CN102596126B - Optical system for ophthalmic surgical laser - Google Patents

Optical system for ophthalmic surgical laser Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102596126B
CN102596126B CN201080043148.3A CN201080043148A CN102596126B CN 102596126 B CN102596126 B CN 102596126B CN 201080043148 A CN201080043148 A CN 201080043148A CN 102596126 B CN102596126 B CN 102596126B
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China
Prior art keywords
scanning device
described
scanning
xy
laser system
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CN201080043148.3A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN102596126A (en
Inventor
F·拉克希
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爱尔康蓝斯克斯股份有限公司
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Priority to US12/511,979 priority Critical patent/US8500725B2/en
Priority to US12/511,979 priority
Application filed by 爱尔康蓝斯克斯股份有限公司 filed Critical 爱尔康蓝斯克斯股份有限公司
Priority to PCT/US2010/042786 priority patent/WO2011017000A2/en
Publication of CN102596126A publication Critical patent/CN102596126A/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F9/00Methods or devices for treatment of the eyes; Devices for putting-in contact lenses; Devices to correct squinting; Apparatus to guide the blind; Protective devices for the eyes, carried on the body or in the hand
    • A61F9/007Methods or devices for eye surgery
    • A61F9/008Methods or devices for eye surgery using laser
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F9/00Methods or devices for treatment of the eyes; Devices for putting-in contact lenses; Devices to correct squinting; Apparatus to guide the blind; Protective devices for the eyes, carried on the body or in the hand
    • A61F9/007Methods or devices for eye surgery
    • A61F9/008Methods or devices for eye surgery using laser
    • A61F9/00825Methods or devices for eye surgery using laser for photodisruption
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B27/00Other optical systems; Other optical apparatus
    • G02B27/0025Other optical systems; Other optical apparatus for optical correction, e.g. distorsion, aberration
    • G02B27/0031Other optical systems; Other optical apparatus for optical correction, e.g. distorsion, aberration for scanning purposes
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B27/00Other optical systems; Other optical apparatus
    • G02B27/0025Other optical systems; Other optical apparatus for optical correction, e.g. distorsion, aberration
    • G02B27/0068Other optical systems; Other optical apparatus for optical correction, e.g. distorsion, aberration having means for controlling the degree of correction, e.g. using phase modulators, movable elements
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B27/00Other optical systems; Other optical apparatus
    • G02B27/0075Other optical systems; Other optical apparatus with means for altering, e.g. increasing, the depth of field or depth of focus
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F9/00Methods or devices for treatment of the eyes; Devices for putting-in contact lenses; Devices to correct squinting; Apparatus to guide the blind; Protective devices for the eyes, carried on the body or in the hand
    • A61F9/007Methods or devices for eye surgery
    • A61F9/008Methods or devices for eye surgery using laser
    • A61F2009/00844Feedback systems
    • A61F2009/00848Feedback systems based on wavefront
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F9/00Methods or devices for treatment of the eyes; Devices for putting-in contact lenses; Devices to correct squinting; Apparatus to guide the blind; Protective devices for the eyes, carried on the body or in the hand
    • A61F9/007Methods or devices for eye surgery
    • A61F9/008Methods or devices for eye surgery using laser
    • A61F2009/00855Calibration of the laser system
    • A61F2009/00859Calibration of the laser system considering nomograms
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F9/00Methods or devices for treatment of the eyes; Devices for putting-in contact lenses; Devices to correct squinting; Apparatus to guide the blind; Protective devices for the eyes, carried on the body or in the hand
    • A61F9/007Methods or devices for eye surgery
    • A61F9/008Methods or devices for eye surgery using laser
    • A61F2009/00861Methods or devices for eye surgery using laser adapted for treatment at a particular location
    • A61F2009/0087Lens
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F9/00Methods or devices for treatment of the eyes; Devices for putting-in contact lenses; Devices to correct squinting; Apparatus to guide the blind; Protective devices for the eyes, carried on the body or in the hand
    • A61F9/007Methods or devices for eye surgery
    • A61F9/008Methods or devices for eye surgery using laser
    • A61F2009/00861Methods or devices for eye surgery using laser adapted for treatment at a particular location
    • A61F2009/00872Cornea
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F9/00Methods or devices for treatment of the eyes; Devices for putting-in contact lenses; Devices to correct squinting; Apparatus to guide the blind; Protective devices for the eyes, carried on the body or in the hand
    • A61F9/007Methods or devices for eye surgery
    • A61F9/008Methods or devices for eye surgery using laser
    • A61F2009/00897Scanning mechanisms or algorithms

Abstract

A laser system for ophthalmic surgery includes a laser engine to generate a pulsed laser beam, and an XY scanner, to receive the generated pulsed laser beam, and to output a scanning laser beam, the XY scanner including an X scanner, including two X scanning mirrors, and a Y scanner, including two Y scanning mirrors. The XY scanner can modify essentially independently an angle the outputted scanning laser beam makes with an optical axis, and a position at which the outputted scanning laser beam intersects a subsequent reference plane perpendicular to the optical axis.

Description

For the optical system of ophthalmic surgical laser

The cross reference of related application

It is 12/511 that the application requires the serial number of submitting on July 29th, 2009, interests and the priority of 979 utility model application " Optical System for Ophthalmic Surgical Laser ", be incorporated into the entirety of this application herein by reference.

Technical field

The present invention relates to the system for utilizing femtosecond laser to carry out the operation of the leading portion to eye, more specifically, make the minimized embodiment of optical distortion of laser beam in relating in scanning and focusing the laser beam into eye.

Background technology

The photodissociation (photodisruption) that the application has described for causing by laser pulse in the leading portion of eye is carried out the technology of laser surgery and the example of system and embodiment to crystalline lens.Be used for removing lenticular various operation on lens process and utilize various technology, crystalline lens is broken for to the fractionlet that can take out by little otch from eye.Fluid or the laser of these processes end user construction equipment, ultrasound wave, heating also tends to have significant shortcoming, and these shortcomings comprise: need to enter in eye to realize fragmentation with probe, and the limited precision relevant to such crystalline lens crushing technology.

Photodissociation laser technology can be sent to laser pulse in crystalline lens with broken crystalline lens optically and without the insertion of probe, thereby the potentiality that can provide the crystalline lens of improvement to take out.The photodissociation of induced with laser has been widely used in laser eye surgery, and Nd:YAG laser has been often used as lasing light emitter, comprises the crystalline lens fragmentation realizing by the photodissociation of induced with laser.Some existing system utilizations have nanosecond laser (people such as E.H.Ryan, Americal Journal of Ophthalmology 104:382-386, in the October, 1987 of the pulse energy of several mJ; The people such as R.R.Kruger, Ophthalmology 108:2122-2129,2001), and there is the picosecond laser (people such as A.Gwon, Cataract Refract Surg.21,282-286,1995) of tens of μ J.Relatively a large amount of energy is provided to operation point by these pulses of relatively growing, causes the remarkable restriction to degree of accuracy and the control to process, produced the risk of the undesired result of relative elevation degree simultaneously.

Similarly, in the association area of operation on cornea, recognize: the pulse of (hundreds of) femtosecond persistent period hundreds of by using substitutes nanosecond and picopulse, can realize shorter pulse duration and the focusing of Geng Jia.Femtosecond pulse provides energy still less in every pulse, has significantly improved the safety of degree of accuracy and process.

Current many companies will be used for the femtosecond laser technology commercialization of cornea ophthalmologic operation (for example, LASIK lobe (flap) and corneal transplantation).These companies comprise American I ntralase Corp./Advanced Medical Optics, German 20/10Perfect Vision Optische gmbH, German Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc. and Switzerland Ziemer Ophthalmic Systems AG.

But, design these systems according to the requirement of operation on cornea.Crucially, the depth bounds of laser focusing is typically less than about 1mm, that is, and and the thickness of cornea.Therefore, these designs can not provide the significant challenge of solution for performing the operation on the crystalline lens of eye.

Summary of the invention

Briefly and briefly, a kind of laser system for ophthalmologic operation comprises: laser engine, for generation of pulse laser beam; And XY scanning device, for receiving produced pulse laser beam output scanning laser beam, described XY scanning device comprises: X scanning device, and it comprises two X scanning reflection mirrors (scanning mirror); And Y scanning device, it comprises two Y scanning reflection mirrors.

In some embodiments, described X scanning device is configured to make the fulcrum of described X scanning device to leave the reflecting mirror of described X scanning device.

In some embodiments, the fulcrum of described X scanning device is substantially on the reflecting mirror of described Y scanning device.

In some embodiments, described Y scanning device is configured to make the fulcrum of described Y scanning device to leave the reflecting mirror of described Y scanning device.

In some embodiments, described X scanning device and described Y scanning device are configured to make the fulcrum of described X scanning device to leave the reflecting mirror of described X scanning device and make the fulcrum of described Y scanning device leave the reflecting mirror of described Y scanning device, and the fulcrum that makes described X scanning device and the fulcrum of described Y scanning device substantially overlap (coincide).

In some embodiments, described X scanning device and described Y scanning device are configured to make the fulcrum of described X scanning device to overlap with the fulcrum of described Y scanning device.

In some embodiments, the fulcrum of described Y scanning device entering on surface at follow-up (subsequent) optical element substantially.

In some embodiments, the fulcrum of described Y scanning device is substantially on the entrance pupil of subsequent optical element.

In some embodiments, described XY scanning device is configured to substantially revise independently: the angle being become with optical axis by the scanning laser beam of described XY scanning device output; And the scanning laser beam of exporting and position perpendicular to the subsequent reference Plane intersects of described optical axis.

In some embodiments, described XY scanning device reduces compared with being configured to make aberration and comprising the aberration of corresponding laser system of the XY scanning device only with two reflecting mirrors.

In some embodiments, described XY scanning device reduces compared with being configured to make astigmatism and comprising the astigmatism of corresponding laser system of the XY scanning device only with two reflecting mirrors.

In some embodiments, described XY scanning device is configured to make coma to compare and reduce with the coma of substantially the same laser system that comprises the XY scanning device only with two reflecting mirrors.

In some embodiments, described XY scanning device is configured to be in the focal plane of described laser system laser beam described in the interscan of XY sweep limits, and the maximum of described XY sweep limits is greater than 5 millimeters and be less than 15 millimeters.

In some embodiments, described XY scanning device is configured to be in the focal plane of described laser system laser beam described in the interscan of XY sweep limits, and the maximum of described XY sweep limits is greater than 8 millimeters and be less than 13 millimeters.

In some embodiments, a kind of laser system for ophthalmologic operation comprises: laser engine, for generation of pulse laser beam; And XY scanning device, for receiving produced pulse laser beam output scanning laser beam, wherein, described XY scanning device is configured to substantially revise independently: the angle that the scanning laser beam of exporting becomes with optical axis; And the scanning laser beam of exporting and position perpendicular to the subsequent reference Plane intersects of described optical axis.

In some embodiments, described XY scanning device comprises: X scanning device, and it comprises two X scanning reflection mirrors; And Y scanning device, it comprises two Y scanning reflection mirrors.

In some embodiments, X fulcrum leaves X scanning reflection mirror; And Y fulcrum leaves Y scanning reflection mirror.

In some embodiments, X fulcrum leaves X scanning reflection mirror; Y fulcrum leaves Y scanning reflection mirror; And described X fulcrum overlaps substantially with described Y fulcrum.

In some embodiments, described XY scanning device is configured to be in the focal plane of described laser system laser beam described in the interscan of XY sweep limits, and the maximum of described XY sweep limits is greater than 5 millimeters and be less than 15 millimeters.

In some embodiments, a kind of laser system for ophthalmologic operation comprises: laser engine, for generation of pulse laser beam; And XY scanning device, for receiving described pulse laser beam output scanning laser beam, wherein, described XY scanning device comprises the first quick control (fast steering) XY scanning reflection mirror; And the second quick control XY scanning reflection mirror, wherein, described the first and second quick control XY reflecting mirrors can carry out angular movement around two rotating shafts.

In some embodiments, the X fulcrum being produced by described the first and second XY rapid control reflectors overlaps substantially with the Y fulcrum being produced by described the first and second XY rapid control reflectors.

Brief description of the drawings

Fig. 1 example surgical laser transmission system 1;

Fig. 2 example G and have wavefront (aberrated wavefront) W of aberration before high bass wave;

Fig. 3 A-B example at light optimum and scanning focal plane place;

Fig. 3 C example the definition of focal spot radius;

Fig. 4 example the relation between Strehl ratio S and RMS wavefront error ω;

Fig. 5 example the reference point of ophthalmologic operation;

Fig. 6 A-B conceptually example the operation of advance compensator 200;

Fig. 7 A-B example the various application of effective Z scan function;

Fig. 8 A-D example the embodiment of advance compensator 200;

Fig. 9 example there is the embodiment of the transmission laser system 1 of two Z scanning devices;

Figure 10 example the table of configuration that comprises 0,1 or 2 Z depth scan device and 0,1 or 2 NA modifier;

Figure 11 A-C example there is the XY scanning device of 2,3 and 4 scanning reflection mirrors;

Figure 12 A-D example as the aberration of the function of numerical aperture and as the corresponding optical numerical value aperture NA of the function of Z depth of focus (focal depth) opt(z);

Figure 13 A-B example two settings of the first beam expander piece 400 and removable beam expander piece 500;

Figure 14 example the focal plane, centre (intermediate) of Z scanning device 450;

Figure 15 example the embodiment of object lens 700;

Figure 16 example the bending focal plane in target area;

Figure 17 example the nomographic chart (nomogram) at XY scanning device inclination angle;

Figure 18 example the nomographic chart of removable beam expander position; And

Figure 19 example the step of calculation control method.

Detailed description of the invention

Some embodiments of the present invention comprise the system for utilizing femto-second laser pulse to perform the operation at the crystalline lens of eye.(integrated) embodiment of some integration can also carry out cornea and operation on lens process these two.In the crystalline lens of eye, carry out ophthalmologic operation relevant to the requirement that is different from operation on cornea process in matter.

The main distinction between operation on lens laser system and the cornea system of current description comprises:

1. femto-second laser pulse will be produced reliably.High repetition frequency femtosecond pulse allows to use less every pulse energy, and this operator who is system provides higher control and precision.But compared with the nanosecond or picopulse that use in some existing systems, producing reliably femtosecond pulse is but sizable challenge.

