CN102636545A - Early warning device for biomass with comprehensive toxicity in water - Google Patents

Early warning device for biomass with comprehensive toxicity in water Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102636545A
CN102636545A CN2012100708976A CN201210070897A CN102636545A CN 102636545 A CN102636545 A CN 102636545A CN 2012100708976 A CN2012100708976 A CN 2012100708976A CN 201210070897 A CN201210070897 A CN 201210070897A CN 102636545 A CN102636545 A CN 102636545A
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water
fuel cell
microbiological fuel
valve
warning
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CN102636545B (en
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刘红
谢倍珍
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Guangdong Yingfeng Technology Co.,Ltd.
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Beihang University
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Abstract

The invention discloses an early warning device for biomass with comprehensive toxicity in water, which comprises a water distribution area, a detection area and a control area. The water distribution area consists of a sampling tank, a clear water tank, a three-way valve, a clear water valve, a sample feeding pump, a clear water pump, a culture solution and concentrated solution storage tank, trace elements, a vitamin concentrated solution storage tank, a pH (potential of hydrogen) buffer solution storage tank, a mixing and deoxidizing tank, a magnetic stirrer, a liquid adding control valve and an emergency water sample draining pipeline; the detection area consists of a microbial fuel cell detecting unit, a sample feeding and water distributing valve, a water distributing tube, a cleaning control valve, a microbial fuel cell water discharge pipe, a depositing tank, a microorganism backwash pump, a drain pipeline and a microorganism removing pipeline; and the control area comprises a monitoring control and warning system and a display screen. By the aid of the early warning device, online monitoring and early warning for comprehensive toxicity of the water can be realized, and the early warning device has the advantages of long service life, high interference resistance and sensitivity, wide monitoring range, simplicity in daily management, low running expense and the like, and is applicable to monitoring emergency toxicity of water in conventional and emergency modes.

Description

The biological prior-warning device of a kind of water quality comprehensive toxicity
Technical field
The invention belongs to the environmental monitoring field, be specifically related to the biological prior-warning device of a kind of water quality comprehensive toxicity.
Background technology
Along with the high speed development of China's industrial level, the quick raising of living standards of the people, environmental pollution particularly water pollution have become one of present significant problem that faces of China.All be subjected to pollution in various degree according to the environmental administration's statistics whole nation nine big water systems, the overwhelming majority is quite serious, and direct threats arrives the water ecological setting and the people's normal life, the PI incident that causes because of the water pollution end that appears in the newspapers repeatly.Therefore, find the leakage or the discharging of toxic pollutant timely and effectively, and water quality burst changed carry out early warning rapidly crucial meaning is arranged.
The wastewater toxicity detection method mainly contains physico-chemical analysis method and biological method.Physico-chemical analysis mainly adopts methods such as gas phase or liquid chromatography to carry out; Its principle is to estimate the toxicity of water body through analyzing a certain or several kinds of representative pollutant levels; Since can not be directly with reflect the combined influence of toxicant to environment comprehensively, its validity is not institute of toxicity educational circles well recognized; In addition, though physico-chemical method precision and sensitivity are higher, equipment is huge, can't carry out the fast detecting of water quality toxicity in the open air.And biological method comprises that with water flea, algae, mussel, fish and microorganism etc. be the method for indication, can reflect the direct influence of pollutant to biology, has remedied the deficiency of traditional physico-chemical analysis method.Particularly microbial method is more suitable for the acute toxicity in on-line monitoring water, because of its fast, sensitivity and economic dispatch characteristics are able to develop rapidly.Yet use more biology sensor at present based on the microbial respiratory effect and the characteristics of luminescence, big because of its error, be subject to problem such as interference and limited application.
Summary of the invention
The technical matters that the present invention will solve provides the biological prior-warning device of a kind of water quality comprehensive toxicity.Advantages such as have long service life, antijamming capability is strong, and susceptibility is high, and monitoring range is wide, and the simple and operating cost of daily management is low.
