortcoming: the advantage of roll extrusion technology is to make the surface smoothness of workpiece to improve, and is limited as for improving surface hardness and fatigue property, because the roll extrusion technology is impossible make workpiece surface form nanocrystalline structure, even can not form submicrometer structure.According to the Hall-Petch relation, the intensity grain-size of metallic substance reduces and increases, so the roll extrusion technology is limited to the surface hardness that improves workpiece.
3. surperficial mechanical rolling method
The mechanical rolling method in surface is by cutter, workpiece surface to be applied certain pressure, makes the workpiece surface metal produce plastic flow and makes tissue that grain refining occur, thereby improving intensity and the wear resistance of workpiece surface.Advantage: can make the surface of workpiece to be machined form the nanometer gradient tissue, surface smoothness specific surface mechanical mill treatment process will be got well, and the yield strength after processing and fatigue property are greatly improved before processing.Shortcoming: after processing, the surface smoothness of workpiece should be not.
Summary of the invention
Thereby the object of the invention is to provide a kind of sintered carbide ball that utilizes to form the surface treatment method of nanometer gradient tissue by viscous deformation on axle metalloid material top layer, solve the treated material surfaceness that exists in prior art greatly, bad, the workpiece surface of surface smoothness is difficult to form the problems such as nanocrystalline structure.
Technical scheme of the present invention is:
a kind of method at axle metalloid material top layer formation nanometer gradient tissue, adopt spherical processing cutter to roll on the axle metalloid material surface of rotation, spherical processing cutter is along the processed workpiece axial motion simultaneously, by produce the treatment process of viscous deformation at material surface, by strong viscous deformation, make the generation grain refining of processed workpiece material surface crystal grain and form the gradient nano tissue, the degree of depth of its deformation layer reaches the 100-300 micron, processed workpiece material surface grain-size is followed successively by nano-sized grains by surface to inside, submicron-scale crystal grain, deformed grains and initial grain tissue.
Wherein, the thickness of nanometer layer is 5 microns~30 microns, and the thickness of submicron layer is 50 microns~100 microns, and the thickness of grain deformation layer is 50 microns~200 microns, and the thickness of initial grain tissue depends on the diameter of axle metalloid material.
this treatment process is by axle metalloid material rotation system, spherical processing cutter, cutter auto feed system and cooling and lubricating system are realized, wherein: axle metalloid material rotation system and cutter auto feed system are to be realized by lathe, processed workpiece is installed on the output terminal of axle metalloid material rotation system, axle metalloid material rotation system drives the processed workpiece rotation, spherical processing tool setting is on the cutter auto feed system, spherical processing cutter is relative with a side of processed workpiece, control spherical processing cutter at the amount of feed on processed workpiece surface by the cutter auto feed system, the opposite side of processed workpiece arranges cooling and lubricating system, the cooling and lubricating system cooling processed workpiece of lubricating oil in the course of processing, reduce simultaneously the frictional coefficient between processed workpiece and spherical processing cutter.The spherical processing of the present invention (processing) cutter can be comprised of 1-4 sintered carbide ball, according to processed workpiece mechanical property (as hardness), shape, diameter, selects the diameter of corresponding cutter sizes and ball, and the diameter of ball is from 6 millimeters-20 millimeters.The processed workpiece high speed rotating, according to its diameter, the speed of rotation of processed workpiece is between 90 mm/second-300 mm/second.Spherical processing cutter is done axial unidirectional motion on the knife rest of lathe tools auto feed system, to the draught of the each processing in processed workpiece (axle metalloid material) surface from 10 microns/time-40 microns/time, axial motion speed 6 mm/min-50 mm/min of spherical processing cutter, the processing number of times is from 3 times-20 times.Heat-eliminating medium and lubricant all adopt oil circulation sywtem to realize.
In the present invention, the temperature of processed workpiece processing treatment is that room temperature is to subzero 100 ℃.
The present invention has following advantage:
1. working method is simple.The processing cutter that only needs appropriate design can be realized the present invention on present commercial lathe.
2. pass through to select suitable processing cutter, and reasonably depress the degree of depth and processing treatment number of times at every turn, control Deformation structure's thickness and the grain-size on treated material top layer.
3. surfaceness is low.Working method of the present invention makes the processing workpiece stressed evenly, continuous, can accomplish that its surfaceness is low without the plastic working mode of cutting.