2. surgical laser bundle is reflected significantly in the time that propagation just in time arrives surgical target (crystalline lens) through being the refractive medium that comprises cornea and anterior chamber's water cavity of 5 millimeters to the maximum.By contrast, be focused on the depth of one millimeter of less than for the laser beam of operation on cornea, thereby be not substantially refracted in the time entering cornea from surgery systems.

3. surgical laser transmission system is configured to scan whole operative region, for example, from before typical 5mm depth lenticular/anterior to after typical 10mm depth lenticular/rear portion.This 5mm or larger depth scan scope or " Z sweep limits " are significantly wider than the sweep limits of the 1mm degree of depth of the operation of carrying out for corneal.Typically, operation Optical devices (optics), particularly high-NA Optical devices used herein, be optimised to and focus the laser beam into specific operational depth.During operation on cornea process, the scanning of the 1mm degree of depth only causes with the moderate of the Optimum Operation degree of depth and departs from (departure).By contrast, in the time of operation on lens from scan period of 5 to 10mm, system is driven away from the fixing Optimum Operation degree of depth.Therefore, operation on lens transmission laser system adopts the adaptability Optical devices that more become more meticulous can scan the required wide depth scan scope of operation on lens.

4. some embodiment are integrated, to be configured to corneal and crystalline lens, the two is performed the operation.In the embodiment of these integration, depth scan scope is 10mm instead of 5mm to the maximum, and this proposes more difficult challenge.

5. during the operation on cornea process such as many LASIK variations, perpendicular to optical axis (" in XY face ") scanning laser beam.In typical process, XY sweep limits only covers the core of the cornea with 10mm diameter.But, in the surgery systems of integrating, also form extra otch.The otch of one type is for entering otch (entry cut), and this is the entrance that aspiration needle and routine operation instrument are provided to intraccular part.The otch of another type is limbal relaxing incision (limbal relaxing incision, LRI), and it comprises the otch pair at hemal arch (vascular arcade) cornea edge place above just.By adjusting length, the degree of depth and the position of these crossbow incisions, can induce the variation of cornea astigmatism.Enter the periphery that otch and LRI can be arranged on cornea, typically there is the diameter of 12mm.Although XY sweep diameter is increased to from 10mm compared with the normal dia of 12mm and LASIK lobe and has only increased by 20%, but under such diameter, the off-axis aberration of transmission laser system being kept is significant challenge in control, this is because off-axis aberration increases pro rata with the more high power of the field diameter at focal plane place.

6. crystalline lens laser surgery process need is from the guiding of Precise imaging system.In some imaging systems, limbus of corneae blood vessel is identified with the reference marker as on eye, turning (cyclo-rotational) with the ring of calibration eye during operating time aims at, in some cases, carry out this calibration with respect to the reference coordinate identifying between the preoperative diagnostic period of eye.The interference that least can be performed the operation of blood vessel of selecting at operative region periphery, because of but the most reliable.But the imaging system that is guided to such periphery blood vessel requires image optics for example, to having the regional imaging of radius of the 10mm of being greater than (, 12mm).

7. laser beam can form various aberrations in the time that optical path is propagated within the eye.Transmission laser system can be improved precision by compensating these aberrations.The additional aspect of these aberrations is, aberration depends on light frequency, and this fact is called " aberration ".The aberration that compensates these frequency dependences has increased the challenge to system.The difficulty that compensates these aberration increases with the bandwidth of the laser beam of laser system.Should remember: spectral bandwidth and the pulsewidth of bundle are inversely proportional to.Therefore, the bandwidth of femtosecond pulse is conventionally than the roomy magnitude or more of being with of picopulse, and this necessitates the better colourity compensation (chromatic compensation) in fs-laser system.

8. the high accuracy while requiring to locate each pulse about the target location in destination organization with on relative meaning about pulse before in absolute sense with the operation process of the femtosecond laser operation system of high repetition frequency.For example, require again to guide light beam with only several microns (a few microns) in the time (it can have microsecond magnitude) of laser system between pulse.Because the time between two succeeding impulses is short and the requirement of the degree of accuracy of pulse location (placement) is high, the manual aiming (targeting) therefore using in the operation on lens system of existing low-repetition-frequency is no longer suitable or feasible.

Transmission laser system be configured to by refractive medium by femtosecond laser pulse in the lenticular whole operation volume of eye and keep its time, spectrum and spatial integrity.

10. for example receive the laser beam with sufficiently high energy density, to produce surgical effect (, cutting tissue) in order to ensure the tissue in operative region only, transmission laser system has high unusually numerical aperture (NA).This high NA causes speckle size (spot size) and provides necessary control and precision for operation process.The typical range of numerical aperture can comprise the NA value that is greater than 0.3, this 3 microns of generation or more speckle size.

The complexity of the optical path of the 11. given laser for operation on lens, transmission laser system realizes high accuracy and control by the imaging system that comprises high-performance computer management, and corneal surgery system just can be realized gratifying control in the case of there is no such imaging system or having low-level imaging system.Especially, the operation of this system and imaging function and routine observation light beam all operate conventionally in different bands of a spectrum.As an example, surgical laser device can operate in the visible band that the wavelength place in the band of 1.0-1.1 micron operates, observation light beam is in 0.4-0.7 micron, and imaging beam operates in the band of 0.8-0.9 micron.In public or shared optics, beam combination path has proposed harsh colourity requirement to the Optical devices of laser surgery system.

Difference 1-11 is by several example illustrations: the ophthalmology laser surgery that (i) utilizes femtosecond pulse to carry out to crystalline lens (ii) has been introduced in matter and only used the operation on cornea of nanosecond or picosecond laser pulse and the even different requirement of operation on lens.

Fig. 1 example transmission laser system 1.Before being described in greater detail, we mention: some embodiment are by the transmission laser system combination of imaging or observation system and Fig. 1.In the operation on cornea process of processing such as LASIK at some, eye tracker relies on imaging and image processing algorithm typically on eye surface, to set up the reference by location of eye by the visual cues of the mark at the center such as to iris.But the feature in existing eye tracker identification analysis of two-dimensional space, lacks depth information, this is because corneal (outermost layer of eye) is carried out surgical operation.Conventionally, cornea is even flattened to guarantee that this surface is really two-dimentional.

In the time laser beam being focused in the crystalline lens that gos deep into intraccular part, situation is very different.Not only, between previous measurement and operation, and at intra-operative, crystalline lens can change its position, shape, thickness and diameter during adapt (accommodation).By machinery by eye be attached to surgical apparatus also can with indefinite mode change eye shape.Like this attachment arrangement comprise with inhale the fixing eye of ring or with plane or curved lens to eye aplanasia.In addition, patient introduces additional change in perioperative mobile meeting.These changes can increase the visual cues displacement that reaches several microns within the eye.Therefore,, in the time that the crystalline lens to eye or other interior sections carry out accurate laser surgery, mechanically an eye surface for reference and the fixing front surface such as cornea or edge is not satisfied.

In order to address this problem, transmission laser system 1 can with at R.M.Kurtz, the patent application serial numbers of the common pending trial of F.Raksi and M.Karavitis is the imaging system combination of describing in 12/205,844 U.S. Patent application, by reference the full content of this application is incorporated into herein.This imaging system is configured to a part of imaging of operative region to set up three-dimensional position reference with the internal feature based on eye.These images can produce and upgrade concurrently to consider individual difference and change with operation process before operation.This image can be used to high accuracy and control the position that laser beam is directed into safely to hope.

In some embodiments, imaging system can be optical coherence tomography (OCT) system.The one-tenth video beam of this imaging system can have independent image optics path or with operation beam section ground or shared optical path fully.The imaging system with partially or even wholly shared optical path has reduced cost and has simplified the calibration to imaging and surgery systems.This imaging system can also be used the light source identical or different with the laser instrument of transmission laser system 1.This imaging system can also have the beam flying subsystem of himself, or can utilize the scanning subsystem of transmission laser system 1.Several different structures of such OCT system have been described in the application of quoted common pending trial.

Can also combine to implement transmission laser system 1 with Optical devices with visual observation.Observation can help the operator of surgical laser observe the effect of operation laser beam and control light beam in response to observed result with Optical devices.

Finally, using in some embodiment infrared and sightless surgical laser bundle thus, can adopt the additional tracking laser operating under visible frequency.Visible tracking laser may be implemented as the path of following the tracks of infrared surgical laser.Following the tracks of laser can operate to can not cause any destruction to destination organization under enough low energy.Observation can be configured to direct into the operator of transmission laser system 1 from the tracking laser of destination organization reflection with Optical devices.

In Fig. 1, can be coupled to (for example,, by beam splitter/dichroic mirror 600) in transmission laser system 1 to imaging system and visual observation with the relevant light beam of Optical devices.The application is by the no longer various combinations of extensive discussions transmission laser system 1 and imaging, observation system and tracking system.In the U.S. Patent application 12/205,844 being incorporated to, a large amount of such combination of extensive discussions is all in the total size in the application.

Fig. 1 example transmission laser system 1, it comprises laser engine 100, advance compensator 200, XY scanning device 300, the first beam expander piece 400, removable beam expander piece 500, beam splitter/dichroic mirror 600, object lens 700 and patient interface 800, wherein, the first beam expander piece 400 and removable beam expander piece 500 will be collectively referred to as Z scanning device 450.

In some embodiments below, use such regulation: Z axis is substantially along the direction of the optical path of laser beam or along the direction of the optical axis of optical element.The direction of cross-section Z direction is called XY direction.In more wide in range meaning, use term " cross-section " to comprise following situation: in some embodiments, transverse direction and Z direction can be not strictly perpendicular to each other.In some embodiments, can transverse direction be described better about radial coordinate.Thus, in described embodiment, direction like term " cross-section ", XY or radial direction representation class, all approximate (if desired accurately) is perpendicular to Z direction.

1. laser engine 100

Laser engine 100 can comprise the laser instrument that sends laser pulse with predetermined laser parameter.These laser parameters can be included in 1 femtosecond in 100 picosecond range or at 10 femtoseconds in 10 picosecond range or in certain embodiments at 100 femtoseconds to the pulse duration in 1 picosecond range.This laser pulse can have in the micro-burnt scope of 0.1 micro-Jiao to 1000, the every pulse energy in the micro-burnt scope of 1 micro-Jiao to 100 in other embodiments.Pulse can have at 10kHz arrives within the scope of 100MHz, arrives the repetition rate within the scope of 1MHz at 100kHz in other embodiments.Other embodiment can have the laser parameter in the combination that falls into these scope restrictions, for example, and the scope in the pulse duration of 1-1000 femtosecond.For example, during pre-operation process or based on according to the calculating of patient's the particular data such as its age, in these wide regions, select the laser parameter for particular procedure.

The example of laser engine 100 can comprise Nd: glass and Nd:Yag laser instrument and various other laser instrument.The operative wavelength of laser engine can be in infrared or visible range.In certain embodiments, operative wavelength can be in 700nm-2 micrometer range.In some cases, for example, in the infrared laser based on Yb or Nd, operative wavelength can be in 1.0-1.1 micrometer range.

In some embodiments, the laser parameter of laser pulse can be adjustable and variable.Can be to adjust laser parameter short switching time, make thus the operator of surgical laser transmission system 1 change laser parameter at complicated intra-operative.Can start such parameter change in response to the reading of the sensing by transmission laser system 1 or imaging subsystems (reading).

Can carry out other parameter changes, as in transmission laser system first for the first operation process and subsequently for the part of the multistep process of the second different operation processs.Example comprises and first in the lenticular region of eye, carries out one or more operating procedures (for example, capsule is cut operating procedure), carries out the second operation process subsequently in the cornea region of eye.Can carry out these processes with various orders.

Can will tens thousand ofly operate and the high repeat frequency pulsed laser with relatively low every pulse energy is applied to obtain specific beneficial effect for performing the operation to hundreds thousand of time percussions (shot) or higher pulse recurrence frequency with per second.Such laser uses relatively low every pulse energy so that the tissue being caused by the photodissociation of induced with laser affects localization.In certain embodiments, for example, the scope of the tissue of dissociation can be restricted to several microns or tens of micron.The tissue impact of this localization can improve the precision of laser surgery, and is desirable in particular procedure process.In the various embodiments of such operation, hundreds of, thousands of or millions of pulses can be transferred to sequence continuous, speckle approximately continuous or that separate by controlled distance.These embodiments can be realized specific desirable surgical effect, for example, and tissue dissection, separation or fragmentation.

Can pass through the whole bag of tricks strobe pulse parameter and scanning patter.For example, preoperative measurement that can be based on lenticular optics or architectural characteristic and strobe pulse parameter and scanning patter.Equally can the preoperative measurement based on lenticular optics or architectural characteristic or the algorithm based on age-dependent select laser energy and speckle to separate.

2. advance compensator 200

Fig. 2 example the wavefront of laser beam can be with several different modes and due to several different former thereby depart from ideal characterisitics.Large group that these depart from is called aberration.Aberration (with other wavefront distortions) makes actual image point from desirable paraxial Gauss image point displacement.Fig. 2 example the wavefront of the light of drawing by emergent pupil (exit pupil) ExP.The spheric wave front G of distortion does not launch and converges to the some P1 of the center of surface of wavefront G from this pupil.G is also referred to as Gaussian reference sphere.There is the wavefront W of aberration to depart from G and converge to different P2.Have the aberration Δ W at a Q1 place of the wavefront W of aberration to be characterized by the light path (optical length) in the path of the reference sphere G with respect to not distorting: wherein, n ifor the refractive index of the medium in image space, for the distance between a Q1 and Q2.

Conventionally, aberration Δ W depends at emergent pupil place and the coordinate at focal plane place.Therefore, this aberration Δ W also can be considered to correlation function: it looks like this function representation to converge to set that P1 from optical axis moves the point of the P2 after r ' to be positioned at surperficial W upper, and this surface W has departed from the amount of Δ W from reference sphere G at the radial distance r place at emergent pupil ExP place.For rotational symmetric system, Δ W can launch and be written as about the double power series in r and r ':

ΔW ( r ′ ; r , Θ ) = Σ l = 0 ∞ Σ n = 1 ∞ Σ m = 0 ∞ a nm 2 l + m r ′ 2 l + m r n cos m Θ . - - - ( 1 )

Wherein r ' is the radial coordinate of the picture point P2 in focal plane, and r is the radial coordinate at the some Q1 at pupil place.By spherical angle, Θ represents angle-dependence.N=2p+m is positive integer, and 2l+mα nmfor there being the expansion coefficient of wavefront W of aberration.For reference, referring to for example: the Optical Imaging and Aberrations of Virendra N.Mahajan, Part I.Ray Geometrical Optics, SPIE Optical Engineering Press.The rank of aberration item are provided by i=2l+m+n.