In order to achieve the above object; The technical scheme of taking is: the biological prior-warning device of a kind of water quality comprehensive toxicity, comprise water distributing area (30), detection zone (31), control zone (32), and it is characterized in that: water distributing area (30) is by sampling groove (1), Rinsing Area (2), T-valve (3), purge valve (4), sampling pump (5), clarified water pump (6), nutrient solution concentrate fluid reservoir (7; 12), trace element, vitamin concentrate fluid reservoir (8; 13), pH damping fluid fluid reservoir (9,14), mixing deoxidation jar (10,15), magnetic stirring apparatus (11; 16), add hydraulic control valve (21,29) and urgent draining appearance pipeline (28) composition; Detection zone (31) is got rid of pipeline (27) and is formed by microbiological fuel cell detecting unit (18), sample introduction cloth water valve (19), water distributor (20), purge control valve (22), microbiological fuel cell rising pipe (25), stillpot (24), microorganism reflux pump (23), drainage pipeline (26), microorganism.
Among the present invention; Described microbiological fuel cell detecting unit (18) is made up of 3-21 air cathode microbial fuel cell; One of them microbiological fuel cell (18-6), remains 2-20 microbiological fuel cell and is used to detect water sample as reference with the clear water operation; The anode of each microbiological fuel cell (18-1) is connected with Monitoring and Controlling and warning system (17) with lead respectively with negative electrode (18-2), with the voltage signal of real-time monitoring microbiological fuel cell generation; Suspend in the anode chamber of each microbiological fuel cell (18-3) and on the anode (18-1) and adhere to microorganism with electrochemical activity; Each bottom, anode chamber (18-3) of detecting the microbiological fuel cell of water sample is established water inlet (18-4) and is linked to each other with sample introduction cloth water valve (19), then passes through water pipe as microbiological fuel cell (18-6) the bottom water inlet (18-7) of reference and links to each other with mixing deoxidation jar (15); Top, the anode chamber of each microbiological fuel cell (18-3) sets out the mouth of a river (18-5) and links to each other with microbiological fuel cell rising pipe (25).
Among the present invention, described control zone (32) are made up of Monitoring and Controlling and warning system (17) and display screen (33); Monitoring and Controlling and warning system (17) through lead respectively with T-valve (3), purge valve (4), sampling pump (5), the clarified water pump (6) of water distributing area (30), add hydraulic control valve (21; 29) be connected with microbiological fuel cell detecting unit (18), sample introduction cloth water valve (19), purge control valve (22), the microorganism reflux pump (23) of detection zone (31), to realize data monitoring and control; Display screen (33) is connected with Monitoring and Controlling and warning system (17), with visual display unit ruuning situation.
In apparatus of the present invention, the water sample that needs to detect gets into mixing deoxidation jar (10) from sampling groove (1) through T-valve (3) and sampling pump (5), makes the water sample anaerobism; Nutrient solution concentrate fluid reservoir (7), trace element, vitamin concentrate fluid reservoir (8) and pH damping fluid fluid reservoir (9) add nutrient solution concentrate, trace element, vitamin concentrate and pH damping fluid to mixing deoxidation jar (10) respectively automatically continuously under Monitoring and Controlling and warning system (17) control; And drive stirrer and detect water sample and mix through magnetic stirring apparatus (11); Mixing back water sample organic concentration is 100-1000mg/L, and pH is 6.0-8.0; Mix the back water sample and get into microbiological fuel cell detecting unit (18) from water inlet (18-4) equably through sample introduction cloth water valve (19), water distributor (20); With discharge from water delivering orifice (18-5) behind the microbial reaction with electrochemical activity, flow into stillpot (24) along microbiological fuel cell rising pipe (25); Detecting the voltage signal of the microbiological fuel cell generation of water sample is monitored by Monitoring and Controlling and warning system (17) in real time; When produce voltage be lower than normal voltage 50% or higher 50% the time than normal voltage, Monitoring and Controlling and warning system (17) give the alarm, and control T-valve (3) switches; Water sample is discharged from urgent draining appearance pipeline (28); Microbiological fuel cell detecting unit (18) is serious poisons to avoid, and simultaneously, Monitoring and Controlling and warning system (17) control sampling pump (5) quits work; Add hydraulic control valve (21), sample introduction cloth water valve (19) cuts out; Purge control valve (22) is opened, and the microbiological fuel cell that detects water sample is cleaned, and recovers normal until output voltage signal.
