CN102601330A - Method for refining crystalline grains by Alfven wave for upward continuous casting - Google Patents

Method for refining crystalline grains by Alfven wave for upward continuous casting Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102601330A
CN102601330A CN2011104290141A CN201110429014A CN102601330A CN 102601330 A CN102601330 A CN 102601330A CN 2011104290141 A CN2011104290141 A CN 2011104290141A CN 201110429014 A CN201110429014 A CN 201110429014A CN 102601330 A CN102601330 A CN 102601330A
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continuous
casting
crystal grain
alternating current
base
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钟云波
张增光
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University of Shanghai for Science and Technology
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University of Shanghai for Science and Technology
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Abstract

The invention relates to a method for refining crystalline grains by Alfven wave generated by applying a static magnetic field to interact with an alternating current in an upward continuous casting process of nonferrous metal. Alfven wave generated by compounding the static magnetic field with the alternating current is applied to the frontier of a solidification interface of an upward continuous casting blank so as to realize the targets of refining the crystalline grains, uniforming the components and reducing the segregation by virtue of the facts that Alfven wave promotes nucleation, shatters the tips of the dendritic crystal, slows down the frontier temperature gradient of the solidification interface and accelerates the crystalline grains on the wall of a crystallizer to fall off to form crystal nucleus proliferative effect. As upward continuous casting can be performed continuously, the method can be used to obtain a long dimension line bar panel with fully equiaxed crystals. In addition, the method provided by the invention is simple in structure of the device and low in equipment cost, is convenient to operate and does not generate pollution to the upward continuous casting blank and the alloy melt, so that the method is beneficial to obtaining a pure upward continuous casting blank.

Description

Continuous up-casting is with the method for Alfven waves crystal grain thinning
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of method of in non-ferrous metal continuous up-casting process, passing through steady magnetic field and alternating current effect generation Alfven ripple (hereinafter to be referred as Alfven waves) crystal grain thinning, belong to non-ferrous metal continuous casting technology field.
Background technology
The upward-casting process of non-ferrous metal since in melting and continuous casting process without chute, tundish and casting ladle; All be under the condition of secluding air, to carry out; The casting bar quality of therefore producing is pure, field trash is few, oxygen content is low, is particularly suitable for the melting and the continuous casting of each Albatra metal-; In addition; The smelting furnace heat size of continuous up-casting is little, tears stove open, the prepurging cost is low, and it is flexible that the alloy kind is produced in conversion; So processing enterprise is used widely at non-ferrous metal; Be particularly suitable for the production of long dimension line section product,, and become the main process technology of production of copper aluminium cable, electric locomotive and high ferro electric power trolley at present like copper and alloy cable thereof, strip, pipe etc.But being organized as vertically or radially thick columanar structure of the metal base that direct continuous up-casting goes out; Continuous casting billet structure is loose simultaneously; Density is low; As far as large-sized line rod base and alloy strand, also will cause the gross segregation of composition, this deficiency will have a strong impact on the properties for follow and the post processing characteristic of material.Therefore,, how to solve the grain refinement problem of strand, seem most important upward-casting process.
The method of continuous casting billet structure refinement mainly contains chemical method and Process at present.Chemical method forms heterogeneous forming core through adding grain refiner, realizes the refinement of crystal grain, not only in processing procedure, can pollute environment, also can pollute metal material itself, and then have a strong impact on the cycling and reutilization of material; And the technology refinement usually is through control pouring type and pouring temperature or improves heat transfer condition to reach the purpose of refinement; But these methods all have limitation separately; Although can obtain the small grains tissue,, it is difficult to carry out large-scale industrial production because of can not preparing the large scale metallic article like quick setting method.Recently some scholars come crystal grain thinning through applying ultrasonic wave, but the refinement zone is limited, and ultrasonic wave is difficult to effectively import to the metal freezing forward position, therefore large-scale application in industry not as yet.In addition; Adopt pulsed magnetic field and pulse current to come crystal grain thinning in addition; But pulsed magnetic field receives the shielding of metallic crystal device, is difficult to efficiently be applied to the metal freezing forward position, and the effect of pulse current is not good enough; Particularly for the flash heat transfer condition of continuous up-casting, these technology are not brought into play obvious effects as yet.