Until the item of i=4 is relevant with primary aberration: spherical aberration, coma, astigmatism, the curvature of field and distortion.In the document, recorded these primary aberrations with 2l+mα nmactual relationship between aberration coefficients.For the system to point target imaging, can by introduce nondimensional variable ρ=r/ α suppress aberration item to picture radius r ' explicit dependency, the horizontal linear degree (for example, its radius) that wherein α is emergent pupil:

ΔW ( ρ , Θ ) = Σ n = 1 ∞ Σ m = 0 ∞ a nm ρ n cos m Θ , - - - ( 2 )

Wherein

a nm = a n Σ l = 0 ∞ a nm 2 l + m r ′ 2 l + m . - - - ( 3 )

The benefit of this representation is aberration coefficients α nmall there is length dimension and be illustrated in the maximum of the corresponding aberration at emergent pupil place.In this representation, for example, spherical aberration is by aberration coefficients α 40characterize.

Although on mathematics about aberration coefficients α nmdefine well the description to aberration, but this immediate method experimentally always not.Therefore, next describing three alternative aberrations measures.

Experiment accessibility and can the identical vein of degree of test (experimental accessibility and testability) in, notice that the characteristic of light beam in the biological tissue such as eye may the most easily not measure.Helpful ground, research shows: the property class of light in eye is similar to the characteristic of light in the saline with the suitable salinity of physiology that can quantitative measurement and describe.Therefore, in whole application, in the time describing the characteristic in eye of transmission laser system, should be appreciated that, this description refers to the characteristic in described ocular tissue or the characteristic in corresponding saline.

Fig. 3 A-C example second measuring of aberration.If the transmission laser system 1 that is configured to the light beam to focus on 210 places, focal plane at degree of depth A place is alternatively operating as, light beam is focused on to 211 places, operation focal plane that are positioned at depth B place, can cause spherical aberration.In the time that the focus of laser beam moves to focal plane 211 from focal plane 210, during such situation for example can occur in 3-D scanning process.

Fig. 3 A example the situation in the time that transmission laser system 1 focuses light rays at its optimum focal plane 210.Light is by having extremely narrow radical length (radial extent) or radius r f(A) speckle (" focal spot ") at 210 places, optimum focal plane.(for example, the refraction of light beam) for a variety of reasons, this radical length r f(A) can be greater than zero.Can be to define the radius of focal spot more than a kind of mode.R f(A) be normally defined the least radius of hot spot on screen in the time that the position of screen changes along axle or Z direction.This Z degree of depth is commonly referred to " minimum dispersion point (point of least confusion) ".About this definition of the further refinement of Fig. 3 C.

Fig. 3 B example focus is departed to certain distance (for example, several millimeters) from optimum focal plane 210 and scans the situation of operation when focal plane 211 when transmission laser system 1.Clearly, light is by having the r of being greater than f(A) radius r f(B) focal spot, causes spherical aberration.Develop the mathematical formulae of various precision with associated aberration coefficients α nmwith focal spot radius r f.In some cases, focal spot radius r fbe for quantize aberration experimentally than α nmwhat aberration coefficients was more approaching measures.

Fig. 3 C example focal spot radius r fmore quantitative definition.Fig. 3 C example the energy comprising the point of the radius r of measuring from the centre of form (centroid) of light beam.Focal spot radius r fbe widely acceptedly defined as such radius, in this radius, comprise 50% of beam energy.The curve that is marked as " A " shows in the light beam (diffraction limited beam) in diffraction limited, in the time that light beam is focused onto its optimum focal plane 210 (as shown in Figure 3A), can in the speckle of radius r=0.8 micron, comprise or enclose into 50% of beam energy, this provides r f(A) useful definition.

If the energy of laser beam is stockpiled in the focal spot of good and sharp keen restriction, the operation process that light based on induced with laser punctures (LIOB) can have higher precision and efficiency and less undesirable impact.LIOB is the nonlinearity processing with intensity (plasma) threshold value: typically, being exposed to the structural transformation having higher than the light beam of the intensity of plasma threshold value is plasma, does not experience plasma and changes and be exposed to have lower than organizing of the light beam of the intensity of plasma threshold value.Therefore, what the widening of the focal spot being caused by aberration reduced light beam realizes the part higher than the intensity of plasma threshold value at focal plane place, and has increased its Strength retention of light beam lower than the part of threshold value.This rear portion of light beam can effectively not absorbed by destination organization, and continues to propagate through ocular tissue, in most of the cases arrives retina, and this can cause does not potentially wish retina exposure.

For the operation process that is intended to revise cornea, typically along Z direction (along optical axis) from its optimum or rated depth by focal plane scanning or mobile about only 0.6mm, this is because the thickness of cornea is essentially 0.6mm, can be thicker rare in the situation that but still can not exceed 1mm.Be marked as " B " curve example when the 1mm upper limit of the operation on cornea process (estimate) is moved and while arriving operation focal plane 211, at r in the focal plane of light beam from its optimum focal plane 210 f(B) in the focal spot radius of=1.8 microns, comprised 50% of beam energy.Introduced aberration although this moves, its measured value is limited.Correspondingly, some existing cornea laser system can not compensate this aberration at all, and other system is also only introduced the compensation of certain limited level.

Except aberration coefficients α nmwith focal spot radius r foutside, it is so-called Strehl ratio S that the 3rd of aberration is measured.Can taking from the light beam of point source transmitting as benchmark, the Strehl ratio S of system be defined as: in the peak strength of the light beam at the focal plane place of system divided by the theoretical peak-peak intensity of equivalent perfect picture imaging system that is operated in diffraction limit place.Equivalent definition is known from document equally and in the scope of the definition of Strehl ratio S.

Corresponding to this definition, the value of S is less, and aberration is larger.Do not have the light beam of aberration to there is S=1, and conventionally in the time of S > 0.8, imaging system is called to diffraction limited.

The 4th of aberration is defined as root-mean-square ω or wavefront error RMS, and it represents that wavefront G's that the wavefront W that has aberration of the Fig. 2 being averaging at the whole wavefront at emergent pupil ExP place is never distorted departs from Δ W.Taking the wavelength of light beam as unit representation ω, to be nondimensional amount.

Fig. 4 example for relatively little aberration, ω is associated by following empirical equation with S:

S ≈ e - ( 2 πω ) 2 - - - ( 4 )

And do not consider the type of aberration, the end that wherein e is natural logrithm.

To measure for the design of diagnosis problem optimization transmission laser system 1 be useful to all above-mentioned four kinds of aberration.Correspondingly, generic term " aberration is measured " can represent these any or its equivalents in measuring.Apparently, by aberration coefficients α nm, focal spot radius r fwith the increase of RMS wavefront error ω and reducing of Strehl ratio S, can know the aberration that (capture) increases.

In specific example by spherical aberration factor alpha is shown 40and corresponding Strehl ratio S and verify the relation of these aberrations between measuring.In this example, surgical laser system focuses on laser beam in the ocular tissue at subsurface different depth place of ocular tissue.Laser beam is diffraction limited, has the numerical aperture of wavelength and the NA=0.3 of 1 micron, and the surface of organizing with normal incidence angular focusing.The number of this example is similar to be increased the plane-parallel plate that thickness equates with scan depths and carries out the effect for the calculating of saline near the focal plane of system.

The aberration being characterized by formula (2) and (3) has been introduced on the surface of tissue in light beam.By aberration coefficients α 40the spherical aberration characterizing is zero in surface, is S=1 by its Strehl ratio that very structure causes.

Lasik surgery typically forms the lobe (flap) of the 0.1mm degree of depth.At these depths, Strehl ratio S is reduced to approximately 0.996, is only little reducing.Even at 0.6mm depth, that is, be similar to the rear surface place at cornea, S is approximately 0.85.Although this is the reduction of can not ignore of peak strength, but still can compensate by adjusting laser beam intensity.

On the other hand, at 5mm depth, characterize the lenticular front surface in eye, Strehl ratio is reduced to S=0.054.Under this degree of depth and Strehl ratio, beam intensity is significantly reduced under plasma threshold value, and this light beam can not produce LIOB thus.This of peak strength sharply loses can not be in the case of not having such as amphiblestroid serious overexposure or undesirable impact of the bubble size excessively increasing by increasing laser power compensation.

Table 1 example the spherical aberration α corresponding with above-mentioned Strehl ratio 40.Obviously, spherical aberration increases with tissue depth approximately linear, and Strehl ratio S changes with nonlinear way:

The degree of depth [mm] in tissue Spherical aberration α 40[micron] Strehl ratio S ??0 ??0.00 ?1.000 ??0.1 ??-0.04 ?0.996 ??0.6 ??-0.24 ?0.856 ??5 ??-2.00 ?0.054 ??10 ??-3.99 ?0.041

Table 1

Be intended to carry out crystalline lens loosen the operation process of (lens lysis), cystitomy or other to lenticular operation process in, conventionally across lenticular entire depth (can reach 5mm) scanning focal plane.In addition,, in cornea-intraocular lens system of integrating, total scan depths can extend to lenticular rear surface from cornea, is about 10mm.The curve that is denoted as " C " in Fig. 3 C shows: in these cases, focal spot radius maximum rises to r f(C)=18 microns, this value is too large consequently even not to be appeared at and r fand r (A) f(B) in identical figure.In certain embodiments, optimum focal plane can be selected as being positioned at depth scan scope midway, and can carry out scanning laser beam with +/-5mm depth bounds.In this case, r f(C) can be reduced to 10 microns.

These large r f(C) value is converted to other three kinds of aberrations and measures α 40, a large amount of aberrations in S and ω.Obviously, contrary with the operation on cornea process that only scans tens of millimeters, these large aberrations of operation on lens have proposed huge challenge for designing transmission laser system 1 with compensation or managing its undesirable consequence.

The problem of measuring in order to solve the large aberration relevant to operation on lens, some embodiment comprise advance compensator 200 with precompensation spherical aberration and improve aberration and measure.These aberrations develop or develop or develop along whole optical path in the interior part along optical path of transmission laser system 1 in destination organization.

Fig. 5 example (not in scale): because aberration is measured r f(C), α 40, S and ω depend on the radial distance r of the depth z of focal spot and itself and optical axis, measures while presenting a value hereinafter when describing aberration, it refers to that aberration is measured at some selected reference point place and presents described value.The set of relevant reference point can be described by its cylindrical coordinates (z, r): P1=(0,0), P2=(2,6), P3=(5,0), P4=(8,0), P5=(8,3), all taking millimeter as unit.Because the primary structure of eye presents approximate post symmetry, these P reference points can be positioned at any azimuth therefore, these P name a person for a particular job only by two expressions in its three cylindrical coordinatess, azimuth be omitted.P1 is the representative point for the operation on cornea process of centralized positioning, and P2 is typically for periphery cornea operation process, and P3 relates to lenticular forefoot area, and P4 relates to lenticular rear portion, and P5 is periphery crystalline lens reference point.Also can adopt other reference points to characterize the aberration of transmission laser system.In some cases, aberration is measured the aberration that can refer to operation wavefront or irradiated zone leveling and is measured.

Can determine that aberration measures in several different modes.Can for example, follow the tracks of by computer-aided design (CAD) method the wavefront of laser beam by the selected part (, the model of destination organization) of optical path or a part for transmission laser system 1.Or, can be in the combination of practical laser transmission system or these two processes the aberration of Laser Measurement bundle.

Correspondingly, in some embodiments, determine, calculate or measure aberration and measure by the selected part along optical path (it can comprise destination organization self), then determine that the previously selected part of the aberration to this determine/calculating/measurement compensates the amount of needed precompensation, selects the precompensation of introducing by advance compensator 200.

Advance compensator 200 can be revised or precompensation spherical aberration effectively, and this is because spherical aberration major effect axial ray.Such as aberration effects non-zero angle light and the field ray (comprising the light from optical axis deviation) of the poor other types of lateral aberration, astigmatism and intelligent image.In the time that the laser beam being produced by laser engine 100 is substantial axial light beam, various (XY scanning devices 300 the most significantly) in optical path change this axial pencil into non-zero angle light beam (having field ray).

Therefore, advance compensator is arranged in XY scanning device 300 design afterwards therein, and the field ray of light beam can develop several different aberrations.The appearance of this difference aberration has brought great design challenge, this be because: the optimization of (1) light beam need to compensate several aberrations, and (ii) dissimilar aberration is not independent of each other.Thus, the compensation aberration of a type typically can be induced the aberration of undesirable other types.

Therefore, the structure after compensator is arranged in XY scanning device, typically, has only compensated spherical aberration with limited degree, and to have introduced other undesirable aberrations as cost.

By contrast, the embodiment of this transmission laser system 1 can have the advance compensator 200 before XY scanning device 300.This design allows advance compensator 200 to carry out precompensation to spherical aberration and can not introduce the undesired aberration of other types.

Some embodiments even can carry out precompensation off-axis aberration (the follow-up section by transmission laser system or destination organization causes) and utilize by introduced precompensation on axle by advance compensator 200 interdependency of aberration and off-axis aberration on above-mentioned axle.

Fig. 6 A-B schematic example the idealized operation of advance compensator 200.

Fig. 6 A example do not there is the transmission laser system 1 of advance compensator.Conventionally, optical path section 301 can be introduced the spherical aberration of certain level.This wavefront by the not distortion that enters optical path section 301 illustrates with the wavefront with aberration that leaves optical path section 301.This section can be any section of optical path, for example, and the part in a part for destination organization or whole destination organization or the path in transmission laser system 1.

Fig. 6 B example advance compensator 200 can introduce compensation (or the complementary) distortion of wavefront.Then this wavefront through precompensation enters optical path section 301, its output the is had distortion reducing or the wavefront even without distortion.

Some existing system does not have dedicated compensator at all.Other system only the lens in scioptics group with distribution mode compensating for spherical aberration, after this battery of lens also has other functions and is positioned at XY scanning device.In these existing systems, as the parameter of carrying out compromise result and select lens between difference in functionality, this causes the restriction to its performance.

By contrast, the embodiment of transmission laser system 1 can have the special advance compensator 200 being arranged on before XY scanning device 300.In certain embodiments, advance compensator 200 is the first optical unit or battery of lens, and it receives laser beam from laser engine 100.Due to the position of advance compensator 200, laser beam arrives advance compensator 200 and does not develop non-zero angle light or field ray (can be caused by XY scanning device 300), and therefore these embodiment can realize high-caliber precompensation.This precompensation is also efficiently, and this is because precompensation is the major function of advance compensator 200, and therefore to have the existing system that the lens of additional function compensate contrary with utilization, design tradeoff can be remained very limited.