4. the present invention processes by axle metalloid material surface being carried out viscous deformation, make axle metalloid material top layer form the nanometer gradient tissue, the degree of depth of its deformation layer can reach the 100-300 micron, is followed successively by nanometer layer and submicron layer, grain deformation layer, initial grain tissue.Micron layer and matrix do not have the delamination phenomenon in conjunction with closely.Aspect the inhibition crack growth, small grains is better than coarse grain.Otherwise aspect the resistance crack propagation, coarse grain is better than small grains.Like this, the desirable combination of small grains top layer and coarse grain matrix is more favourable to the work-ing life that extends material.The present invention combines the excellent properties of nano material with the engineering metal material, give property for traditional metallic substance.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 right part is divided into the pattern after the technology of the present invention is processed the 316L stainless steel.
Fig. 2 processes rear 316L stainless steel top layer structure for transmission electron microscope bright field image.
Fig. 3 processes rear 316L stainless steel top layer structure grain-size statistics.(a) figure is the transmission electron microscope bright field image, and wherein illustration is the number statistical of surface layer grain size; (b) figure is the transmission electron microscope dark field image, and wherein illustration is the percentage ratio statistics of surface layer grain size.
Fig. 4 processes rear 316L stainless steel submicron layer structure iron.Fig. 4 (a) and Fig. 4 (b) are apart from 45 microns, surface and locate the sub-micron grain electromicroscopic photograph.
Fig. 5 left part is divided into the pattern after the technology of the present invention is processed trade mark Z5CND16-4 steel crank shaft.
Fig. 6 the technology of the present invention is the rear axially transmission electron microscope bright field image in cross section of Z5CND16-4 steel crank shaft processing to the trade mark.
Fig. 7 the technology of the present invention is the rear axially transmission electron microscope dark field image in cross section of Z5CND16-4 steel crank shaft processing to the trade mark.
Fig. 8 the technology of the present invention is the rear axially transmission electron microscope diffraction photo in cross section of Z5CND16-4 steel crank shaft processing to the trade mark.
The stereoscan photograph of Fig. 9 the technology of the present invention to the rear cross section of metallic nickel processing.
Figure 10 the technology of the present invention is the stereoscan photograph in the rear cross section of Z5CND16-4 steel crank shaft processing to the trade mark.
Figure 11 adopts the inventive method to the block diagram of the processing unit (plant) on axle metalloid material top layer.
Embodiment
As shown in figure 11, adopt the inventive method as follows to the axle metalloid material top layer course of processing:
This treatment process is by axle metalloid material rotation system, spherical processing cutter, cutter auto feed system and cooling and lubricating system realization, and wherein: axle metalloid material rotation system and cutter auto feed system are realized by commercial lathe.processed workpiece is installed on the output terminal of axle metalloid material rotation system, axle metalloid material rotation system drives the processed workpiece rotation, spherical processing tool setting is on the cutter auto feed system, spherical processing cutter is relative with a side of processed workpiece, control spherical processing cutter at the amount of feed on processed workpiece surface by the cutter auto feed system, the opposite side of processed workpiece arranges cooling and lubricating system, the cooling and lubricating system cooling processed workpiece of lubricating oil in the course of processing, reduce simultaneously the frictional coefficient between processed workpiece and spherical processing cutter.Spherical processing (processing) cutter can be comprised of 1-4 sintered carbide ball, according to processed workpiece mechanical property (as hardness), shape, diameter, selects the diameter of corresponding cutter sizes and ball, and the diameter of ball is from 6 millimeters-20 millimeters.The processed workpiece high speed rotating, according to its diameter, the rotational line speed of processed workpiece is in 90 mm/second-300 mm/second.Spherical processing cutter is done axial unidirectional motion on the knife rest of lathe tools auto feed system, to the draught (depth of cut) of the each processing in processed workpiece (axle metalloid material) surface from 10 microns/time-40 microns/time, axial motion speed 6 mm/min-50 mm/min of spherical processing cutter, the processing number of times is from 3 times-20 times.Heat-eliminating medium and lubricant all adopt oil circulation sywtem to realize.Below by embodiment in detail the present invention is described in detail.
Embodiment 1
Utilize working method of the present invention to process the 316L stainless steel:
Equipment: digital controlled lathe;
316L stainless steel diameter: diameter 12mm;
Main shaft (processed workpiece) rotating speed: linear velocity 300 mm/second;
Each depth of cut: 30 microns/time;
Axial feed speed: 20 mm/min;
The diameter of ball: 8 millimeters;
Texturing temperature: room temperature;
Processing number of times: 6 times;
Before processing, 316L stainless steel grain-size is the 2-3 micron.
