CN102636303B - Method for measuring residual stress of thin plating layer based on surface ultrasonic waves - Google Patents

Method for measuring residual stress of thin plating layer based on surface ultrasonic waves Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102636303B
CN102636303B CN 201210106043 CN201210106043A CN102636303B CN 102636303 B CN102636303 B CN 102636303B CN 201210106043 CN201210106043 CN 201210106043 CN 201210106043 A CN201210106043 A CN 201210106043A CN 102636303 B CN102636303 B CN 102636303B
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ultrasonic
measured
signal
stress
flash plating
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CN102636303A (en
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董世运
徐滨士
刘彬
潘亮
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Academy of Armored Forces Engineering of PLA
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Academy of Armored Forces Engineering of PLA
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Abstract

The invention discloses a method for measuring the residual stress of a thin plating layer based on surface ultrasonic waves. The method comprises the following steps of: setting the working distance between a transmitting probe and a receiving probe; preparing a thin plating layer sample to be measured into a standard stretching member, and performing stress relief annealing; fixing the display time of an initial wave signal; under multiple stress conditions, testing the thin plating layer sample to be measured, and recording the surface ultrasonic wave signal under each stress condition until a macrocrack appears on the thin plating layer to be measured; defining a reference signal, and respectively calculating the time difference between the surface ultrasonic wave signal of the thin plating layer to be measured and the reference signal under multiple stress conditions; fitting an acoustic elasticity formula for describing the relationship between the stress and the time difference according to the corresponding relationship between multiple stresses and the time difference; and calculating the time difference between the surface ultrasonic wave detection signal and the reference signal for the sample to be measured of the thin plating layer with the same thickness and same type as the thin plating layer sample to be measured, and calculating the residual stress value of the sample to be measured by use of the acoustic elasticity formula.