For those reasons, in these embodiments, correcting spherical aberration in high degree, and can not affect or introduce the aberration of other types.

Known such Aberration Theory: the spherical aberration of combined lens system is approximately the summation of the spherical aberration of each assembly.Therefore,, in some embodiment of transmission laser system 1, can carry out by design advance compensator 200 aberration of the undesirable amount of precompensation with the aberration of introducing equivalent but there is contrary sign.

As an example, in the time that the degree of depth of focal spot in ocular tissue moves 5mm from its optimum focal plane, spherical aberration α 40(according to table 1) is-2.0 microns.Correspondingly, in certain embodiments, advance compensator 200 can be introduced α 40the aberration of=+ 2.0 microns is measured.In first approximation, this precompensation has substantially been eliminated by the 5mm of focal spot and has been moved the spherical aberration causing and correspondingly Strehl ratio increased and gets back to S=1 from S=0.054.(this simplified example has been ignored other aberrant sources.)

Will be by comparing " non-precompensation " transmission laser system 1 (, remove the transmission laser system of advance compensator 200) characterize some embodiments below with " through precompensation " transmission laser system 1 (, not removing the system of advance compensator 200).

In some embodiments, advance compensator 200 is installed and Strehl ratio can be increased to the value S > S (precomp) through the transmission laser system 1 of precompensation from the value S < S (precomp) of the transmission laser system 1 of non-precompensation.In some embodiments, S (precomp) can be for example 0.6,0.7,0.8 or 0.9.

As mentioned above, here this Strehl ratio S and below can refer to the Strehl ratio S (P1) at above-mentioned five reference point P1-P5 places, ... any in S (P5), or refer at the Strehl at some other predetermined reference point place ratio S, or refer to the meansigma methods of the Strehl ratio S to these five reference points, or refer to the meansigma methods to operation wavefront.

Equally, Strehl ratio goes for whole transmission laser system 1, and this system 1 receives laser beam from laser engine 100, ends in object lens 700 and form focal spot in eye destination organization.In some other situation, this term is applicable to other targets (comprising air).In some embodiments, this term goes for the subsystem of transmission laser system 1.

In some embodiments, for have than have psec or longer persistent period laser pulse transform-limited with roomy go out the pulse of correlation bandwidth of at least one magnitude, the transmission laser system 1 of advance compensator 200 being added to non-precompensation can be increased to the value through precompensation higher than S=S (precomp) from the value of the non-precompensation lower than S=S (precomp) by Strehl ratio.As mentioned above, S (precomp) can be for example 0.6,0.7,0.8 or 0.9.

In some embodiments, add advance compensator 200 to transmission laser system 1 and can in the wave-length coverage of 0.4 micron to 1.1 microns, Strehl ratio be increased to the value through precompensation higher than S=S (precomp) from the value of the non-precompensation lower than S=S (precomp).As mentioned above, S (precomp) can be for example 0.6,0.7,0.8 or 0.9.

In some embodiments, the value through precompensation higher than NA=NA (precomp) when the interpolation of advance compensator 200 can have advance compensator 200 from being increased to corresponding to the value of the non-precompensation lower than NA=NA (precomp) of transmission laser system 1 without advance compensator 200 by system value aperture.In some embodiments, the value of NA (precomp) can be for example 0.2,0.25,0.3 or 0.35.

In some embodiments, adding advance compensator 200 to the transmission laser system 1 without advance compensator can be by the focal spot radius r in destination organization ffrom being greater than r f(precomp) value of non-precompensation be reduced to corresponding to have advance compensator 200 transmission laser system 1 lower than r f(precomp) the value through precompensation.In some embodiments, r f(precomp) can be 2,3 or 4 microns.

In some embodiments, installation advance compensator 20 can be increased to RMS wavefront error the value ω < ω (precomp) of the transmission laser system 1 of precompensation from the value ω > ω (precomp) of the transmission laser system 1 of non-precompensation.In some embodiments, for example, ω (precomp) can be 0.06,0.07,0.08 or 0.09, all taking the wavelength of laser beam as unit.

In some embodiments, by install advance compensator 20 can be by spherical aberration coefficient the value α from the transmission laser system 1 of non-precompensation 40> α 40(precomp) be increased to the value α of the transmission laser system 1 of precompensation 40< α 40(precomp).In some embodiments, for example, α 40(precomp) can be 2,3 or 4 microns.

In some embodiments, advance compensator 200 is installed to and in the transmission laser system 1 of non-precompensation, can makes following aberration at least one value from non-precompensation in measuring at least reduce precompensation percentage ratio P (precomp): RMS wavefront error ω, spherical aberration are measured α 40and focal spot radius r f, or make Strehl ratio S at least increase precompensation percentage ratio P (precomp).In certain embodiments, for example, P (precomp) can be 10% or 20% or 30% or 40%.

As mentioned above, any the belonged to reference point P1 of these aberrations in measuring ... any in P5 or belong to some other predetermined reference point, or belong to value average at reference point place, can be maybe to wavefront on average.

In some embodiments, advance compensator 200 can also compensate aspheric surface aberration, for example, and one-level or more senior aberration.In some cases, advance compensator 200 also can carry out the precompensation to Off-axis-light.

In some embodiments, advance compensator 200 compensates the aberration of other types, can not make the recruitment of RMS wavefront error more than 0.075, or be kept above the Strehl ratio (having for example 0.8 value) of S (precomp) simultaneously.

In some embodiments, advance compensator 200 can be increased to the value that is greater than rb=rb (precomp) by the radius r b of the light beam of drawing from advance compensator 200, and wherein rb (precomp) can be for example 5mm or 8mm.

By comprise one or more movable lens (movable lens) at advance compensator 200, depth of focus, to compensate the curvature of focal plane.For example, for radial slot or there is the Plane Notch of grating scanning pattern, radially or the change of XY coordinate can be very fast.In these processes, Z scanning speed can contribute to form the straight cut of wishing fast.

Finally, high Z scanning speed can be useful for some operation processs that carry out rapidly such as cornea process equally.

In some embodiments, movable lens advance compensator 200 can change with the axial velocity of at least 5% of the maximum transversal scanning speed of focal spot the degree of depth of the focal spot of transmission laser system.In some embodiments, at least 10% of the maximum transversal scanning speed that axial velocity is focal spot.In other embodiments, at least 20% of the maximum transversal scanning speed that axial velocity is focal spot.

In some embodiments, movable lens advance compensator 200 can change 0.5-1 millimeter by the Z coordinate of focal spot within Z sweep time.

In some embodiments, this Z sweep time can be in 10-100 nanosecond, 100 nanosecond-1 millisecond, the scope of 1 millisecond-10 milliseconds and 10 milliseconds-100 milliseconds.

In some embodiments, the movable lens of battery of lens is removable in Z moving range is decreased to less removable percentage ratio P (movable) so that the first aberration is measured.Here, measure can be for spherical aberration factor alpha for the first aberration 40, RMS wavefront error ω and focal spot radius r f, and removable percentage ratio P (movable) can be 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%.

In some embodiments, the movable lens of battery of lens can move in Z moving range, so that Strehl ratio S is at least increased to removable percentage ratio P (movable), this removable percentage ratio P (movable) can be 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%.

In some embodiments, movable lens advance compensator 200 can change by mobile movable lens in the Z degree of depth, aberration measurement of numerical aperture NA, the focal spot of transmission laser system 1 any one and beam diameter substantially independently.In other words, mobile movable lens can change any one in these four characteristics of transmission laser system 1, and can not change other two characteristics.The operator that these embodiment are embodiment provides sizable control.

Some functions of advance compensator 200 are sometimes referred to as bundle and regulate or expand.Therefore,, in some existing systems, the piece with identity function is called beam adjuster or beam expander.

In certain embodiments, advance compensator 200 comprises that only lens are realized above-mentioned functions.

In certain embodiments, advance compensator 200 comprises that two to five lens are to realize above-mentioned functions.

Fig. 8 A example three lens embodiment of advance compensator 200, comprise lens 221,222 and 223.

Fig. 8 B example three lens embodiment of movable lens advance compensator 200 ', comprise lens 221 ', movable lens 222 ' and lens 223 '.

Fig. 8 C example advance compensator 200 " four lens embodiment, comprise lens 231-234.

Fig. 8 D example movable lens advance compensator 200 " ' four lens embodiment, comprise lens 231 ', movable lens 232 ', lens 233 ' and lens 234 '.

Table 2-4 example the advance compensator 200 of Fig. 8 A-B and 200 ' various three lens embodiments.Can use thin lens to implement the embodiment of advance compensator 200.Therefore, can these advance compensators be described about the refractive power of each lens and with next lens distance apart.

Table 2 example at three fixed lens embodiment of the advance compensator 200 shown in Fig. 8 A.In table 2, the 1st row show lens number, and the 2nd row show the refractive power of measuring with diopter Di (i=1,2,3), and the 3rd row show the distance di (i=1,2) between lens i and i+1.

Lens number Refractive power [1/m] To the distance [mm] of next lens ??221 ??D1=(-3,-5) ??d1=(60,100) ??222 ??D2=(3,5) ??d2=(3,9) ??223 ??D3=(-3.5,-6)

For the table 2 of Fig. 8 A

Table 3 example the possible embodiment of the advance compensator 200 ' with two movable lens 222 ' and 223 ' as shown in Figure 8 B, show lens interval diA and diB in two kinds of configuration A and the B in the 3rd and the 4th row.Lens interval di can change continuously between diA and diB.

For the table 3 of Fig. 8 B

Table 4 example, in various embodiments, depends on such as a large amount of design of different beam sizes and free space and considers, above-mentioned parameter Di and di can present the value of wide region.Can, by with scale factor convergent-divergent refractive power and with corresponding scale factor 1/ α convergent-divergent distance, some parameter associations in these embodiments be arrived to the embodiment of table 2-3.In addition, can additionally revise refractive power by tolerance factor t 1 to t3, to allow the difference in tolerance and design implementation mode.These relations in table 4, are summed up.

Lens number Refractive power [1/m] To the distance [mm] of next lens ??221 ??D1*α*t1 ??d1/α ??222 ??D2*α*t2 ??d2/α ??223 ??D3*α*t3

For the table 4 of Fig. 8 A-B

In some embodiments, scale factor can be in 0.3 to 3 scope, and tolerance factor t 1, t2 and t3 can be in 0.8 to 1.2 scopes.

Similarly, table 5 example advance compensator 200 " various four lens embodiments, wherein lens 231,232,233 and 234 are fixed, as shown in Figure 8 C.

Lens number Refractive power [1/m] To the distance [mm] of next lens ??231 ??D1=(-15,-20) ??d1=(100,130) ??232 ??D2=(-5,-8) ??d2=(32,41) ??233 ??D3=(-25,-35) ??d3=(33,45) ??234 ??D4=(7,10)

For the table 5 of Fig. 8 C

Table 6 example the advance compensator 200 of Fig. 8 D " ' four lens embodiments, wherein there is a movable lens 232 '.

For the table 6 of Fig. 8 D

With identical in three lens embodiments, four lens advance compensators 200 " and 200 " ' parameter can present the value of wide region.Similar to table 4, can be by difference scale factor, 1/ α, t1, t2, t3 and t4 by associated with each other some parameters in these embodiments.Scale factor can be in 0.2 to 5 scope, and tolerance factor t 1 ... t4 can be in 0.7 to 1.3 scope.

In other embodiments, adopt other combinations and scope.Within the scope of these, due to can optimization system for causing many difference in functionalitys of different choice, therefore many embodiment of transmission laser system 1 are possible.Design tradeoff and optimization restriction can cause a large amount of embodiments, and each embodiment has advantages of himself.Examples of ranges by the parameter in above-mentioned table 2-6 a large amount of probabilities.

In the embodiment with a movable lens of advance compensator 200 ', this movable lens can change in laser system characteristic substantially independently.These parameters comprise Z depth of focus, numerical aperture NA, aberration any and the diameter of outgoing beam in measuring.For example, these embodiments allow operator's Change Example as the numerical aperture of transmission laser system 1 and non-Change Example as Z depth of focus.

In some embodiments, advance compensator 200 has two mobile elements independently.Such embodiment allows operator to control independently two characteristics (for example, beam diameter and numerical aperture NA) of laser beam, makes aberration keep fixing simultaneously.

Fig. 9 example the embodiment of transmission laser system 1 ', wherein highlighted the Z scan function of various optical blocks.Especially, laser engine 100 produces laser beam, and a Z scanning device 250 receives this laser beam.The one Z scanning device 250 receives laser beam and the focus in Z interval (interval) interscan transmission laser system 1 ' along the optical axis of transmission laser system 1 ' from laser engine 100.XY scanning device 300 receives the light beam of being exported by a Z scanning device 250, the XY scanning device 300 edge scanning direction laser beams of the optical axis of cross-section laser system substantially.Then, the 2nd Z scanning device 450 receives the XY scanning laser beam of output, and the 2nd Z scanning device 250 is the focus in the 2nd Z interval interscan laser system along the optical axis of laser system.

In certain embodiments, a Z scanning device 250 is configured to make a Z interval to be suitable for operation on cornea process, and the 2nd Z scanning device 450 is configured to make the 2nd Z interval to be suitable for anterior chamber of eye (anterior segment) operation process.

In certain embodiments, a Z interval is in the scope of 0.05-1mm, and the 2nd Z interval is in the scope of 1-5mm.

In certain embodiments, a Z interval is in the scope of 1-5mm, and the 2nd Z interval is in the scope of 5-10mm.

In certain embodiments, a Z scanning device 250 is configured to the Z interval interscan focus at 0.05mm-1mm in the first sweep time.Can be in following scope the one Z sweep time: 10-100 nanosecond, 100 nanosecond-1 millisecond, 1 millisecond-10 milliseconds and 10 milliseconds-100 milliseconds.

In certain embodiments, the 2nd Z scanning device 450 is configured to the 2nd Z interval interscan focus at 1mm-5mm in the second sweep time.Can be in following scope the 2nd Z sweep time: 10-100 millisecond and 100 milliseconds-1 second.

In certain embodiments, the change amount that a Z scanning device 250 is configured to the numerical aperture that makes laser beam is more than 10%.

In certain embodiments, the change amount that the 2nd Z scanning device 450 is configured to the numerical aperture that makes laser beam is more than 10%.