The present invention is incorporated into the Alfven waves (Alfven waves) of the alternating current generation of stationary magnetic field and quadrature in the non-ferrous metal continuous up-casting process; Utilize Alfven waves to produce the vibration fluctuation in zone, forward position, freezing interface; Cause that on the one hand forced convertion makes near the Temperature Distribution of solid liquid interface of strand more even; Reduce the temperature fluctuation in forward position, freezing interface, suppress crystal grain at the preferential growth of thermograde than general orientation; On the other hand; The nucleus conductance that the forward position, freezing interface forms roughly is 2 times of molten metal; Because the electromagnetic viscosimeter effect that Alfven waves causes; Nucleus will with molten metal generation relative displacement, under suitable frequency, disturbance two dimension solid liquid interface formed the condition of dendrite, column crystal, thereby forms equiax crystal.In addition, under enough strong Alfven waves oscillating force effect, the potential barrier of forward position, freezing interface forming core also will reduce, and help the increase of nucleation rate, cause the grain refinement of continuous up-casting base.Moreover applying of forward position, freezing interface electric current can also cause the brilliant most advanced and sophisticated division of column crystal and born of the same parents' shape, forms thinner solidified structure, and this has good facilitation to the crystal grain thinning tissue.Therefore; Alfven waves through with stationary magnetic field and alternating current formation is applied in the continuous up-casting process, can effectively hang down the crystallite dimension of refinement continuous casting billet, thereby can improve the gross segregation of its density, reduction alloying component; Can significantly improve the mechanical property and the processing characteristics of continuous up-casting base; Special for the electric power trolley production of electric railway and high ferro, the raising of mechanical property and processing characteristics, significant to its military service process safe property.
Summary of the invention
Seeing that present continuous up-casting method can't realize the deficiency of grain refinement, the present invention aims to provide a kind of Alfven waves that in the continuous up-casting process, applies magnetostatic field and alternating current formation and moves, through method and the device thereof of multiple effect to reach crystal grain thinning.
For reaching above-mentioned requirements, the present invention conceives as follows:
Because the size of continuous up-casting rod wire rod is generally less; Perhaps wherein one dimension size (width, thickness or diameter) is less; Cause the heat transfer condition in the continuous up-casting crystallizer better, the thermograde in forward position, freezing interface is bigger, forms vertically easily or radially-arranged thick column crystal.And under the continuous up-casting condition of routine, very difficult thermograde of regulating the forward position, freezing interface through the change cooling water flow, and then change the mode that the capable nuclear of crystal grain is grown up.
Consider that metal and alloy thereof all are good conductors of metal at solid-liquid mutually; Therefore; Can consider to adopt the method that applies the original position electromagnetic force, the capable nuclear of crystal grain and the growth process in forward position, continuous up-casting line rod base freezing interface regulated and control, and then be expected to obtain equiaxed grain structure.
Because continuous up-casting crystallizer material is generally graphite and brass tube; And protective sleeve and ceramic wool that the graphite clay is made are formed; These materials are nonferromugnetic material, therefore, can adopt two to form the magnetostatic field vertical with the continuous up-casting direction around the DC current that passes to certain intensity to identical solenoid coil; And the continuous up-casting shape wire is generally the good copper of electric conductivity and alloy or aluminium and alloy material thereof; And its electrical conductivity will be far above the electrical conductivity of graphite crystallizer, therefore can in metal and alloy molten bath, insert a graphite electrode, and the metal or alloy wire rod that pull is come out is as another electrode; Feed the alternating current of certain intensity toward the forward position, freezing interface of continuous casting wire rod through these two electrodes; Because this alternating current direction is vertical all the time with the magnetic direction that solenoid coil produces, therefore will on another horizontal direction, produce the Lorentz force of alternate, it is moving that the Lorentz force of this alternate will form Alfven waves in the forward position, freezing interface of metal or alloy line bar; Through the suitable field coil position and the arrangement of electrode; Can guarantee that the moving strong position of Alfven waves is in the forward position, freezing interface, therefore through Alfven waves to equalizing temperature, promote effects such as row nuclear, crystallizer wall nucleus come off, the most advanced and sophisticated fusing of forward position, freezing interface dendrite, and the bifurcated effect that causes through born of the same parents' shape crystalline substance of electric current etc.; Crystal grain with effective refinement continuous up-casting base; Even the excellent wire rod of the continuous up-casting that can obtain congruent axialite, can also reduce the segregation of solute simultaneously, improve the ingredient stability of continuous up-casting rod wire rod.