Description

A kind of method of measuring the flash plating unrelieved stress based on ultrasonic surface
Technical field
The present invention relates to fields of measurement, particularly a kind of method of measuring the flash plating unrelieved stress based on ultrasonic surface.
Background technology
At present, China has a large amount of wastes of iron and steel parts to carry out the recovery of material level as scrap iron and steel every year, causes the waste of resource, the energy and the pollution of environment.From the idea of resource, environment and Sustainable Socioeconomic Development, the wastes of iron and steel parts are reclaimed and manufacture to process, energy-saving material-saving, environmental protection and the coordinated development that promotes social economy and environment are significant.
The coating for preparing desired properties at surface of the work is to improve workpiece performance and reenlist life-span method the most commonly used, thereby, common method when the various technology that prepare coating also just become the wastes of iron and steel spare parts remanufacture.
The wastes of iron and steel parts are after overlay coating, and whether effectively can coating be related to through manufacturing the wastes of iron and steel parts of processing again and work.In actual applications, coating likely can premature failure, and unrelieved stress causes the key factor of coating premature failure (as stress corrosion, fracture etc.) exactly, thereby detects the coating unrelieved stress quality that guarantees the coating product is just seemed to extremely important.
Conventional unrelieved stress detection method (as Blind Hole Method, ray diffraction method) is although can realize the detection of coating unrelieved stress, but because they all have certain limitation, as destructiveness, radiation etc., therefore these detection methods are only suitable for the coating product is carried out to sampling Detection, can't detect unrelieved stress to all coating products, this quality for the coating product and safety are brought hidden danger.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is to overcome existing coating unrelieved stress detection method and be only suitable for the coating product is carried out to sampling Detection, can't detect to all coating products the defect of unrelieved stress, thereby a kind of method of the coating product being done to Non-Destructive Testing is provided.
To achieve these goals, the invention provides a kind of method of measuring the flash plating unrelieved stress based on ultrasonic surface, be applied at least comprise that in the pick-up unit of ultrasonic pulse emission receiving instrument 1, digital oscilloscope 3 and two ultrasonic surface probe 5, the method comprises:
Step 1), set described pair of transmitting probe and the operating distance of receiving transducer in test process in ultrasonic surface probe 5;
Step 2), flash plating sample to be measured is prepared into to the standard tensile part, and described flash plating sample to be measured is carried out to stress relief annealing;
Step 3), in step 2) on the flash plating to be measured surface of resulting described flash plating sample to be measured according to step 1) result settle described pair of ultrasonic surface probe 5, follow the fixedly displaying time of beginning ripple signal in described digital oscilloscope 3, then under a plurality of stress conditions, adopt respectively 5 pairs of described flash plating samples to be measured of described pair of ultrasonic surface probe to be tested, record the surface wave ultrasonic signal under each stress condition, until macroscopic cracking appears in described flash plating to be measured;
Step 4), the definition reference signal, calculate respectively the ultrasonic surface signal of described flash plating to be measured and the mistiming between described reference signal under described a plurality of stress conditions;
Step 5), according to step 4) many groups stress of obtaining and the corresponding relation between the mistiming, simulate for describing the acoustic elasticity formula of stress and mistiming relation;
Step 6), to and the sample to be tested of described flash plating sample to be measured with same thickness, same type flash plating calculate the mistiming between surperficial ultrasonic testing signals and reference signal, then utilize step 5) the acoustic elasticity formula obtained calculates the residual-stress value of this sample to be tested.
In technique scheme, described step 1) comprising:
Step 1-1), transmitting probe and receiving transducer in described pair of ultrasonic surface probe 5 are arranged on to coating surface to be measured, after transmitting in described coating to be measured, the pulsed ultrasonic wave that transmitting probe is launched by the corresponding echoed signal of described receiving transducer collection, extracts the maximum amplitude of echoed signal;
Step 1-2), change relative position between described transmitting probe and receiving transducer to change the propagation distance of ultrasonic surface in coating to be measured, then remeasure echoed signal, extract maximum amplitude;
Step 1-3), repeating step 1-2) operation, obtain the data of many group propagation distances, echoed signal maximum amplitude;
Step 1-4), with formula A=aL bfor basis, according to many groups propagation distance that step calculates before, the data fitting of echoed signal maximum amplitude, go out the relational expression of propagation distance and echoed signal maximum amplitude; Wherein, A means the echoed signal maximum amplitude, and L means the propagation distance of echoed signal; A, b are two parameters relevant with composite coating properties;
Step 1-5), according to step 1-4) propagation distance that obtains and the relational expression between the echoed signal maximum amplitude, corresponding propagation distance when calculating signal amplitude and being reduced to maximal value 50%, using this apart from the transmitting probe as setting and the operating distance between receiving transducer.
In technique scheme, in described step 4) in, described definition reference signal comprises: when extraneous load is 0N, the ultrasonic surface signal of described flash plating to be measured is as the reference signal.
In technique scheme, described coating to be measured is the fast nickel Brush that thickness is 0.16mm, and described acoustic elasticity formula is t=1.76 σ, and wherein t is the mistiming, and σ is stress.
The invention has the advantages that:
1, the present invention can do Non-Destructive Testing to the coating product, makes all coating products are done to unrelieved stress to detect and to become possibility, and the security-hidden trouble of avoiding sampling Detection to bring, improve the accuracy of coating unrelieved stress evaluation result.
2, detection speed of the present invention is fast.
Figure of description
The structural representation that Fig. 1 is the unrelieved stress pick-up unit that will use of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is the process flow diagram of measuring the method for flash plating unrelieved stress based on ultrasonic surface of the present invention;
Fig. 3 is the schematic diagram of ultrasonic surface echoed signal in the fast nickel Brush detected in one embodiment.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with the drawings and specific embodiments, the present invention is elaborated.