Clear water gets into mixing deoxidation jar (15) from Rinsing Area (2) through purge valve (4) and clarified water pump (6), makes the clear water anaerobism; Nutrient solution concentrate fluid reservoir (12), trace element, vitamin concentrate fluid reservoir (13) and pH damping fluid fluid reservoir (14) add nutrient solution concentrate, trace element, vitamin concentrate and pH damping fluid to mixing deoxidation jar (15) respectively automatically continuously under Monitoring and Controlling and warning system (17) control; And mix through magnetic stirring apparatus (16) and clear water; Mixing back clear water organic concentration is 100-1000mg/L, and pH is 6.0-8.0; Mix the back clear water and get into microbiological fuel cell (18-6) from water inlet (18-7), and discharge from water delivering orifice (18-5) behind the microbial reaction with electrochemical activity, flow into stillpot (24) along microbiological fuel cell rising pipe (25) as reference through water pipe; The voltage signal that produces as the microbiological fuel cell (18-6) of reference is by Monitoring and Controlling and warning system (17) monitoring in real time, as the microbiological fuel cell fault of other 2-20 detection water sample and the indication of daily cleaning; When the microbiological fuel cell that detects water sample needs daily cleaning; Monitoring and Controlling and warning system (17) control sample introduction cloth water valve (19) part is closed; Purge control valve (22) part is opened; 1-10 microbiological fuel cell that detects water sample wherein cleaned; 1-10 microbiological fuel cell operate as normal in addition cleaned until the microbiological fuel cell of output voltage signal and reference and switched to normal operating conditions after quite, subsequently other 1-10 microbiological fuel cell employing same program cleaned.
Among the present invention; The water outlet of said microbiological fuel cell detecting unit (18) enters stillpot (24) through microbiological fuel cell rising pipe (25); The electrochemical activity microorganism that suspends in the water outlet is precipitated in stillpot (24); Supernatant is through drainage pipeline (26) discharger, and the microorganism of deposition part turns back to microbiological fuel cell detecting unit (18) through microorganism reflux pump (23), water distributor (20), and unnecessary microorganism gets rid of pipeline (27) discharger from microorganism.
The present invention is based on principle of microbial fuel cells.Microbiological fuel cell be a kind of be anode catalyst with microorganism with electrochemical activity; Chemical energy is directly changed into the device of electric energy; Electrochemical activity microorganism in the microbiological fuel cell can carry out born of the same parents' external respiration; It directly is passed to electrode with the electronics that the water body organism biological oxidation process produces, and forms electric current through the loop, and within the specific limits; The electrogenesis inhibiting rate of noxious material kind and concentration and MFC is linear in the anolyte, can realize the real-time monitoring of water quality biological toxicity through the voltage output signal of online detection MFC.
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows the functions such as automatic on-line monitoring, early warning and cleaning that can realize the biological prior-warning device of water quality comprehensive toxicity; Have long service life, antijamming capability is strong, and susceptibility is high; Monitoring range is wide, advantage such as the simple and operating cost of daily management is low.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the synoptic diagram of the biological prior-warning device of water quality comprehensive toxicity of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is the enlarged drawing of microbiological fuel cell detecting unit (18).
Among the figure: the 1st, the sampling groove; The 2nd, Rinsing Area; The 3rd, T-valve; The 4th, purge valve; The 5th, sampling pump; The 6th, clarified water pump; 7, the 12nd, nutrient solution concentrate fluid reservoir; 8, the 13rd, trace element, vitamin concentrate fluid reservoir; 9, the 14th, pH damping fluid fluid reservoir; 10, the 15th, mix the deoxidation jar; 11, the 16th, magnetic stirring apparatus; The 17th, Monitoring and Controlling and warning system; The 18th, the microbiological fuel cell detecting unit; 18-1 is an anode; 18-2 is a negative electrode; 18-3 is the anode chamber; 18-4,18-7 are water inlets; 18-5 is a water delivering orifice; 18-6 is the microbiological fuel cell as reference; The 19th, sample introduction cloth water valve, the 20th, water distributor; 21, the 29th, add hydraulic control valve; The 22nd, purge control valve; The 23rd, the microorganism reflux pump; The 24th, stillpot; The 25th, the microbiological fuel cell rising pipe; The 26th, drainage pipeline; The 27th, microorganism gets rid of pipeline; The 28th, urgent draining appearance pipeline; The 30th, water distributing area; The 31st, detection zone; The 32nd, the control zone; The 33rd, display screen.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with Figure of description the present invention is further specified.