The present invention adopts following technical proposals:
A kind of continuous up-casting is with the method for Alfven waves crystal grain thinning; It is characterized in that applying the Alfven waves of magnetostatic field and the compound generation of alternating current in the forward position, freezing interface of continuous up-casting base; Promote forming core, smash dendrite, slow down the freezing interface temp gradient at front edge, promote formation nucleus propagation such as the crystallizer wall nucleus comes off, thereby realize grain refinement, the uniform target of composition.
Described continuous up-casting is with the method for Alfven waves crystal grain thinning; Be to be realized with Alfven waves crystal grain thinning device by continuous up-casting, this device is made up of Medium frequency induction coil 1, melting kettle 2, Cu-0.5wt%Mg alloy melt 3, magnetostatic field generator 4, continuous up-casting crystallizer 5, continuous up-casting base 6, main electrode joint 7, alternating source 8, sub-electrode joint 9, graphite crystallization pipe 10, hot top 11, coverture 12, graphite electrode 13; The alternating current of continuous up-casting base solidification front is fed through main electrode joint 7 and sub-electrode joint 9, continuous up-casting base 6 and graphite electrode 13 by alternating source 8; Simultaneously the magnetostatic field vertical with alternating current is provided by magnetostatic field generator 4; Magnetostatic field and alternating current effect will form Alfven waves 16 in the forward position, freezing interface of continuous up-casting base 6; Thereby the crystal grain forming core of solid liquid interface grown up control, obtain congruent axialite tissue, make composition even.
Adopt a kind of in Cu-Mg, Cu-Sn, Cu-Cr-Zr, Cu-Ag, the Cu-Ni alloy; Can also be non-ferrous metal and alloy thereof of other copper alloys, aluminium alloy, magnesium alloy, kirsite and other suitable continuous up-castings etc.; Adopt frequency smelting stove or the power frequency smelting furnace of 20-5000Kg, with alloy melting, and insulation is at 300-1500 ℃; Adopt charcoal or crystalline flake graphite coverture, perhaps other and alloy melt do not have remarkable reaction and can completely cut off the coverture of control.The continuous up-casting crystallizer is inserted in the alloy melt, and the hot top bottom is inserted the metal bath degree of depth and is about 3-150mm.In zone, continuous up-casting crystallizer hot top upper edge; More than drawing continuous cast mold is the axle center, be symmetrical set a pair of band cooling system around to identical solenoid coil, the magnetic line of force that coil is produced; Level is passed the continuous up-casting base, and magnetic line of force direction becomes vertical with the continuous up-casting base.The magnetic induction intensity that coil produces in the forward position, freezing interface of continuous up-casting base is 0.01-2 tesla (T), and this magnetostatic field also can adopt hard magnetic material such as neodymium iron boron to realize through magnetic Circuit Design, also can take mode such as electromagnet to realize; Magnetic line of force direction can be vertical with the alternating current direction in the continuous up-casting base, also can be 0-180 0Angle, but can not equal 0 0With 180 0Adopt the graphite electrode of certain-length to be inserted in the metal bath of smelting furnace near continuous up-casting crystallizer one side; The quantity of this graphite electrode is one or more; During a plurality of electrode then electrode be evenly distributed on the continuous up-casting crystallizer around be symmetrical