After processing, the 316L stainless steel as shown in Figure 1, top layer microtexture such as Fig. 2, Fig. 3, Fig. 4, deformation layer thickness after processing is about 200 microns, deformation layer is the nanometer gradient tissue, and workpiece material surface layer grain size is followed successively by nano-sized grains, submicron-scale crystal grain, deformed grains and initial grain tissue by surface to inside.
Wherein, the thickness of nanometer layer is 30 microns, and the thickness of submicron layer is 100 microns, and the thickness of morphotropism granulosa is 50 microns.
Embodiment 2
Utilize working method of the present invention to process metallic nickel:
Equipment: digital controlled lathe;
Metallic nickel diameter: 6 millimeters of diameters;
The speed of mainshaft: linear velocity 100 mm/second;
Each depth of cut: 30 microns/time;
Axial feed speed: 6 mm/min;
The diameter of ball: 8 millimeters;
Texturing temperature: room temperature;
Processing number of times: 15 times;
Before processing, the metallic nickel grain-size is the 20-40 micron.
Deformation layer thickness after processing is about 210 microns (seeing Fig. 9), and deformation layer is the nanometer gradient tissue, and workpiece material surface layer grain size is followed successively by nano-sized grains, submicron-scale crystal grain, deformed grains and initial grain tissue by surface to inside.Wherein, the thickness of nanometer layer is approximately 5 microns, and the thickness of submicron layer is approximately 80 microns, and the thickness of morphotropism granulosa is 120 microns.
Embodiment 3
Utilize the working method of surperficial high speed plastic distortion to process trade mark Z5CND16-4 (French stainless refractory steel) steel axle:
Equipment: digital controlled lathe;
Steel shaft diameter: 120 millimeters;
The speed of mainshaft: linear velocity 100 mm/second;
Each depth of cut: 20 microns/time;
Axial feed speed: 16 mm/min;
The diameter of ball: 8 millimeters;
Texturing temperature: room temperature;
Processing number of times: 6 times;
Before processing, Z5CND16-4 steel axialite particle size is 250 nanometers.
Surface structure refinement (as Fig. 5) after processing, deformation layer thickness after processing is about 160 microns, deformation layer is the nanometer gradient tissue, and workpiece material surface layer grain size is followed successively by nano-sized grains, submicron-scale crystal grain, deformed grains and initial grain tissue by surface to inside.
Wherein, the thickness of nanometer layer is 7 microns, and the thickness of submicron layer is 100 microns, and the thickness of grain deformation layer is 50 microns.The surface structure of processing rear license plate Z5CND16-4 steel axle is seen transmission electron microscope photo Fig. 6, Fig. 7, Fig. 8, can find out that from Fig. 6, Fig. 7 the surface layer grain size is approximately 40 nanometers.Can find out the grain orientation stochastic distribution from the diffraction ring of Fig. 8.
Embodiment 4
Utilize the working method of surperficial high speed plastic distortion to process trade mark Z5CND16-4 steel axle:
Equipment: digital controlled lathe;
Steel shaft diameter: 6 millimeters;
The speed of mainshaft: linear velocity 200 mm/second;
Each depth of cut: 30 microns/time;
Axial feed speed: 20 mm/min;
The diameter of ball: 8 millimeters;
Texturing temperature: room temperature;
Processing number of times: 6 times;
Before processing, Z5CND16-4 steel axialite particle size is 250 nanometers.
Deformation layer thickness after processing is about 160 microns, and (seeing Figure 10), deformation layer are the nanometer gradient tissue, and workpiece material surface layer grain size is followed successively by nano-sized grains, submicron-scale crystal grain, deformed grains and initial grain tissue by surface to inside.Wherein, the thickness of nanometer layer is approximately 8 microns, and the thickness of submicron layer is approximately 100 microns, and the thickness of grain deformation layer is approximately 50 microns.