Embodiment 1:
Like Fig. 1, shown in Figure 2, apparatus of the present invention comprise water distributing area (30), detection zone (31) and control zone (32) three parts.Wherein water distributing area (30) is by sampling groove (1), Rinsing Area (2), T-valve (3), purge valve (4), sampling pump (5), clarified water pump (6), nutrient solution concentrate fluid reservoir (7; 12), trace element, vitamin concentrate fluid reservoir (8; 13), pH damping fluid fluid reservoir (9,14), mixing deoxidation jar (10,15), magnetic stirring apparatus (11; 16), add hydraulic control valve (21,29) and urgent draining appearance pipeline (28) composition; Detection zone (31) is got rid of pipeline (27) and is formed by microbiological fuel cell detecting unit (18), sample introduction cloth water valve (19), water distributor (20), purge control valve (22), microbiological fuel cell rising pipe (25), stillpot (24), microorganism reflux pump (23), drainage pipeline (26), microorganism; Control zone (32) is made up of Monitoring and Controlling and warning system (17) and display screen (33).
Said microbiological fuel cell detecting unit (18) is made up of 3-21 air cathode microbial fuel cell; Microbiological fuel cell detecting unit (18) is made up of 5 air cathode microbial fuel cells in the present embodiment; One of them microbiological fuel cell (18-6), remains 4 microbiological fuel cells and is used to detect water sample as reference with the clear water operation.
Described control zone (32) is made up of Monitoring and Controlling and warning system (17) and display screen (33); Monitoring and Controlling and warning system (17) through lead respectively with T-valve (3), purge valve (4), sampling pump (5), the clarified water pump (6) of water distributing area (30), add hydraulic control valve (21; 29) be connected with microbiological fuel cell detecting unit (18), sample introduction cloth water valve (19), purge control valve (22), the microorganism reflux pump (23) of detection zone (31), to realize data monitoring and control; Display screen (33) is connected with Monitoring and Controlling and warning system (17), with visual display unit ruuning situation.
When detecting water sample, water sample gets into mixing deoxidation jar (10) from sampling groove (1) through T-valve (3) and sampling pump (5), makes the water sample anaerobism; Nutrient solution concentrate fluid reservoir (7), trace element, vitamin concentrate fluid reservoir (8) and pH damping fluid fluid reservoir (9) add nutrient solution concentrate, trace element, vitamin concentrate and pH damping fluid to mixing deoxidation jar (10) respectively automatically continuously under Monitoring and Controlling and warning system (17) control; The sodium acetate that the use microorganism is easy to utilize in this instance is as the organism in the nutrient solution; And drive stirrer and detect water sample and mix through magnetic stirring apparatus (11); Mixing back water sample organic concentration is 100-1000mg/L, and pH is 6.0-8.0; Mix the back water sample and get into microbiological fuel cell detecting unit (18) from water inlet (18-4) equably through sample introduction cloth water valve (19), water distributor (20); With discharge from water delivering orifice (18-5) behind the microbial reaction with electrochemical activity, flow into stillpot (24) along microbiological fuel cell rising pipe (25); Simultaneously, clear water gets into mixing deoxidation jar (15) from Rinsing Area (2) through purge valve (4) and clarified water pump (6), makes the clear water anaerobism; Nutrient solution concentrate fluid reservoir (12), trace element, vitamin concentrate fluid reservoir (13) and pH damping fluid fluid reservoir (14) add nutrient solution concentrate, trace element, vitamin concentrate and pH damping fluid to mixing deoxidation jar (15) respectively automatically continuously under Monitoring and Controlling and warning system (17) control; And mix through magnetic stirring apparatus (16) and clear water; Mixing back clear water organic concentration is 100-1000mg/L, and pH is 6.0-8.0; Mix the back clear water and get into microbiological fuel cell (18-6) from water inlet (18-7), and discharge from water delivering orifice (18-5) behind the microbial reaction with electrochemical activity, flow into stillpot (24) along microbiological fuel cell rising pipe (25) as reference through water pipe.The electrochemical activity microorganism that suspends in the water outlet is precipitated in stillpot (24); Supernatant is through drainage pipeline (26) discharger; The microorganism part of deposition turns back to microbiological fuel cell detecting unit (18) through microorganism reflux pump (23), water distributor (20), and unnecessary microorganism gets rid of pipeline (27) discharger from microorganism.