distribution; Alternating current is imported in acting as of this graphite electrode in metal bath, and the material of this electrode can also can be band water-cooled or air cooling and the bar same material of alloy melt for graphite electrode.The bringing-out that more than draws continuous casting billet is as another utmost point, and through the alternating current of this two electrode input 1-20000A in the metal bath, the frequency of electric current is 0.01-10000Hz.The drawing velocity of continuous up-casting base is 0.5-50mm/s.The pull system of continuous up-casting is pull 0.01-50 second, stops 0-50 second, counter pushing away 0-20 second.Apply and the applying synchronously of electric current in magnetic field are carried out, and continue whole continuous up-casting process always.The continuous up-casting base can be circular cross-section or annular cross section, also can be square-section or profiled-cross-section, and the sectional area of continuous up-casting base can be 1-1000mm 2
Characteristics of the present invention and advantage are following:
1. in the continuous up-casting process, introduce Alfven waves; Multiple effect through Alfven waves produces is come crystal grain thinning; Not only can improve density, intensity and the plasticity of continuous up-casting base base; Also suppressed simultaneously the segregation of solute, improved the uniformity and the stability of alloying component, the follow-up deformation processing that also helps the continuous up-casting base is shaped and the carrying out of operation such as heat treatment.
2. the Alfven waves of magnetostatic field and alternating current generation acts directly on the liquid-solid boundary forward position; Can directly have influence on the row nuclear and the growth process of nucleus; Can farthest control the size of crystal grain; Can obtain simultaneously the long dimension line rod base of congruent axialite, this is very favourable for preparation use for electric locomotive trolley material.
3. adopt magnetostatic field among the present invention, brassiness crystallizer and graphite crystallizer etc. are to not shielding of magnetostatic field, and alternating current directly passes through continuous up-casting base and alloy melt, and resistance wherein is very little, and therefore required energy consumption is very low; And the electromagnetic agitation mode of Traditional use alternating magnetic field then can consume a large amount of electric energy owing to the shielding of crystallizer.
4. the generation of magnetostatic field can be adopted the permanent magnet of high energy product, therefore can further save energy consumption.
5. magnetostatic field that adopts and alternating current etc. all are clean physical fields; Environment is not polluted; If the water-cooled or the air cooling alloy bar material of employing and the same material of alloy melt can not introduced new pollution to alloy melt, can guarantee the cleanliness factor of alloy.
Description of drawings
Accompanying drawing 1 is the device sketch map of continuous up-casting with Alfven waves crystal grain thinning method.
Specific embodiment:
A preferred embodiment of the present invention is: referring to accompanying drawing 1.
Adopt the Cu-0.5wt%Mg alloy; Use alloy as continuous up-casting with the method for Alfven waves crystal grain thinning and the embodiment of device; Cu-0.5wt%Mg alloy total capacity is 2 tons; The Cu-0.5wt%Mg alloy adopts the tough cathode and the pure magnesium configuration of the Cu-Mg intermediate alloy that contains magnesium 10wt% of purity 99.95%, adopts crystalline flake graphite as coverture, prevents the oxidation of Cu-0.5wt%Mg alloy.