The major reason that coating lost efficacy is craze of coating that skin stress causes, delamination etc., thereby, by detecting the coating unrelieved stress, just can be estimated the degree of injury of coating.In the present invention, adopt ultrasonic surface to measure stress, it is the method for on acoustoelectric effect theoretical foundation, the media table ply stress being measured, and by measuring the velocity of sound, realizes the evaluation of media table ply stress.In view of accurate measurement ultrasonic surface difficulty of velocity of propagation in coating larger, thereby, the present invention turns to the gauging surface ultrasound wave to pass through the same distance mistiming used in coating, ultrasonic surface mistiming used by same propagation distance and the relation between stress while setting up different stress, thus the unrelieved stress in coating is detected.
For the ease of understanding, before the coating unrelieved stress is detected, at first the unrelieved stress pick-up unit adopted in embodiment is described.
As shown in Figure 1, described unrelieved stress pick-up unit comprises ultrasonic pulse emission receiving instrument 1, sampling system 2, digital oscilloscope 3, analytic system 4 and two ultrasonic surface probe 5; Wherein, the pulsed ultrasonic wave that described ultrasonic pulse emission receiving instrument 1 is launched is delivered in coating by a probe in described pair of ultrasonic surface probe 5, pulsed ultrasonic wave is received by another probe of described pair of ultrasonic surface probe 5 after coating is propagated, and returns to described ultrasonic pulse emission receiving instrument 1; The received ultrasonic pulse of 2 pairs of ultrasonic pulse emission receiving instruments 1 of described sampling system is sampled, and the data after sampling are carried out to discrete processes via digital oscilloscope 3, finally by analytic system 4 the method according to this invention, is calculated the unrelieved stress of coating.
Below in conjunction with above-mentioned unrelieved stress pick-up unit, with reference to figure 2, the testing process of unrelieved stress in coating is described.
In one embodiment of the invention, adopt the 45 steel surfaces that Brush Electroplating Technique is 3.0mm at a thickness to prepare the fast nickel Brush that thickness is 0.16mm.To be detected unrelieved stress in this coating hereinafter.
Transmitting probe and the operating distance of receiving transducer in test process in step 1, the two ultrasonic surfaces probes of setting.
In this step, set the distance between transmitting probe and receiving transducer, can realize in the following manner:
Step 1-1, transmitting probe and receiving transducer are arranged on to fast nickel Brush surface to be measured, after the pulsed ultrasonic wave that transmitting probe is launched transmits in this coating, by the corresponding echoed signal of described receiving transducer collection, extract the maximum amplitude of echoed signal;
Step 1-2, change relative position between described transmitting probe and receiving transducer to change the propagation distance of ultrasonic surface in fast nickel Brush, then remeasure echoed signal, extract maximum amplitude;
The operation of step 1-3, repeating step 1-2, obtain the data of organizing propagation distances, echoed signal maximum amplitude more;
Step 1-4, with formula A=aL bfor basis, according to many groups propagation distance that step calculates before, the data fitting of echoed signal maximum amplitude, go out the relation of propagation distance and echoed signal maximum amplitude;
A=256·L -0.6????(1)
In above-mentioned formula, A means the echoed signal maximum amplitude, and L means the propagation distance of echoed signal; A, b are two parameters relevant with composite coating properties;
It should be noted that, the type of the size of parameter a, the b calculated in above-mentioned formula (1) and the thickness of coating, coating has close contacting, if thickness of coating or coating type change, the corresponding relation of above-mentioned formula (1) will be probably no longer applicable.
Relational expression between step 1-5, the propagation distance obtained according to step 1-4 and echoed signal maximum amplitude, corresponding propagation distance when calculating signal amplitude and being reduced to maximal value 50%, using this apart from the transmitting probe as setting and receiving transducer spacing.
Step 2, according to national standard, fast nickel Brush sample is prepared into to the standard tensile part, and the Brush sample is carried out to stress relief annealing.
Being embodied as of this step is conventionally known to one of skill in the art, is not repeated.
Step 3, settle transmitting probe and the receiving transducer of two ultrasonic surfaces probes 5 according to the result of step 1 on the coating surface of the resulting described fast nickel Brush sample to be measured of step 2, follow the fixedly displaying time of beginning ripple signal in digital oscilloscope 3, the fast nickel Brush sample that adopts two ultrasonic surfaces to pop one's head in when load is zero is to external world detected, record detection signal, then increase stress, detect and record the ultrasonic surface signal of fast nickel Brush under each stress, until macroscopic cracking appears in coating.
In the present embodiment, when increasing stress, can increase the stress of 500N size at every turn, in other embodiments, be not limited to this.Figure 3 illustrates the ultrasonic surface signal that detection obtains under different stress conditions.In this step, between detection period, can adopt osmosis to be observed fast nickel Brush top layer.
Step 4, definition reference signal, calculate the ultrasonic surface signal of fast nickel Brush under different stress and the mistiming between described reference signal.
Because the time of ripple signal in oscillograph beginning immobilizes, the velocity of propagation of ultrasonic surface when therefore receiving the difference of signal on time location different stress being described, in figure as shown in Figure 2, signal more keeps left, and shows that velocity of propagation is larger.In the present embodiment, when the extraneous load of definable is 0N, fast nickel Brush ultrasonic surface signal is reference signal, mistiming between ultrasonic surface signal and reference signal in fast nickel Brush while then adopting the cross correlation function method to calculate different stress, using this mistiming as the parameter of estimating the velocity of sound.
Step 5, on ultrasonic surface acoustoelectric effect theoretical foundation, according to many groups stress and the corresponding relation between the mistiming, adopt linear function to carry out matching to fast nickel Brush stress and mistiming result, obtaining thickness is nominal sonic elastic modulus K=1.76 and the acoustic elasticity formula of the fast nickel Brush of 0.16mm, thereby completes the demarcation of the fast nickel Brush stress that thickness is 0.16mm.
Wherein, described acoustic elasticity formula is as shown in formula (2):
t=1.76σ????(2)
T is the mistiming, and σ is stress.
In the present embodiment, the nominal sonoelastic coefficient that resulting nominal sonic elastic modulus K=1.76 is the thickness fast nickel Brush that is 0.16mm, once the thickness of coating to be measured changes, (as thickness becomes 0.20mm) or the kind of coating to be measured change (as coating to be measured is zn-fe alloy coating), the large young pathbreaker of nominal sonic elastic modulus K probably changes, and its size is no longer described 1.76.
Step 6, demarcated after, while for the fast nickel Brush with identical type and thickness, measuring residual-stress value, first calculate the mistiming between surperficial ultrasonic testing signals and reference signal, the acoustic elasticity formula that then utilizes step 5 to obtain calculates the residual-stress value of fast nickel Brush.
The fast nickel Brush that the thickness that the acoustic elasticity formula that step 5 calculates is only applicable to mention in the present embodiment is 0.16mm, once kind and the thickness of coating change, need with reference to previous step 1-step 5, recalculate the acoustic elasticity formula, then utilize described acoustic elasticity formula to measure residual-stress value.