Comparative example 1
Roll extrusion technology and the present invention are suitable in the surface smoothness of working shaft-like metallic substance, but the deformation layer degree of depth of roll extrusion technology is more shallow, the surface microstructure size of its working shaft-like metallic substance is in sub-micrometer scale, and the hardness value of its axle metalloid material improves 15%-30%.The axle metalloid material of the present invention's processing is the superiority of roll extrusion technology: the deformation layer degree of depth of the present invention's processing is at 100 microns-300 microns, and the grain-size on surface is in nanometer scale.Hardness value as an example of 316L example before and after processing has improved (before processing, hardness value is 2.0GPa, and after processing, hardness value is 5.4GPa) more than 1 times.
Comparative example 2
Surface mechanical attrition (SMAT) technology and the present invention are suitable in the deformation layer degree of depth and the surface microstructure size of working shaft-like metallic substance, but the surfaceness of surface mechanical attrition (SMAT) technology is very poor, also there is a certain amount of tiny crack in surface after processing, and tiny crack has larger impact to fatigue property and corrosive nature.The superiority of axle metalloid material effects on surface mechanical mill (SMAT) treatment process of the present invention's processing is: machined surface roughness is low, and roughness can reach about Ra≤0.08 μ m substantially, and the surface does not have tiny crack to produce.
Embodiment and comparative example result show, the present invention is by the working method of sintered carbide ball in the surface high speed plastic deformation of axle metalloid material, makes the surface of axle metalloid material form the nanometer gradient structure.Because the present invention has formed the nanometer gradient tissue by strong viscous deformation on axle metalloid material surface, be again the plastic processing method without cutting, make the smooth finish on axle metalloid material top layer very high.The present invention has advantages of that " surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) method " and " rolling depression method " is common, has overcome again two kinds of shortcomings that method is common, makes the present invention comparatively perfect.The technology of the present invention has simple, convenient, the advantages such as less investment.

Claims (4)

1. method that forms the nanometer gradient tissue on axle metalloid material top layer, it is characterized in that, adopt spherical processing cutter to roll on the axle metalloid material surface of rotation, spherical processing cutter is along the processed workpiece axial motion simultaneously, produce viscous deformation at material surface, make the generation grain refining of processed workpiece material surface crystal grain and form the gradient nano tissue, the degree of depth of its deformation layer reaches the 100-300 micron, processed workpiece material surface grain-size is followed successively by nano-sized grains by surface to inside, submicron-scale crystal grain, deformed grains and initial grain tissue,
The thickness of nanometer layer is 5 microns~30 microns, and the thickness of submicron layer is 50 microns~100 microns, and the thickness of morphotropism granulosa is 50 microns~200 microns;
Spherical processing cutter is comprised of 1-4 sintered carbide ball, and the diameter of ball is from 6 millimeters-20 millimeters;
The processed workpiece high speed rotating, processed workpiece rotational line speed is in 90 mm/second-300 mm/second;
Spherical processing cutter is done axial unidirectional motion on the knife rest of lathe tools auto feed system, from 10 microns/time-40 microns/time, the processing number of times is from 3 times-20 times to the each draught of processing in processed workpiece surface;
Axial velocity 6 mm/min-50 mm/min of spherical processing cutter.
2. according to the method at axle metalloid material top layer formation nanometer gradient tissue claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that, this treatment process is by axle metalloid material rotation system, spherical processing cutter, cutter auto feed system and cooling and lubricating system are realized, wherein: axle metalloid material rotation system and cutter auto feed system are to be realized by lathe, processed workpiece is installed on the output terminal of axle metalloid material rotation system, axle metalloid material rotation system drives the processed workpiece rotation, spherical processing tool setting is on the cutter auto feed system, spherical processing cutter is relative with a side of processed workpiece, control spherical processing cutter at the amount of feed on processed workpiece surface by the cutter auto feed system, the opposite side of processed workpiece arranges cooling and lubricating system, the cooling and lubricating system cooling processed workpiece of lubricating oil in the course of processing, reduce simultaneously the frictional coefficient between processed workpiece and spherical processing cutter.
3. according to the described method at axle metalloid material top layer formation nanometer gradient tissue of claim 1 or 2, it is characterized in that, the temperature of processed workpiece processing treatment is that room temperature is to subzero 100 ° of C.
4. according to the method at axle metalloid material top layer formation nanometer gradient tissue claimed in claim 2, it is characterized in that, heat-eliminating medium and lubricant all adopt oil circulation sywtem to realize.
CN 201210103152 2012-04-10 2012-04-10 Method for forming nanometer gradient structure on surface layer of shaft metallic material CN102643966B (en)

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