The present invention realizes with Alfven waves crystal grain thinning device through continuous up-casting.Referring to Fig. 1, continuous up-casting is made up of Medium frequency induction coil 1, melting kettle 2, Cu-0.5wt%Mg alloy melt 3, magnetostatic field generator 4, continuous up-casting crystallizer 5, continuous up-casting base 6, main electrode joint 7, alternating source 8, sub-electrode joint 9, graphite crystallization pipe 10, hot top 11, coverture 12, graphite electrode 13 with Alfven waves crystal grain thinning device.During embodiment of the present invention, the tough cathode of purity 99.95% is joined in the melting kettle 2, add the coverture 12 that an amount of drying is crossed then; Start Medium frequency induction coil 1, with the tough cathode fusing, insulation is at 1200 ℃; An amount of according to the ratio adding Cu-10wt%Mg intermediate alloy of magnesium content 0.5wt% then, and be incubated 30 minutes, to obtain uniform Cu-0.5wt%Mg alloy melt 3; Graphite electrode 13 is inserted in the Cu-0.5wt%Mg alloy melt 3, and insertion depth is 100mm.The diameter of continuous up-casting base 6 is 12.5mm, and continuous up-casting base 6 is inserted in the continuous up-casting crystallizer 5, and the front end of continuous up-casting base 6 will stretch out graphite crystallization pipe 10 20mm at least.The lower end of the continuous up-casting crystallizer 5 that installs continuous up-casting base 6, graphite crystallization pipe 10, hot top 11 is inserted in the Cu-0.5wt%Mg alloy melt 3, and insertion depth is hot top 11 bottoms apart from the bath surface of Cu-0.5wt%Mg alloy melt 3 50mm at least.With the top edge of magnetostatic field generator 4 as for the bottom hot top 11 of continuous up-casting crystallizer 5, the surperficial 40mm of distance C u-0.5wt%Mg alloy melt 3, magnetostatic field generator 4 is controlled at 0.5T at the magnetic induction intensity that the solid liquid interface of continuous up-casting base 6 goes out.Start the continuous up-casting haulage gear, make the lead speed of continuous up-casting base 6 remain on 3mm/s, simultaneously through on draw 2 seconds, stop 2 seconds, the anti-mode that pushed away 0 second and draw on carrying out.Open alternating source 8 then, feed alternating current through main electrode joint 7, sub-electrode joint 9, graphite electrode 13 and continuous up-casting base 6, the intensity of alternating current is 100A, and frequency is 50Hz.At this moment; Because the interaction of magnetostatic field and alternating current; To produce Alfven waves 16 in the forward position, freezing interface of continuous up-casting base 6 bottoms; This Alfven waves 16 can promote forming core, shatter dendrite 14 the tip, make the tip division of dendrite 14, the nucleus 15 that also will cause the surface of graphite crystallization pipe 10 simultaneously comes off, and forms nucleus propagation, make along strand axial dendrite or column crystal and be refined as equi-axed crystal; Because therefore the continuous up-casting process can obtain the continuous up-casting line bar of congruent axialite and grain refinement for carrying out continuously.

Claims (7)

1. a continuous up-casting is characterized in that applying in the forward position, freezing interface of continuous up-casting base the Alfven waves of magnetostatic field and the compound generation of alternating current with the method for Alfven waves crystal grain thinning.
2. continuous up-casting according to claim 1 is with the method for Alfven waves crystal grain thinning; It is characterized in that realizing with Alfven waves crystal grain thinning device that this device is made up of Medium frequency induction coil (1), melting kettle (2), Cu-0.5wt%Mg alloy melt (3), magnetostatic field generator (4), continuous up-casting crystallizer (5), continuous up-casting base (6), main electrode joint (7), alternating source (8), sub-electrode joint (9), graphite crystallization pipe (10), hot top (11), coverture (12), graphite electrode (13) by continuous up-casting; The alternating current of continuous up-casting base solidification front is fed through main electrode joint (7) and sub-electrode joint (9), continuous up-casting base (6) and graphite electrode (13) by alternating source (8); Simultaneously the magnetostatic field vertical with alternating current is provided by magnetostatic field generator (4); Magnetostatic field and alternating current effect will form Alfven waves (16) in the forward position, freezing interface of continuous up-casting base (6), control thereby the crystal grain forming core of solid liquid interface grown up.
3. continuous up-casting according to claim 1 and 2 is characterized in that with the method for Alfven waves crystal grain thinning described continuous up-casting line base (6) is copper and alloy, aluminium and alloy thereof, magnesium and alloy thereof or zinc and alloy thereof.