Claims (4)

1. a method of measuring the flash plating unrelieved stress based on ultrasonic surface is applied at least comprise that in the pick-up unit of ultrasonic pulse emission receiving instrument (1), digital oscilloscope (3) and two ultrasonic surface probe (5), the method comprises:
Step 1), set transmitting probe and the operating distance of receiving transducer in test process in described pair of ultrasonic surface probe (5);
Step 2), flash plating sample to be measured is prepared into to the standard tensile part, and described flash plating sample to be measured is carried out to stress relief annealing;
It is characterized in that: the method also comprises the steps:
Step 3), in step 2) on the flash plating to be measured surface of resulting described flash plating sample to be measured according to step 1) result settle described pair of ultrasonic surface probe (5), follow the fixedly displaying time of beginning ripple signal in described digital oscilloscope (3), then under a plurality of stress conditions, adopt respectively described pair of ultrasonic surface probe (5) to be tested described flash plating sample to be measured, record the surface wave ultrasonic signal under each stress condition, until macroscopic cracking appears in described flash plating to be measured;
Step 4), the definition reference signal, calculate respectively the ultrasonic surface signal of described flash plating to be measured and the mistiming between described reference signal under described a plurality of stress conditions;
Step 5), according to step 4) many groups stress of obtaining and the corresponding relation between the mistiming, simulate for describing the acoustic elasticity formula of stress and mistiming relation;
Step 6), to and the sample to be tested of described flash plating sample to be measured with same thickness, same type flash plating calculate the mistiming between surperficial ultrasonic testing signals and reference signal, then utilize step 5) the acoustic elasticity formula obtained calculates the residual-stress value of this sample to be tested.
2. the method for measuring the flash plating unrelieved stress based on ultrasonic surface according to claim 1, is characterized in that described step 1) comprising:
Step 1-1), transmitting probe and receiving transducer in described pair of ultrasonic surface probe (5) are arranged on to coating surface to be measured, after transmitting in described coating to be measured, the pulsed ultrasonic wave that transmitting probe is launched by the corresponding echoed signal of described receiving transducer collection, extracts the maximum amplitude of echoed signal;
Step 1-2), change relative position between described transmitting probe and receiving transducer to change the propagation distance of ultrasonic surface in coating to be measured, then remeasure echoed signal, extract maximum amplitude;
Step 1-3), repeating step 1-2) operation, obtain the data of many group propagation distances, echoed signal maximum amplitude;
Step 1-4), with formula A=aL bfor basis, according to many groups propagation distance that step calculates before, the data fitting of echoed signal maximum amplitude, go out the relational expression of propagation distance and echoed signal maximum amplitude; Wherein, A means the echoed signal maximum amplitude, and L means the propagation distance of echoed signal; A, b are two parameters relevant with composite coating properties;
Step 1-5), according to step 1-4) propagation distance that obtains and the relational expression between the echoed signal maximum amplitude, corresponding propagation distance when calculating signal amplitude and being reduced to maximal value 50%, using this apart from the transmitting probe as setting and the operating distance between receiving transducer.
3. the method for measuring the flash plating unrelieved stress based on ultrasonic surface according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, in described step 4) in, described definition reference signal comprises: when extraneous load is 0N, the ultrasonic surface signal of described flash plating to be measured is as the reference signal.
4. the method for measuring the flash plating unrelieved stress based on ultrasonic surface according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, described coating to be measured is the fast nickel Brush that thickness is 0.16mm, and described acoustic elasticity formula is t=1.76 σ, wherein t is the mistiming, and σ is stress.
CN 201210106043 2012-04-12 2012-04-12 Method for measuring residual stress of thin plating layer based on surface ultrasonic waves Expired - Fee Related CN102636303B (en)

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