In certain embodiments, the change amount that a Z scanning device 250 is configured to the numerical aperture that makes laser beam is more than 25%.

In certain embodiments, the change amount that the 2nd Z scanning device 450 is configured to the numerical aperture that makes laser beam is more than 25%.

Figure 10 shows the conclusive table of the multiple modification of said elements.As shown, some embodiments can have 0 Z depth scan device, 1 Z depth scan device before XY scanning device 300, a Z depth scan device and 2 the Z depth scan devices after XY scanning device 300, one before XY scanning device 300, another is after XY scanning device 300.

In addition, some embodiments can have 0 NA controller, 1 NA controller before XY scanning device 300,1 NA controller and 2 the NA controllers after XY scanning device 300, one before XY scanning device 300, another is after XY scanning device 300.

Here, Z scanning device and NA controller are often referred to simple lens or the battery of lens that can revise respectively the Z degree of depth and numerical aperture NA.In some cases, can activate or control these modifiers by single electric actuator, this single electric actuator makes the lens synchronizing moving of modifier with NA or the Z degree of depth of amendment light beam.

The two is all received (house) in a Z scanning device 250 and the 2nd Z scanning device 450 of Fig. 9 Z scanning device and NA controller.In some cases, corresponding optical element is different, and in other embodiments, the Z scanning device and the NA controller that are contained in identical Z scanning device piece 250 or 450 can be shared one or more lens, movable lens or electric actuator.

As shown in figure 10,0 Z scanning device and one or two NA controller operate in fixing Z depth, but can control NA in XY scan period.

1 Z scanning device and 0 NA controller can carry out Z scanning.

1 Z scanning device and 1 or 2 NA controller can also carry out the control to NA except carrying out Z scanning.

2 Z scanning devices can carry out Z scanning and can also control NA when with 1 or 2 NA controllers combinations with two speed.

In some embodiments, can also use lensless optical element, for example, variable orifice and pupil.

In addition, the great majority combination in exemplified 16 combinations can be further configured to the selected aberration of precompensation, for example, and spherical aberration.

Figure 10 example can control independently of one another or adjust by its aberration measure (for example, Strehl ratio S) represent various system performances, for example, the Z degree of depth of light beam, its numerical aperture NA and aberration thereof.Such embodiment provides very large control and precision for the operator of transmission laser system 1.

In similar embodiment, can carry out so dual light beam regulation (double beam conditioning) to other paired beam characteristicses.For example, for aberration controller and beam diameter controller, can create the similar table that 4X4=16 is right that has.Here, with likely the combining of 0,1 or 2 beam diameter controller in, can with 0,1 or 2 aberration controller pairing.

The list of beam characteristics comprises: the Z degree of depth of focal spot, numerical aperture NA, beam radius and such as Strehl ratio S, focal spot radius r f, RMS wavefront error ω and spherical aberration measure α 40any aberration measure.

3.XY scanning device 300

XY scanning device 300 can receive by the light beam through precompensation of some intermediate optical elements directly or indirectly from advance compensator 200.The function of XY scanning device 300 is the light beam along the scanning direction of the optical axis of cross-section transmission laser system 1 receives from advance compensator 200 substantially.In various embodiments, " cross-section " direction may not be perpendicular to optical axis, can comprise any direction that becomes essence angle (substantial angle) with optical axis.

In certain embodiments, XY scanning device 300 output scanning laser beams (this scanning laser beam has propagated through transmission laser system 1 and arrived operative region), and along transverse direction the maximum of the XY sweep limits from zero scan to 5-14mm.In some embodiments, the maximum of XY sweep limits 8 and 12mm between.

Figure 11 A example XY scanning device 300 can comprise X scanning device and Y scanning device.In some existing designs, X scanning device and Y scanning device comprise a reflecting mirror (mirror) separately: single X scanning reflection mirror 310 and single Y scanning reflection mirror 320.In such design, the light beam being reflected by X scanning reflection mirror 310 depends on the orientation of X scanning reflection mirror 310 and is incident on the difference place of Y scanning reflection mirror 320.Especially, when X scanning reflection mirror 310 is during in position 310a, incident beam 331 is reflected as light beam 332a, and in the time that Z scanning reflection mirror rotates to position 310b, incident beam is reflected as light beam 332b.

These two light beam 332a and 332b incide the diverse location of Y scanning reflection mirror 320, therefore, even if Y scanning reflection mirror 320 is fixed on 320a place, position, also can produce respectively two different folded light beam 333aa and 333ba.Worse, in the time that Y scanning reflection mirror 320 self rotates to 320b from position 320a, two incident beam 332a and 332b produce two additional folded light beam 333ab and 333bb, and all four light beam 333aa, 333ab, 333ba and 333bb propagate along different directions.

Can characterize this problem about the concept of fulcrum (pivot point).A kind of definition of the fulcrum of scanning optical element can be such point, all passes through this point from all light substantially of optical scanning element outgoing.In the time of the mobile optical element being applied to such as scanning device, this concept is similar to the focus of non-moving refracting element.

Use this term, the problems referred to above can be in Figure 11 A be traced back to is fixed on X scanning reflection mirror 310 from X scanning device fulcrum 315X with it.For optical element subsequently, the scanning light beam of output is by the angle that looks like the single fulcrum 315X outgoing from X scanning reflection mirror 310 and propagate into thus wide region.This of double mirror design dispersed undesirable aberration that can cause number of different types.

Figure 11 B example existing three reflecting mirror XY scanning devices 300 ', wherein, X scanning device 310 comprises that two reflecting mirrors 311 and 312 are to address this problem.For clear, show from the side each reflecting mirror.In this design, X scanning reflection mirror 311 and 312 is carried out X scan function in the mode of cooperation.As shown in Figure 11 B, when an X scanning reflection mirror 311 is orientated while changing to 311b from 311a, the 2nd X scanning reflection mirror 312 can rotate to 312b from 312a in the mode of cooperation.The scanning rotation of these cooperations can make deflected beam 332a in two kinds of rotation status and 332b by fulcrum 315X, and this fulcrum 315X is from X scanning reflection mirror move (lift off).

Due to X scanning device fulcrum, 315X self is moved from X scanning reflection mirror, therefore the position of capable of regulating fulcrum.In the design of Figure 11 B, X scanning reflection mirror is designed to fulcrum 315X to be substantially placed on Y scanning reflection mirror 320.In such design, the problem of the X scanning device 310 in Figure 11 A is solved substantially, and has greatly reduced corresponding aberration.

But, only with regard to Y scanning reflection mirror 320, even this design also has the problem that is similar to Figure 11 A.In the design of Figure 11 B, Y scanning device fulcrum 315Y is still fixed to Y scanning reflection mirror.

The entrance pupil (entrance pupil) of optical system is the picture of aperture diaphragm (aperture stop) in the time observing before system.Emergent pupil is the picture of image space mesoporous diaphragm.In the optical system with multiple battery of lens, the position of entrance pupil and emergent pupil is carefully adjusted conventionally.In many designs, the emergent pupil of a battery of lens mates with the entrance pupil of next battery of lens.

For XY scanning device 310, fulcrum can be regarded as emergent pupil.In certain embodiments, this emergent pupil mates with the entrance pupil of next battery of lens such as Z scanning device 450.But the entrance pupil of this battery of lens may be in the physical boundary of battery of lens that scanning device piece can not be set.In this case, such scanning device piece wishes, the fulcrum of this scanning device piece is in the optional position of the outside, physical boundary of scanning device piece.

Figure 11 C example four mirror design in order to address this problem.At XY scanning device 300 " in, X scanning device 310 still comprises two X scanning reflection mirrors 311 and 312.But Y scanning device comprises two Y scanning reflection mirrors 321 and 322 equally.

XY scanning device 300 " Y scanning device fulcrum 315Y is removed from Y scanning reflection mirror.Correspondingly, XY scanning device 300 " can control Y scanning device, or fulcrum 315Y is outputed to precalculated position.Example is that Y is scanned-exports on the entrance pupil 340 that fulcrum 315Y moves on to follow-up battery of lens.In some embodiments, X fulcrum 315X equally also can be moved to same position.

Other aspects of this design comprise: XY scanning device 300 " can substantially control independently the angle α between optical axis and the scanning light beam of output of (i) transmission laser system 1, and (ii) incide the position of the entrance pupil of subsequent optical element by the scanning light beam characterizing with optical axis distance d apart.Due to the approximate independence of these controls, XY scanning device 300 " scanning light beam with minimum aberration can be provided, and it is poor to control astigmatism and intelligent image in neighboring area (comprising the neighboring area of operative region).

XY scanning device 300 " ' some embodiments only comprise an X scanning reflection mirror 310 and a Y scanning reflection mirror 320, each scanning reflection mirror is " quick control (fast steering) " type.Each rapid control reflector can carry out angular movement around two rotating shafts.These rapid control reflectors to controlling beam angle and the light-beam position in the face of cross-section optical axis.

In some way of example, XY scanning device 300 " ' be configured to be in the focal plane of laser system maximum and be greater than 5 milliseconds and be less than the XY sweep limits interscan laser beam of 15 milliseconds.

In some embodiments, the X fulcrum being produced by the first and second XY rapid control reflectors overlaps with the Y fulcrum being produced by the first and second XY rapid control reflectors.

4.Z scanning device 450

As mentioned above, by having the design allowing in the interval interscan focus of the sweep spacing in operation on cornea process, ophthalmic surgical system is configured to carry out anterior chamber of eye operation or operation on lens.In some embodiments, in the Z sweep limits of 15mm, in Z scanning pattern, carry out Z scanning to 10mm or 0mm at 5mm.(in this application, term " the scope interscan at x mm to y mm " refers to that its initial value is that x mm or larger and end value are y mm or less scanning pattern, comprises all scanning patterns that are no more than whole sweep limits.)

Here the meaning of the appointment that should be understood that " X, Y, Z ", in embodiment is wide in range.Z typically represents optical axis, and it can be near geometrical axis.But the Z side in the destination organization such as eyes can realize some functions in these functions.Position actuator (position actuator) can make movable lens move, the distance between some lens of change advance compensator 200.

Having in the embodiment of a movable lens, the movable lens of advance compensator 200 can make the focal plane of transmission laser system 1 or focal spot move 0.3-4.0mm along optical axis.In some other embodiments, can mobile 0.5-2.0mm.

In some embodiments, when in the time that movable lens mediates at above-mentioned five reference point P1, ... at least one Strehl ratio S (low) at P5 place is during lower than S=S (movable), mobile movable lens, to be increased to the value higher than S=S (movable) by Strehl ratio S (low).S (movable) can be 0.6,0.7,0.8 or 0.9.

In some embodiments, movable lens can be moved as Strehl ratio S is changed in the scope of 0.6-0.9.In other embodiments, in the scope of 0.70-0.85, change.

Due to before advance compensator 200 is positioned at XY scanning device 300 or other beam expanders, therefore beam radius is still little.Therefore, movable lens can be little.And because movable lens is little, position actuator can move this movable lens very rapidly, this allows very rapidly to change depth of focus.This feature has been accelerated depth scan or the Z scanning in these embodiment, and can make Z scanning speed be comparable to typically XY scanning speed faster.

In some typical existing systems, main by the Optical devices aberration for compensation such as lens.The movable lens advance compensator 200 of describing now can utilize quick movable lens and implement well this function.Especially, when with XY scanning device 300 scanning laser beam, can make movable lens move with abundant high speed, make to scan relevant aberration and be compensated to XY the level of hope.

Fig. 7 A example while implementing horizontal operative incision 206 when substantially following the tracks of the contact surface of plane or curved patient interface (patient interface) 208 this aspect useful.The speed of little movable lens makes to scan required speed with XY and carries out Z scanning, forms the curved otch of wishing.

In some embodiments, the curvature of curved otch or radius or curved score can be less than 1mm, 10mm and 100mm.

Fig. 7 B example another useful aspect of high Z scanning speed.The focal plane of most of optical systems is slight curvatures.If wish to produce straight cross sections (therefore, this interface can not followed the tracks of the curvature of focal plane) substantially, need to fast laterally XY scan-synchronized ground, adjust again to the optical axis that can not exclusively be parallel to transmission laser system 1 continuously.Any compromise axle between the two is called Z direction equally.Equally, X, Y-direction may not be perpendicular to Z axis.They can represent to become with Z axis any direction of essence angle.Equally, in some embodiments, radial coordinate system can be more suitable in the scanning of describing transmission laser system 1.In these embodiments, XY scanning refer to by suitable radial coordinate the parameterized any scanning that is not parallel to Z axis.

Fig. 1 example: some embodiments of transmission laser system 1 have been realized these challenging large Z sweep limitss by comprise the first beam expander piece 400 and removable beam expander piece 500 at Z scanning device 450.In various embodiments, the first beam expander piece 400 can be removable or fixed block.Distance between the first beam expander piece 400 and removable beam expander piece 500 can be adjusted by for example position actuator.

As example in Fig. 2 A-B, when focus is when from it, the optimal location destination organization is removed, aberration increases.These aberrations are typically called " geometrical aberration ", because it can be understood and be derived from by following the tracks of geometrical ray the limited range of lens.Can be by making less these geometrical aberrations that limits of numerical aperture of Z scanning device 450.Like this, geometrical aberration depend on Z depth of focus and numerical aperture NA the two.

In addition, along with numerical aperture, NA reduces, and occurs the second source by the caused aberration of undulatory property of light.These aberrations cause so-called " diffraction aberration ".Along with numerical aperture reduces, the aberration of this Second Type increases focal spot radius.

Figure 12 A-B example as geometry and diffraction aberration in before eyes section of the function of the hole dimension of Z scanning device 450, it is by the focal spot radius r of one of measuring as above-mentioned aberration fcharacterize.Because geometrical aberration increases with hole dimension, diffraction aberration reduces, Zong aberration (being defined as the summation of these two aberrations) is at optimum aberration and corresponding optimum value aberration NA optplace presents optimum minima.

Here, common definition is linked together numerical aperture NA and hole dimension: NA=n*SinArTan (hole dimension/(2* focal length)), wherein n is the refractive index that forms therein the material of picture.

These curved needles are to specific Z depth of focus, as the Z depth of focus of the 8mm in the Z depth of focus of the 1mm in Figure 12 A and Figure 12 B.Because geometrical aberration is different at different Z depth of focus places, optimum hole dimension and the optimum value aperture NA of the minima of total aberration curve and whole system thus optdepend on Z depth of focus: NA opt=NA opt(z).Especially, in the time that Z depth of focus is increased to 8mm from 1mm, in this particular instance, increase optimum hole dimension and NA corresponding to Z depth of focus optbe reduced to 25mm from 32mm.Therefore, wish both also need to cover wider hole scope and corresponding NA scope for the transmission laser system of operation on lens for operation on cornea.This need to propose huge design challenge.