Detecting the voltage signal of 4 microbiological fuel cells generations of water sample is monitored by Monitoring and Controlling and warning system (17) in real time; When produce voltage drop to normal voltage 50% or when improving 50% than normal voltage, Monitoring and Controlling and warning system (17) give the alarm, and control T-valve (3) switches; Water sample is discharged from urgent draining appearance pipeline (28); Microbiological fuel cell detecting unit (18) is serious poisons to avoid, and simultaneously, Monitoring and Controlling and warning system (17) control sampling pump (5) quits work; Add hydraulic control valve (21), sample introduction cloth water valve (19) cuts out; Purge control valve (22) is opened, and the microbiological fuel cell that detects water sample is cleaned, and recovers normal until output voltage signal.
The voltage signal that produces as the microbiological fuel cell (18-6) of reference detects the microbiological fuel cell fault of water samples and the indication of daily cleaning by Monitoring and Controlling and warning system (17) monitoring in real time as 4.When the microbiological fuel cell that detects water sample needs daily cleaning; Monitoring and Controlling and warning system (17) control sample introduction cloth water valve (19) part is closed; Purge control valve (22) part is opened; 2 microbiological fuel cells that detect water samples are wherein cleaned; Other 2 microbiological fuel cells are operate as normal still, cleans until the microbiological fuel cell of output voltage signal and reference and switches to normal operating conditions after quite, subsequently other 2 microbiological fuel cells employing same program is cleaned.

Claims (6)

1. the biological prior-warning device of a water quality comprehensive toxicity; Comprise water distributing area (30), detection zone (31), control zone (32); It is characterized in that: water distributing area (30) is by sampling groove (1), Rinsing Area (2), T-valve (3), purge valve (4), sampling pump (5), clarified water pump (6), nutrient solution concentrate fluid reservoir (7,12), trace element, vitamin concentrate fluid reservoir (8,13), pH damping fluid fluid reservoir (9; 14), mix deoxidation jar (10; 15), magnetic stirring apparatus (11,16), add hydraulic control valve (21,29) and urgent draining appearance pipeline (28) is formed; Detection zone (31) is got rid of pipeline (27) and is formed by microbiological fuel cell detecting unit (18), sample introduction cloth water valve (19), water distributor (20), purge control valve (22), microbiological fuel cell rising pipe (25), stillpot (24), microorganism reflux pump (23), drainage pipeline (26), microorganism.
2. microbiological fuel cell detecting unit according to claim 1 (18); It is characterized in that: form by 3-21 air cathode microbial fuel cell; One of them microbiological fuel cell (18-6), remains 2-20 microbiological fuel cell and is used to detect water sample as reference with the clear water operation; The anode of each microbiological fuel cell (18-1) is connected with Monitoring and Controlling and warning system (17) with lead respectively with negative electrode (18-2), with the voltage signal of real-time monitoring microbiological fuel cell generation; Suspend in the anode chamber of each microbiological fuel cell (18-3) and on the anode (18-1) and adhere to microorganism with electrochemical activity; Each bottom, anode chamber (18-3) of detecting the microbiological fuel cell of water sample is established water inlet (18-4) and is linked to each other with sample introduction cloth water valve (19), then passes through water pipe as microbiological fuel cell (18-6) the bottom water inlet (18-7) of reference and links to each other with mixing deoxidation jar (15); Top, the anode chamber of each microbiological fuel cell (18-3) sets out the mouth of a river (18-5) and links to each other with microbiological fuel cell rising pipe (25).
3. control zone according to claim 1 (32) is characterized in that: be made up of Monitoring and Controlling and warning system (17) and display screen (33); Monitoring and Controlling and warning system (17) through lead respectively with T-valve (3), purge valve (4), sampling pump (5), the clarified water pump (6) of water distributing area (30), add hydraulic control valve (21; 29) be connected with microbiological fuel cell detecting unit (18), sample introduction cloth water valve (19), purge control valve (22), the microorganism reflux pump (23) of detection zone (31), to realize data monitoring and control; Display screen (33) is connected with Monitoring and Controlling and warning system (17), with visual display unit ruuning situation.