4. continuous up-casting according to claim 1 and 2 is with the method for Alfven waves crystal grain thinning; It is characterized in that described magnetostatic field generator (4) is produced by water cooled coil; Or produce through magnetic Circuit Design by the NbFeB permanent-magnet material; Or electromagnet produces, and magnetic induction intensity is 0.01-2T; Magnetic line of force direction is vertical with the alternating current direction in the continuous up-casting base (6), perhaps is 0-180 0Angle, but can not equal 0 0With 180 0
5. continuous up-casting according to claim 1 and 2 is characterized in that with the method for Alfven waves crystal grain thinning the alternating current intensity that alternating source (8) is supplied with is 1~20000A, and frequency is 0.01~10000Hz.
6. continuous up-casting according to claim 1 and 2 is with the method for Alfven waves crystal grain thinning; What it is characterized in that continuous up-casting base (6) is shaped as circular cross-section, annular cross section, square-section or profiled-cross-section, and the sectional area of continuous up-casting base is 1-1000mm 2The drawing velocity of continuous up-casting base (6) is 0.5-50mm/s.
7. continuous up-casting according to claim 1 and 2 is with the method for Alfven waves crystal grain thinning, it is characterized in that the quantity of graphite electrode (13) is one or more, is evenly distributed on the periphery that draws crystallizer (5) during a plurality of electrode and is symmetrical distribution; The material of graphite electrode (13) is a graphite, perhaps is band water-cooled or air cooling and the bar same material of alloy melt.
CN2011104290141A 2011-12-20 2011-12-20 Method for refining crystalline grains by Alfven wave for upward continuous casting Pending CN102601330A (en)

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Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102990027A (en) * 2012-12-31 2013-03-27 上海大学 Low-energy-consumption electromagnetic stirring method for continuous casting and metal continuous casting device
CN103691901A (en) * 2013-12-29 2014-04-02 山东亨圆铜业有限公司 Cored crystallizer for upwardly drawing continuous casting copper tubes and method for manufacturing high-performance copper alloy tubes
CN105689667A (en) * 2016-03-10 2016-06-22 安徽鑫旭新材料股份有限公司 Tubular backflow copper material continuous up-casting crystallizer
CN109385546A (en) * 2018-11-01 2019-02-26 上海大学 A kind of thinning method of high temperature alloy crystal grain

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CN1768982A (en) * 2005-11-25 2006-05-10 上海大学 Apparatus for refining grain by electromagnetic oscillation of steel billet
CN101181739A (en) * 2007-10-26 2008-05-21 上海大学 Method for composite electromagnetic continuous-casting high-oriented ultra-fine grained materials
CN101219464A (en) * 2007-10-26 2008-07-16 上海大学 Continuous casting crystallizer capable of controlling liquid level flow field and wave motion

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CN1387966A (en) * 2001-04-26 2003-01-01 名古屋大学 Method for propagating vibration to conducting flow and its method for freezing molten metal
CN1575890A (en) * 2002-07-08 2005-02-09 名古屋大学 Method for propagating vibration into a conductive fluid and method for solidifying a melted metal using the same propagating method of vibration
CN1768982A (en) * 2005-11-25 2006-05-10 上海大学 Apparatus for refining grain by electromagnetic oscillation of steel billet
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Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102990027A (en) * 2012-12-31 2013-03-27 上海大学 Low-energy-consumption electromagnetic stirring method for continuous casting and metal continuous casting device
CN102990027B (en) * 2012-12-31 2015-07-01 上海大学 Low-energy-consumption electromagnetic stirring method for continuous casting and metal continuous casting device
CN103691901A (en) * 2013-12-29 2014-04-02 山东亨圆铜业有限公司 Cored crystallizer for upwardly drawing continuous casting copper tubes and method for manufacturing high-performance copper alloy tubes
CN103691901B (en) * 2013-12-29 2015-06-24 山东亨圆铜业有限公司 Cored crystallizer for upwardly drawing continuous casting copper tubes and method for manufacturing high-performance copper alloy tubes
CN105689667A (en) * 2016-03-10 2016-06-22 安徽鑫旭新材料股份有限公司 Tubular backflow copper material continuous up-casting crystallizer
CN109385546A (en) * 2018-11-01 2019-02-26 上海大学 A kind of thinning method of high temperature alloy crystal grain

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