As will be described as further below, also example of Figure 12 A-B: for the cornea Z depth of focus of typical 1mm, aberration presents wide and smooth optimal value, and for the typical Z depth of focus for operation on lens, aberration presents narrower and more sharp-pointed minima.

Can also measure S, ω or α by other three aberrations 40characterize aberration, they all can produce the curve that presents optimal value.Any in measuring of above-mentioned four aberrations can be corresponding to above-mentioned five reference point P (1), ... any in P (5), or can be to the meansigma methods of partly or entirely getting in these reference points, or can be corresponding to other reference points.

In some embodiments, in the wide region of Z depth of focus, hole dimension and corresponding NA can be adjusted to optimum in fact numerical aperture NA opt(z), thus making to measure measured total aberration by aberration minimizes.This function allows greatly to reduce total aberration.Here, as previously mentioned, at above-mentioned five reference point P1 ... any place in P5 measures r by four aberrations f, S, ω or α 40in one tolerance aberration.Optimum aberration is measured r corresponding to aberration f, ω or α 40minima or the maximum of Strehl ratio S.

In some other embodiment, consider that in the case of not reaching optimum aberration or design regulation should be used the aberration that departs from optimal value, irremovable with second of Z scanning device 450 wherein and thereby the aberration tolerance that can not adjust the substantially the same laser system of numerical aperture compare, removable beam expander piece 500 still can make aberration amount degree r f, ω or α 40value reduce, the percentage ratio reducing is at least P (MovableExpander) percentage ratio, or correspondingly make Strehl ratio S value increase, the percentage ratio of increase is at least P (MovableExpander) percentage ratio.In some embodiments, P (MovableExpander) can be 20%, 30%, 40% or 50%.Here, as previously mentioned, can be at five reference point P1 ... measure aberration and measure r at any place in P5 f, S, ω or α 40.

In some embodiments, the substantially the same laser system lower than 0.8 wherein Z scanning device with respect to Strehl ratio S without adjustable numerical aperture, the laser system that comprises the Z scanning device 450 with adjustable numerical aperture NA can increase to Strehl ratio S higher than 0.8.

Additional design challenge not only will be by adjusting to transmission laser system its optimum hole dimension and corresponding numerical aperture NA opt(z) make to minimize at total aberration at fixing z depth of focus place, and in the time of scanning Z depth of focus, also will make system remain at least to approach this to depend on the optimum value aperture NA of Z opt(z).In typical embodiment, optimum value aperture increases and reduces from depth of focus.

In order to solve the variation of this optimum aperture when the Z sweep limits interscan Z depth of focus, the embodiment of transmission laser system 1 have with its Z depth of focus Self-variation substantially irrelevant make the ability that changes as the numerical aperture NA (z) of the individual parameter of Z scanning device 450.

The embodiment of wherein substantially controlling independently two amounts (here for Z depth of focus and numerical aperture NA) typically has control parameter right of realizing this feature (modality).Example comprises controllable distance between the first beam expander piece 400 and removable beam expander piece 500 and the pairing of the movable lens that can adjust by the second optical controller position in any of these pieces.Another example is included in two movable lens in the combination in any in two pieces of Z scanning device 450.Should remember, the first beam expander piece 400 can be implemented as fixed block or removable.

In some embodiments, numerical aperture NA can be adjusted to optimum value aperture value NA opt(z) sequence is created in the sequence of the total aberration value of optimum at the sequence place of Z depth of focus in the time of scanning Z depth of focus.

As previously mentioned, can measure r by above-mentioned aberration f, ω or α 40in any minima or maximum of Strehl ratio S know optimum total aberration.Z sweep limits can be for example 5-10mm or 0-15mm.Can be with radius r 1=0mm, or r2=3mm or in certain other radius r, or locating to scan Z depth of focus by the radius variable r (z) that for example r < 3mm demarcates.

Table 7 example example, wherein, secondary series is described in the scanning of the Z depth of focus in the Z sweep limits of (0.14mm, 11.65mm) in a destination organization, the 3rd row show NA opt(z) respective value.The embodiment of Z scanning device 450 can be adjusted Z depth of focus and numerical aperture NA is adjusted to its optimal value NA at these depth of focus places within the scope of this opt(z).

Table 7

In some other embodiment, can arrive at 0mm the Z sweep limits interscan Z depth of focus of 10mm.In scanning process, numerical aperture can change in 0.4 to 0.1 scope, in some other embodiment, in 0.35 to 0.15 scope, changes.

Figure 12 C example the similar sequences of the aberration curve corresponding with the sequence of the Z depth of focus of 8mm, 4mm, 2mm and 0mm, presented corresponding optimum value aperture N opt(z) sequence.

Figure 12 D clearly example as the optimum value aperture N of the function of corresponding Z depth of focus opt(z).

As mentioned above, the independent adjustable of Z depth of focus and numerical aperture NA typically needs two adjustable control parameters of independence.But some embodiments can not provide the independent and independent adjustable of Z and NA.Alternatively, for each Z depth of focus, numerical aperture is automatically adjusted to its optimal value NA by these embodiments opt(z) or at least adjust to NA opt(z) near, and carry out independent NA set-up procedure without operator.For example, NA can follow the tracks of NA in P (track) percentage ratio opt(z), wherein P (track) can be 10%, 20% or 30%.

These embodiments can only have the adjustable controller of single integration.In the example of just describing, the controller of this integration can be only to the Z depth of focus in user's display-object region of the system of its control.But controller can comprise coupling aperture adjustor, this coupling aperture adjustor is adjusted numerical aperture NA to follow the tracks of NA simultaneously opt(z) carry out independent regulating step without the user by transmission laser system 1.

In some embodiments, the distance of adjusting between the first beam expander 400 and removable beam expander 500 can realize this function fully.In other embodiments, single movable lens can provide this feature.In other other embodiments, can adopt the combination of two adjustors.

These embodiments provide the control function of simplifying for the operator of transmission laser system 1.Because the control function that realizes so single integration is design challenge, therefore some embodiment and the control function of carrying out in combination these integration such as other pieces of advance compensator 200, XY scanning device 300 and object lens 700.

Consider for various designs therein and can not realize or not realize in some embodiment of optimum total aberration value, numerical aperture NA can be adjusted to the sequence of the numeric aperture values at the sequence place of the Z depth of focus along Z scanning pattern in Z sweep limits, reduces with P (scan) percentage ratio at least to make compared with laser system that total aberration do not have adjustable numerical aperture NA with its Z scanning device 450.In some embodiments, P (scan) can be 20%, 30%, 40% or 50%.

As mentioned above, can measure r by the aberration of introducing before f, ω or α 40in any one characterize total aberration.Ground of equal value, can increase to characterize reducing of aberration by the correspondence of Strehl ratio S.Z scanning pattern can be at a distance of radius R and be parallel to the path of Z axis with the optical axis of laser system or Z axis.In some embodiments, Z scanning pattern can and optics Z axis at a distance of radius r 1=0mm between r2=3mm.

Can measure total aberration by multiple different mode.Total aberration can refer to the total aberration being averaging in Z scanning pattern or refer to along maximum or the minima of total aberration of scanning pattern.The reducing of total aberration can refer to any in these probabilities.

In some embodiments, numerical aperture NA can be adjusted to the second value while carrying out anterior chamber of eye operation process at the first value when carrying out operation on cornea process.In some embodiments, the first value is in the scope of 0.2-0.5, and the second value is in the scope of 0.1-0.3.In some other embodiments, the first value can be in the scope of 0.25-0.35, and the second value can be in the scope of 0.15-0.25.

The present embodiment of Z scanning device 450 is different from existing cornea transmission laser system in multiple other modes, and these other modes comprise:

1. in cornea transmission laser system, typically require numerical aperture constant to guarantee the simplification of design in the Z scan period of depth of focus.This design is gratifying for operation on cornea, and this is because total aberration of typically being induced by the Z scanning of 1mm is not the serious limiting factor of the precision of cornea transmission laser system.By contrast, the embodiment of transmission laser system 1 has variable numerical aperture NA, to remain within the scope of the broad operation Z of for example 5-10mm, its optimum hole is adjusted to in hole.Certainly this feature that, can adjust by being substantially independent of Z depth of focus numerical aperture NA realizes this point.

And, typical existing cornea system make its Z scanning device in object lens 700 or implement as the complexity of object lens 700 in a part, and before Z scanning device 450 is herein arranged on object lens 700.Herein, object lens 700 represent the last battery of lens in the functional machinery shell separating with the functional machinery shell of XY scanning device and Z scanning device that is arranged on of transmission laser system 1.Term functional machinery shell does not refer to total shell (its design can be considered to determine by ergonomics and outward appearance) of transmission system, and refers to lens are remained to together to carry out the shell of its actual optical function.The object lens 700 of present embodiment be typically located at by Z scanning device 450 export and the XYZ scanning light beam that reflected by mirror 600 after optical path in.

Figure 12 A-B example the another design challenge of operation on lens optical system.Obviously, for the cornea Z depth of focus of typical 1mm, total aberration presents wide and smooth optimal region, (i) can make systematic parameter optimization for other considerations thus, (ii) can use wide Z sweep limits, and (iii) need to be to more coarse adjustment of systematic parameter, all these is deteriorated focal spot size greatly not.By contrast, for operation on lens system, when (i) makes systematic parameter optimization for other considerations, (ii) implement wider Z sweep limits and (iii) relatively inaccurately when adjustment system parameter, focal spot size is deteriorated rapidly.

In aspect the embodiment of Z scanning device 450 another, comprise that the transmission laser system of imaging subsystems or visual observation Optical devices subsystem makes with any the associated light beam coupling in these subsystems in transmission laser system 1 by mirror 600.Mirror 600 can be for example dichroic mirror.In typical surgery systems, object lens 700 refer to and in optical path, are positioned at mirror 600 battery of lens afterwards.

Before being implemented in mirror 600 and the Z scanning device 450 separating with object lens 700 be that important design is considered, this is because the weight of object lens 700 is key factors equally, because object lens 700 directly contact substantially with the destination organization of the eyes such as patient.Therefore, the weight of object lens 700 or quality being minimized can make the enforcement of transmission laser system 1 eye be applied to the pressure reducing.And, because can making a self-deformation, this pressure also reduces thus the degree of accuracy of operation process, and the design that therefore reduces the pressure to eyes has significantly increased the degree of accuracy of ophthalmologic operation.

Table 8-9 example for the scope of some relevant parameters of the first beam expander piece 400 and the removable various embodiment that expand piece 500.Each beam expander piece can have 2-10 lens, in certain embodiments, can have 3-5 lens, and these lens are configured to carry out above-mentioned functions.

Table 8 example use five lens embodiment of the first beam expander piece 400 of industrial standard stipulations, show the group of thick lens about each surface.The first beam expander piece 400 can comprise the lens 411,412,413,414 and 415 with the parameter in following scope (being indicated by bracket):

Table 8

In certain embodiments, the first beam expander piece 400 is from comprising successively towards the input side of XY scanning device 300: have positive refractive power first lens group, there is the meniscus (meniscus lens) towards the convex surfaces of input side and have towards second lens on the recessed surface of input side.

Other embodiments relate to the embodiment of the table 8 of passing ratio factor-alpha convergent-divergent, have the lens of five convergent-divergents, make the curvature of secondary series be multiplied by α, make tertial distance be multiplied by 1/a, and have unaltered refractive index n.Scale factor can be got the value between 0.3 and 3.

Table 9 example four lens embodiment of mobile beam expander piece 500, comprise the lens 511,512,513 and 514 with the parameter in following scope:

Table 9

Some embodiments of removable beam expander piece 500 are from comprising successively towards the input side of the first beam expander piece 400: have towards the meniscus on the recessed surface of input side, have the minus lens of negative refractive power and have the positive lens groups of positive refractive power.

Other embodiments relate to the embodiment of the table 9 of passing ratio factor-alpha convergent-divergent, have the lens of four convergent-divergents, make the curvature of secondary series be multiplied by α, make tertial distance be multiplied by 1/ α, and have unaltered refractive index n.Scale factor can be got the value between 0.3 and 3.

Figure 13 A-B example wherein between the first beam expander piece 400 and mobile beam expander piece 500, there is the embodiment of the table 8-9 under two kinds of configurations of different distance.In some embodiments, mobile beam expander piece 500 can be with respect to the first beam expander piece 400 with the distance moving in the scope of d=5-50mm.

These accompanying drawing examples consider in the design of the Z scanning device 450 in when work.

Figure 13 example when the situation of removable beam expander piece 500 when relatively away from the position of the first beam expander piece 400.In this case, there is light that (i) assemble, (ii) the more shallow Z degree of depth near the relatively large diameter of emergent pupil ExP, (iii) focal spot in the time that fix-focus lens is arranged on the emergent pupil of Z scanning device 450 from the assembly light beam of drawing of combination, and thus (iv) by thering is the light beam formation focal spot of bigger numerical aperture NA.

Figure 13 B example when the situation of removable beam expander piece 500 during than more close the first beam expander 400 of situation of Figure 13 A.Now, light beam has light that (i) disperse, (ii) the darker Z degree of depth at the less diameter at emergent pupil ExP place, (iii) focal spot in the time that fix-focus lens is arranged on the emergent pupil place of Z scanning device 450, and (iv) forms focal spot by having compared with the light beam of small value aperture NA thus.

In a word, at more shallow Z depth of focus place, produce focal spot by large NA light beam, and for the Z depth of focus increasing, numerical aperture NA reduces.By the position of emergent pupil ExP of optimization beam expander piece 400 and 500 and the position of the entrance pupil of convergence object lens 700, can make the relative changes optimization of numerical aperture NA.Even if these embodiments are in the alternate ways of the numerical aperture at different depths of focus place for optimization in the case of the function that does not use advance compensator 200.

As mentioned above, can, in the situation that thering is or do not have advance compensator 200, adjust widely numerical aperture NA.In whole transmission laser system 1, can pass through to control advance compensator 200, the first beam expander piece 400 or removable beam expander piece 500, or by controlling in combination these pieces, adjust numerical aperture NA.In practice, the actual selection of embodiment depends on other compared with the requirement of AS level, for example, and sweep limits, scanning speed and complexity.The embodiment with other numerical rangies can also be configured to implement the part or all of function in above-mentioned functions.