4. the biological prior-warning device of water quality comprehensive toxicity according to claim 1 is characterized in that: the water sample that needs detect gets into mixing deoxidation jar (10) from sampling groove (1) through T-valve (3) and sampling pump (5), makes the water sample anaerobism; Nutrient solution concentrate fluid reservoir (7), trace element, vitamin concentrate fluid reservoir (8) and pH damping fluid fluid reservoir (9) add nutrient solution concentrate, trace element, vitamin concentrate and pH damping fluid to mixing deoxidation jar (10) respectively automatically continuously under Monitoring and Controlling and warning system (17) control; And drive stirrer and detect water sample and mix through magnetic stirring apparatus (11); Mixing back water sample organic concentration is 100-1000mg/L, and pH is 6.0-8.0; Mix the back water sample and get into microbiological fuel cell detecting unit (18) from water inlet (18-4) equably through sample introduction cloth water valve (19), water distributor (20); With discharge from water delivering orifice (18-5) behind the microbial reaction with electrochemical activity, flow into stillpot (24) along microbiological fuel cell rising pipe (25); Detecting the voltage signal of the microbiological fuel cell generation of water sample is monitored by Monitoring and Controlling and warning system (17) in real time; When produce voltage be lower than normal voltage 50% or higher 50% the time than normal voltage, Monitoring and Controlling and warning system (17) give the alarm, and control T-valve (3) switches; Water sample is discharged from urgent draining appearance pipeline (28); Microbiological fuel cell detecting unit (18) is serious poisons to avoid, and simultaneously, Monitoring and Controlling and warning system (17) control sampling pump (5) quits work; Add hydraulic control valve (21), sample introduction cloth water valve (19) cuts out; Purge control valve (22) is opened, and the microbiological fuel cell that detects water sample is cleaned, and recovers normal until output voltage signal.
5. the biological prior-warning device of water quality comprehensive toxicity according to claim 1 is characterized in that: clear water gets into mixing deoxidation jar (15) from Rinsing Area (2) through purge valve (4) and clarified water pump (6), makes the clear water anaerobism; Nutrient solution concentrate fluid reservoir (12), trace element, vitamin concentrate fluid reservoir (13) and pH damping fluid fluid reservoir (14) add nutrient solution concentrate, trace element, vitamin concentrate and pH damping fluid to mixing deoxidation jar (15) respectively automatically continuously under Monitoring and Controlling and warning system (17) control; And mix through magnetic stirring apparatus (16) and clear water; Mixing back clear water organic concentration is 100-1000mg/L, and pH is 6.0-8.0; Mix the back clear water and get into microbiological fuel cell (18-6) from water inlet (18-7), and discharge from water delivering orifice (18-5) behind the microbial reaction with electrochemical activity, flow into stillpot (24) along microbiological fuel cell rising pipe (25) as reference through water pipe; The voltage signal that produces as the microbiological fuel cell (18-6) of reference is by Monitoring and Controlling and warning system (17) monitoring in real time, as the microbiological fuel cell fault of other 2-20 detection water sample and the indication of daily cleaning; When the microbiological fuel cell that detects water sample needs daily cleaning; Monitoring and Controlling and warning system (17) control sample introduction cloth water valve (19) part is closed; Purge control valve (22) part is opened; 1-10 microbiological fuel cell that detects water sample wherein cleaned; 1-10 microbiological fuel cell operate as normal in addition cleaned until the microbiological fuel cell of output voltage signal and reference and switched to normal operating conditions after quite, subsequently other 1-10 microbiological fuel cell employing same program cleaned.
6. the biological prior-warning device of water quality comprehensive toxicity according to claim 1; It is characterized in that: the water outlet of said microbiological fuel cell detecting unit (18) enters stillpot (24) through microbiological fuel cell rising pipe (25); The electrochemical activity microorganism that suspends in the water outlet is precipitated in stillpot (24); Supernatant is through drainage pipeline (26) discharger; The microorganism part of deposition turns back to microbiological fuel cell detecting unit (18) through microorganism reflux pump (23), water distributor (20), and unnecessary microorganism gets rid of pipeline (27) discharger from microorganism.
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CN104122314A (en) * 2014-08-12 2014-10-29 中科宇图天下科技有限公司 Device and method for monitoring water quality biological toxicity by using microbial fuel cell
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