Figure 14 example the another aspect of Z scanning device 450.Show three the different feature light beams of drawing fulcrum (exit pivot point) PP (XY) outgoing from XY scanning device 300.Significantly, Z scanning device 450 focuses on all three feature light beams in introducing fulcrum (the entrance pivot point) PP (O) of object lens 700.For example, can adjust by removable beam expander 500 position of PP (O).

As described below, the transmission laser system embodiment that for example PP (O) fulcrum falls into object lens 700 inside therein that produces the fulcrum PP (O) of the reflecting mirror that leaves XY scanning device 300 has useful feature.

In other embodiments, XY scanning device 300 has and draws fulcrum PP (XY) than the distance to Z scanning device 450.In these embodiments, Z scanning device 450 is only by the introducing fulcrum PP (O) that draws fulcrum PP (XY) and be modified as object lens 700 of XY scanning device 300.

In either case, these embodiments utilize the existence of the intermediate focal plane 451 between the first beam expander piece 400 and removable beam expander piece 500.Indicated the existence of this intermediate focal plane 451 by the focus of three transversely arranged feature light beams with substantially the same Z coordinate.On the contrary, do not there is the embodiment of such intermediate focal plane and be insufficiently applicable to having adjustable fulcrum PP (O).

5. object lens 700

In some embodiments, the laser beam of being exported by Z scanning device 450 is deflected on object lens 700 by beam splitter/dichroic mirror 600.By this mirror 600, various fill-in lights can also be coupled in transmission laser system 1.Secondary light source can comprise the light relevant to optical-coherence tomography (OCT) system, illuminator and visual observation piece.

Object lens 700 can provide shared optical path with the fill-in light that enters surgical target region for the XYZ scanning laser beam that propagates through XY scanning device 300 and Z scanning device 450 from laser engine 100.In various embodiments, object lens 700 can comprise objective lens group.In some embodiments, the lens in objective lens group can not relative to each other move.Therefore, although object lens 700 are the overall building block (integral part) of Z scan function, the Z scanning not contribution of object lens 700 to variable or dynamical fashion.In these embodiments, do not adjust lens position in object lens 700 and move the Z depth of focus of focal spot.

The embodiment of object lens 700 can be controlled the spherical aberration, coma of operation pulse laser beam and at least one in senior aberration more.

Because object lens 700 are guided the light of different wave length, the embodiment of object lens 700 uses achromat group.Auxiliary light wavelength can be for example in the scope of 0.4 micron to 0.9 micron, and operation light wavelength can be in 1.0-1.1 micrometer range.In the whole wave-length coverage of used light, for example, in above-mentioned example 0.4 micron to 1.1 microns, the embodiment of object lens 700 remains lower than predetermined value aberration.

The weight of object lens 700 and quality are important Consideration.In some embodiments, object lens and patient's eyes Mechanical Contact.Therefore, object lens are exerted pressure to eyes.This pressure can make eyes distortion and depart from it and loosen configuration, makes to be more difficult to select target and accurately guides surgical laser bundle.

In addition,, if patient moves during operation process, preferably object lens can move with minimum resistance in response to patient's movement.Although can utilize spring system or the power of contending with (counterbalance) to carry out the weight of static equilibrium object lens, these measures can not reduce dynamically or inertia force.In fact, measure meeting increases these power like this.Weight or quality that all these considerations show to reduce object lens 700 are useful.

There is the various ways of identification critical force and corresponding object lens quality for ocular operation process.For example, at Duma SM, Ng TP, Kennedy EA, Stitzel JD, Herring IP, the Determination of Significant Parameters for Eye Injury Risk from Projectiles of Kuhn F., J Trauma.2005Oct; 59 (4): the summary of having delivered the various impacts to eye in 960-4.This paper has been summarized the critical energy value that impacts the object of eyes and impacted object is provided, this energy value is the dissimilar injury to eyes corresponding to (i), comprises such as the minor injury of corneal abrasion, such as the moderate lesion of phacometachoresis and such as the major injury of retina injury.This paper has also distributed the probability of injury, (ii) from representing the low probability of probability of a few percent, to the middle probability that represents approximately 50% probability, is close to the apodictic high probability of injury to representative.The also shape based on impacted object, the classification of carrying out according to total impact energy and impact situation (scenarios) is carried out classification by the normalized impact energy of impact area of this paper (iii).

What caused by the complete avalanche of the mechanical support system of object lens 700 by inquiry the highlyest may impact injury, these results can be applied to the particular case of ocular operation.Such avalanche can cause the freely falling body of whole object lens 700 in the vertical-path of typical 20-25mm, and all object lens energy are all transferred to eye self.Can calculate critical mass from the critical energy value of the delivered freely falling body modeling to object lens according to known physical principle.

The vertical-path of this length can be from following design principle.Object lens 700 can be installed on vertical sliding stand and the safety of transmission laser system 1 are provided and enter reliably position (docking) with the door frame by eyes (gantry).Degree of accuracy and the power requirement to door frame loosened in such design, and this is because the object lens 700 that vertical door frame storage will be located in vertical travel range.In addition, once eyes enter position, these designs allow eye vertically to move with respect to lasing light emitter 100, and can not destroy attached to transmission laser system 1 of eyes.These move and can move or the movement of operation table occurs because of patient.20 to 25mm vertical travel range of object lens 700 effectively and alleviated safely door frame power and the patient within the scope of this moves.

Finally, (iv) design at the optical element of object lens 700 (is for example also considered, only glass lens in objective lens group) (" optics ") quality limit in the meaning of lower bound of the quality of whole object lens and affect critical mass, this is because exist various ways to reduce the shell of object lens and the quality of control system, but it is much more difficult to reduce the quality of lens.In native system, the gross mass of object lens can be the twice to three times of " optics " quality of lens only.

Part of standards in these standards produces the stricter definition to critical mass, and other standards is only that level and smooth cross correlation (smooth crossover dependence) and himself are not useful to strict difinition.

By above-mentioned (i)-(iv) likely combining of classification, can determine following four relatively strict and significant definition of tool to critical mass MC:

(1) MC1~400 gram: even under the worst case of avalanche situation, the object lens with the quality of M < MC1 also there is no that to patient injury is dangerous;

(2) MC2~750 gram: can there is the probability of passing through total impact energy and cause part corneal abrasion that is greater than 10% in the quality of the scope of MC1 < M < MC2;

(3) MC3~1300-1400 gram: the quality in the scope of MC2 < M < MC3 can have 50% the probability that causes corneal abrasion in any impact situation; And last

(4) MC4~3300 gram: impact in situation and can cause and be close to inevitable corneal abrasion at some in the quality of MC3 < M < MC4 scope, and can develop the non-zero probability of medium serious or worse injury.

The small probability of the complete avalanche of the mechanical support system of the object lens that certainly, all these probability will occur with reality multiplies each other.But, in ophthalmic applications, need to take extreme measures to protect all thinkable injury situations, but, but may not make above-mentioned critical mass relevant.

Therefore,, about gross mass and the optical quality of object lens 700, above-mentioned consideration is according to four critical masses of clear and definite standard.Correspondingly, wherein design process manages object lens quality to be reduced to lower than above-mentioned critical mass MC4 ..., the operation process that the embodiment of the object lens 700 of any in MC1 is safety provides better quantitative probability.

Existing object lens for femtosecond ophthalmology laser have the quality that is greater than 5000 grams, are significantly greater than the maximum in these four critical masses.A U.S. Patent application 20030053219 that exception is Manzi, it has described such lens combination, and wherein, only the optical quality of lens is approximately 1000 grams, may cause the gross mass of 2000-3000 gram.Although the design of Manzi is lighter than other existing object lens, it is sizable that quality remains.This overall building block that is mainly object lens owing to Z scanning device, because the lens element of object lens inside is used to Z focal point control.Manzi need to be additional quality for the accurate linear guiding (linear guide) of the shell of accurately processing, lens and for servo motor, all these get back to gross mass increase the value that is greater than 5000 grams.

By contrast, the quality of the various embodiment of object lens 700 can fall into any of above-mentioned four mass ranges: 0-400 gram, 400-750 gram, 750-1350 gram and 1350-3300 gram.This quality can be optical quality or gross mass.For example, the lens in the embodiment of object lens 700 can have the quality that is less than 130 grams.For total assembling quality of 400 grams, it is feasible that these lens are installed in accurate metal shell.

The embodiment of object lens 700 is by moving on to Z scan function independent Z scanning device 450, in independent function or mechanical cover, receive this Z scanning device 450, reduce and can realize lower than so significant quality of 400 grams, 750 grams, 1350 grams and 3300 grams.Here, term " function or mechanical cover " refers to: total non-functional design consideration can cause independent Z scanning device 450 to be set in the conventional vessel identical with object lens 700, but such conventional vessel be not used in optical function or mechanical object.

In certain embodiments, with carry out the similar object lens of at least partly dynamic Z scan function by the optical characteristics of adjusting object lens 700 compared with, can make the quality of object lens 700 reduce with P (mass) percentage ratio.Such characteristic can be for to be incorporated into whole Z scanning device 450 in object lens 700, or removable beam expander piece 500 is incorporated in object lens 700, or one or more removable scanning lenses are incorporated in object lens 700.P (mass) can be 10%, 50% or 100%.

Another related fields of having described the correspondence design of object lens 700 and surgical laser system 1 about Figure 14, wherein show: the embodiment of Z scanning device 450 can focus on the laser beam of XYZ scanning the introducing fulcrum PP (O) of object lens.The embodiment with the introducing fulcrum PP (O) that is positioned at object lens 700 inside has the beam radius rb greatly reducing in the major part at optical path in the time that light beam is assembled towards this inside fulcrum PP (O).And then, can there is by less lens control the light beam of the beam radius rb reducing, cause significantly the reducing of gross mass of object lens 700.

In table 10 sum up and in Figure 15 example according to the embodiment of the object lens 700 of above-mentioned design opinion.The embodiment of object lens 700 comprises for receiving the first lens group of operation pulse laser beams from Z scanning device 450 and for receiving operation pulse laser beam and this surgical laser bundle is focused on to the second battery of lens target area from first lens group.

Table 10 by surface 1 to 16 in more detail example the object lens 700 of Figure 15.Object lens 700 have nine lens L1-L9 and pass through surface 17 and patient interface 800 interfaces.As mentioned above, bracket represents the scope that corresponding parameter can be got.(surface 1 and 2 limits the doublet of lens L1/L2, and surface 8 and 9 limits the doublet of lens L5/L6, therefore, is 16 surfaces instead of 18.)

Table 10

In other embodiments, can use the lens of the different numbers with different parameters scope that better meet above-mentioned design consideration comparablely.

In some embodiments, can object lens 700 be described about battery of lens.For example, object lens 700 can comprise for receiving the first lens group of XYZ scanning laser beam from Z scanning device 450 and for receiving the second battery of lens of laser beam from first lens group.The second battery of lens can comprise first lens, and this first lens has refractive index in 1.54 to 1.72 scope, have the introducing surface (entry surface) of the curvature in 37.9 to 651/m scope and have-15.4 draws surface (exit surface) to the curvature in the scope of 5.21/m.In addition, the second battery of lens can also comprise the second lens, these second lens and first lens to the distance in the scope of 6.5mm, have refractive index in 1.56 to 1.85 scope at a distance of 0, it is surperficial and have a surface of drawing of curvature in 11.4 to 26.81/m scope to have the introducing of the curvature in-55.1 to-21.81/m scope.Object lens 700 can output to laser beam on patient interface 800 by the second lens.

In some embodiments, the effective focal length of object lens 700 is less than 70mm.

In some embodiments, be less than 20mm from object lens 700 to the distance of patient interface 800.

In some designs, the curvature of the focal plane of transmission laser system 1 is greater than 201/m.

Can also produce and follow the object lens 700 of the design principle of expressing by the application and multiple other embodiments of whole surgical laser system 1 by using business available optical design software bag (for example,, from the Zemax of Zemax Development Corporation or from the Code V of Optical Research Associates).

6. whole system optical property

In various embodiments, can be with the parameter of complementary mode optimization subsystem advance compensator 200, XY scanning device 300, Z scanning device 450 and object lens 700, the optical property of whole transmission laser system 1 can be presented uniquely for for example characteristic of ophthalmologic operation application.

Table 11A-B has summed up the optical property of the whole transmission laser system 1 in the first and second embodiments about numerical aperture NA and Strehl ratio S.Still with above-mentioned reference point P1 ... the similar reference point place of P5 characterizes optical property.Table 11A-B shows the optical property of the transmission laser system 1 of its parts in configuration A, B, C and D, and laser beam is delivered to respectively the center (A) of cornea, the periphery (B) of cornea, lenticular center (C) and lenticular periphery (D) by this transmission laser system 1.These reference point representatives large operation volume relevant to the challenge of crystalline lens being carried out to ophthalmologic operation.

Table 11A-B shows the radial coordinate of the reference point with particular value.But, in other embodiments, NA and S these specific radial coordinates " near " identical respective range in value.In some cases, term " near " refer to the scope of the radial coordinate in the P of the radial coordinate value illustrating (radial) percentage ratio, wherein P (radial) can be in 10%, 20% and 30%.For example, have 7.2mm to the point of the z radial coordinate in the scope of 8.8mm " crystalline lens, near the P (radial)=10% of the z=8.0mm radial coordinate of " center " reference point.

In addition, in some embodiments, NA and S fall into and configure only in of its three respective range of listing for B, C and D.In some other embodiments, NA and S fall into configuring in two of its three respective range of listing for B, C and D of table 11A-B.

Obviously,, in whole operation on lens volume, described transmission laser system is corrected to the optical property of diffraction limited substantially well.

Configuration Tissue, position Depth z [mm] Radius r [mm] Numerical aperture NA Strehl ratio S ??A Cornea, center ??0.3 ??0 ??(0.25,0.40) ??(0.90,1.0) ??B Cornea, periphery ??0.3 ??6.2 ??(0.25,0.40) ??(0.90,1.0) ??C Crystalline lens, center ??8 ??0 ??(0.15,0.35) ??(0.90,1.0) ??D Crystalline lens, periphery ??7.3 ??4 ??(0.15,0.35) ??(0.80,1.0)

Table 11A

Configuration Tissue, position Depth z [mm] Radius r [mm] Numerical aperture NA Strehl ratio S ??A Cornea, center ??0.3 ??0 ??(0.30,0.35) ??(0.95,1.0) ??B Cornea, periphery ??0.3 ??6.2 ??(0.30,0.35) ??(0.90,0.95) ??C Crystalline lens, center ??8 ??0 ??(0.20,0.25) ??(0.95,1.0) ??D Crystalline lens, periphery ??7.3 ??4 ??(0.20,0.25) ??(0.85,0.90)

Table 11B

The similar Design having higher than 0.8 Strehl ratio S can be considered as being equivalent to design listed above, this is because all these designs are regarded as the system of diffraction limited.

Except Strehl ratio S, can also use such as focal spot radius r fother aberrations measure to characterize the overall optical property of transmission laser system 1.Due to the large Strehl rate conversion (translate) of large-numerical aperture NA combination be little focal spot radius r f, for configuration A-D, in eye target area, focal spot radius r fcan remain and be less than 2 microns in some embodiments, in other embodiment, remain and be less than 4 microns, in other other embodiments, remain and be less than 10 microns.

In order to characterize more accurately the performance of transmission laser system and to describe cornea and the materially affect of crystalline lens to beam propagation, comprise that by design eye obtains and (derive) NA and the S value of table 11A-B as the system of the overall building block of optical design.In some designs, come eye modeling with its natural form.In other designs, comprise the flat degree of eye, believable to represent (authentic) surgical condition.

Table 12 has been summed up the naive model of the relevant ocular tissue as shown in the model human eye 850 in Figure 15.(numbering on surface is selected as the numbering of continuation table 10, and from surface 18, patient interface 800 is connected to cornea tissue by this surface.) carry out the modeling to ocular tissue by cornea (entering from patient interface via sharing surface 18), aqueous humor (aqueous humor) (entering from cornea via surface 19) and the crystalline lens (entering from aqueous humor via surface 20) of 0.6mm thickness.Similarly process the separation on eye surface with separating of lens surface 1-16.

Table 12

Use NA and the S value of this model computer chart 11A-B of ocular tissue.The correlation model of eye causes comparable aberration to be measured.

In aspect independent other, in some embodiments, can, by some distortion and the curvature of field are kept without Optical devices correction, simplify the optical design of whole transmission laser system 1.

Figure 16 example, in some system, this design principle reduces the Optimality of the positional precision of surgery systems.Square dot represents when the reflecting mirror of XY scanning device 300 is with the position of 1 degree step-length (step) scanning and Z scanning device 450 focal spot when making removable beam expander 500 move to scan Z depth of focus with 5mm step-length.Obviously " focal plane " that, be defined in the XY scanning position of the focal spot while keeping Z depth of focus constant is bending.In transverse circumference, depth of cut is more shallow, and this is consistent with the known characteristics of lens with the uncorrected curvature of field.

Equally, if the reflecting mirror of XY scanning device 300 keeps fixing and Z scanning device 450 scans Z depth of focus, the lateral attitude of focal spot changes.Further make to design complicated, radially laterally XY position and Z depth of focus all do not present the linear dependence to respective scanned device position.In XY plane, these distortion are called barrel distortion or pincushion distortion.(in many embodiments, three-dimensional, that is, (transfer) azimuth to focal position is changed at the azimuth of XY scanning device 300 unchangeably, therefore will be omitted (suppress).)

Figure 17 example some embodiments of transmission laser system 1 how the new calculating solution (computational solution) to above-mentioned challenge is provided.Provide scanner coordinate with spherical coordinates (ζ, χ, φ), wherein ξ is the position of Z scanning device 450, and χ is the inclination angle of XY scanning device 300 about optical axis, and φ is azimuth.Provide focal spot position by cylinder focal coordinates (z, r, φ), z is Z depth of focus, and r is and the radial distance of optical axis that φ is azimuth.

The azimuth of focal position is substantially the same with the azimuth of scanning device, therefore not shown.Remaining XY and Z scanner coordinate (ζ, χ) by discretization, define scanning grid and corresponding scan matrix C within the scope of its respective scanned ij, this scan matrix C ijbe defined as C ij=(ζ i, χ j).If the actual scanning device coordinate value of being taken as (ζ i0, χ j0), scan matrix C ijbe 1 at this specific (i0, j0) to locating, and to every other (i, j) to being zero.

Similarly, can be by two-dimentional focus matrix S klcharacterize focal spot position, wherein S klrelate to discrete radially with Z degree of depth focal coordinates (z k, r l).About scanning device Matrix C ijwith focus matrix S kl, available four-dimensional transfer matrix (transfer matrix) T ijklcharacterize the optical property of transmission laser system 1, wherein four-dimensional transfer matrix T ijklexpress scanner coordinate (ζ i, χ j) how to be transformed into focal coordinates (z k, r l): generally, S=TC, or specifically:

S kl = &Sigma; ij T klij C ij - - - ( 5 )

Although transfer matrix T ijklrepresent scanning device Matrix C ijwith focus matrix S klbetween linear correlation, but in some other embodiments, in scanning device Matrix C ijwith focus matrix S klbetween can there is non-linear relation.In these embodiments, formula (5) is substituted by non-linear correlation.

Transmission laser system 1 can be designed to make by ray trace, physical alignment or the combination of the two of calculating first optimization of transfer matrix T.The embodiment of physical alignment method has been described in the U.S. Patent application US20090131921 that can be used to such object.

Typically, transfer matrix T is reversible and can be used to produce counter transference matrix T -1, this counter transference matrix is by focus matrix S klunit be associated with scanning device Matrix C ij.

Or, in certain embodiments, can be by the focus matrix S to wish in target area klstart to calculate Design Treatment and directly determine counter transference matrix T -1, and use for example ray trace to carry out scanning device Matrix C corresponding to reconstruct ij.

Figure 17-18 example such relation.Figure 17-18th, nomographic chart, example XY scanning device 300 or Z scanning device 450 can be adjusted to which (ζ i, χ j) scanner coordinate to be to focus of the light beam into (the z illustrating on z and r axle k, r l) focal coordinates.

Figure 17 shows the χ inclination angle of the XY scanning device 300 corresponding with (z, r) focal coordinates.As an example, in order to realize the Z degree of depth of z=6mm and the radial position of r=4mm, dotted line shows to use the XY scanning device inclination angle of χ=6.4 degree.

Figure 18 shows: in order to realize identical (z, r)=(4,6) focal coordinates, can use the Z scanner location of ζ=15.5mm.By calculating, nomographic chart can be stored in computer storage as look-up table.Can be determined rapidly by two-dimensional linear or quadratic interpolattion in the stored value of searching between coordinate.

Know transfer matrix T and inverse matrix T thereof -1allow the embodiment of transmission laser system 1 to proofread and correct the aberration of Figure 16 by substituting optical means by computational methods.These embodiment can comprise computing controller, and this computing controller can be controlled at least one optical distortion with control transmission laser system 1 in XY scanning device 300 and Z scanning device 450.

Figure 19 example: for example, if wished in target area along scan pattern (pattern) scanning with the optical distortion reducing, for example, along the flat focal plane scanning at predetermined Z depth of focus z place, computing controller can be carried out the step of following calculation control method 900:

(910): focus matrix S corresponding to scan pattern that receives the optical distortion reducing with having in target area klunit and input (z k, r l) at least one in focal coordinates;

(920): use predetermined counter transference matrix (T -1) ijklcalculating or memory calls and focus matrix S from storing klunit or input (z k, r l) scanning device Matrix C corresponding to focal coordinates ijunit and coordinate (ζ i, χ j) at least one in scanner coordinate; And

(930): according to (the ζ calculating i, χ j) at least one in scanner coordinate control Z scanning device 450 and XY scanning device 300 be with according to focus matrix S klunit or input (z k, r l) focal coordinates scan focal spot.

With respect to the same or analogous laser system without such controller, the transmission laser system with such computing controller can reduce optical distortion.Reducing degree in some implementations can be up to 10%, in other embodiments can be up to 30%.

The optical distortion reducing can be any in aberration, the curvature of field, barrel distortion, pincushion distortion, bending focal plane and curved scan line (hope is parallel to Z axis).

In some embodiments, computing controller cooperates to carry out these functions with other pieces of transmission laser system, and described other pieces comprise any one advance compensator 200, XY scanning device 300, Z scanning device 450 and object lens 700 that utilize possibly in its above-mentioned feature.

Depend on to calculate and control to reduce the principle of optical aberration, the number of possible similar embodiment is great.For example, in certain embodiments, computing controller can be at the focal plane interscan focal spot having lower than the curvature of critical value for buckling.In some other embodiments, can utilize the suitable operation of computing controller is scanned to the surface with reservation shape.

Although the many details of this file including, these details should not be interpreted as the restriction to the present invention or scope required for protection, but should be interpreted as the description of the feature specific to specific embodiment of the present invention.The special characteristic of describing in the context of the embodiment separating of presents can also combine and be implemented as single embodiment.On the contrary, the various features of describing in the context of single embodiment can be implemented dividually or implement in any suitable sub-portfolio equally in multiple embodiment.In addition; although feature is described as be in and works in particular combinations and even by initially claimed in the above; but the one or more features from combination required for protection can be removed in some cases from combination, and combination required for protection can relate to the distortion of sub-portfolio or sub-portfolio.

The numerous embodiments of imaging guide laser surgical technic, device and system is disclosed.But, can described embodiment and other embodiments be out of shape and be strengthened based on described content.

Claims (19)

1. for a laser system for ophthalmologic operation, comprising:
Laser engine, for generation of pulse laser beam; And
XY scanning device, for receiving produced pulse laser beam output scanning laser beam,
Described XY scanning device comprises:
X scanning device, it comprises two X scanning reflection mirrors; And
Y scanning device, it comprises two Y scanning reflection mirrors, wherein:
Described X scanning device is configured to make the fulcrum of described X scanning device to leave the reflecting mirror of described X scanning device, and described Y scanning device is configured to make the fulcrum of described Y scanning device to leave the reflecting mirror of described Y scanning device,
The fulcrum of wherein said X scanning device is such point: all light all passes through this point substantially; And the fulcrum of wherein said Y scanning device is such point: all light all passes through this point substantially.
2. according to the laser system of claim 1, wherein:
The fulcrum of described X scanning device is substantially on the reflecting mirror of described Y scanning device.
3. according to the laser system of claim 1, wherein:
Described X scanning device and described Y scanning device are configured to make the fulcrum of described X scanning device to leave the reflecting mirror of described X scanning device and make the fulcrum of described Y scanning device leave the reflecting mirror of described Y scanning device, and the fulcrum of described X scanning device is overlapped substantially with the fulcrum of described Y scanning device.
4. according to the laser system of claim 1, wherein:
Described X scanning device and described Y scanning device are configured to make the fulcrum of described X scanning device to overlap with the fulcrum of described Y scanning device.
5. according to the laser system of claim 1, wherein:
The fulcrum of described Y scanning device is entering on surface at subsequent optical element substantially.
6. according to the laser system of claim 1, wherein:
The fulcrum of described Y scanning device is substantially on the entrance pupil of subsequent optical element.
7. according to the laser system of claim 1, wherein:
Described XY scanning device is configured to substantially revise independently:
The angle being become with optical axis by the scanning laser beam of described XY scanning device output; And
The scanning laser beam of exporting and position perpendicular to the subsequent reference Plane intersects of described optical axis.
8. according to the laser system of claim 1, wherein:
Compared with being configured to make aberration and comprising the aberration of corresponding laser system of the XY scanning device only with two reflecting mirrors, described XY scanning device reduces.
9. according to the laser system of claim 1, wherein:
Compared with being configured to make astigmatism and comprising the astigmatism of corresponding laser system of the XY scanning device only with two reflecting mirrors, described XY scanning device reduces.
10. according to the laser system of claim 1, wherein:
Described XY scanning device is configured to make coma to compare and reduce with the coma of substantially the same laser system that comprises the XY scanning device only with two reflecting mirrors.
11. according to the laser system of claim 1, wherein:
Described XY scanning device is configured to be in the focal plane of described laser system laser beam described in the interscan of XY sweep limits, and the maximum of described XY sweep limits is greater than 5 millimeters and be less than 15 millimeters.
12. according to the laser system of claim 1, wherein:
Described XY scanning device is configured to be in the focal plane of described laser system laser beam described in the interscan of XY sweep limits, and the maximum of described XY sweep limits is greater than 8 millimeters and be less than 13 millimeters.
13. 1 kinds of laser systems for ophthalmologic operation, comprising:
Laser engine, for generation of pulse laser beam; And
XY scanning device, for receiving produced pulse laser beam output scanning laser beam,
Wherein, described XY scanning device is configured to substantially revise independently:
The angle that the scanning laser beam of exporting becomes with optical axis; And
The scanning laser beam of exporting and position perpendicular to the subsequent reference Plane intersects of described optical axis.
14. according to the laser system of claim 13, wherein:
Described XY scanning device comprises:
X scanning device, it comprises two X scanning reflection mirrors; And
Y scanning device, it comprises two Y scanning reflection mirrors.
15. according to the laser system of claim 14, wherein:
X fulcrum leaves X scanning reflection mirror; And
Y fulcrum leaves Y scanning reflection mirror.
16. according to the laser system of claim 14, wherein:
X fulcrum leaves X scanning reflection mirror;
Y fulcrum leaves Y scanning reflection mirror; And
Described X fulcrum overlaps substantially with described Y fulcrum.
17. according to the laser system of claim 14, wherein:
Described XY scanning device is configured to be in the focal plane of described laser system laser beam described in the interscan of XY sweep limits, and the maximum of described XY sweep limits is greater than 5 millimeters and be less than 15 millimeters.
18. 1 kinds of laser systems for ophthalmologic operation, comprising:
Laser engine, for generation of pulse laser beam; And
XY scanning device, for receiving described pulse laser beam output scanning laser beam, wherein,
Described XY scanning device comprises:
The first quick control XY scanning reflection mirror; And
The second quick control XY scanning reflection mirror, wherein,
Described the first and second quick control XY scanning reflection mirrors can carry out angular movement around two rotating shafts.
19. according to the laser system of claim 18, wherein:
The X fulcrum being produced by described the first and second quick control XY scanning reflection mirrors overlaps substantially with the Y fulcrum being produced by described the first and second quick control XY scanning reflection mirrors.
CN201080043148.3A 2009-07-29 2010-07-21 Optical system for ophthalmic surgical laser CN102596126B (en)

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EP2459135A4 (en) 2012-11-07
CN102596126A (en) 2012-07-18
RU2544371C2 (en) 2015-03-20
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MX2012001330A (en) 2012-08-15
RU2012107317A (en) 2013-09-10

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