CN102595550A - Self-adaptive wireless sensor network routing method based on cross-layer optimization - Google Patents

Self-adaptive wireless sensor network routing method based on cross-layer optimization Download PDF

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CN102595550A
CN102595550A CN2012100349795A CN201210034979A CN102595550A CN 102595550 A CN102595550 A CN 102595550A CN 2012100349795 A CN2012100349795 A CN 2012100349795A CN 201210034979 A CN201210034979 A CN 201210034979A CN 102595550 A CN102595550 A CN 102595550A
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node
layer
wireless sensor
energy
path
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韩光洁
董玉慧
朱川
张娜
郭惠
巢佳
张晨语
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Hohai University Changzhou Campus
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Hohai University Changzhou Campus
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02DCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES [ICT], I.E. INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES AIMING AT THE REDUCTION OF THEIR OWN ENERGY USE
    • Y02D30/00Reducing energy consumption in communication networks
    • Y02D30/70Reducing energy consumption in communication networks in wireless communication networks

Abstract

The invention discloses a self-adaptive wireless sensor network routing method based on cross-layer optimization. In a physical layer, an energy supplement and power control mechanism is adopted to transfer energy information and transmitting power parameters of a wireless sensor node in a wireless sensor network to an MAC (media access control) layer; in the MAC layer, the information transferred by the physical layer is utilized to carry out sleep scheduling to regulate network connectivity and a sleep rate; and a network layer adapts to parameter change of each of above layers and adopts a double-bounce greedy path to carry out routing selection. The method achieves an integrative optimization aim of prolonging the service life of the network and improving data transmission reliability and timeliness by utilizing the interaction of the parameter information of each layer of a network; and on the basis of comprehensively considering the energy supplement and power control technology of the physical layer, the sleep scheduling of the MAC layer and the routing of the network layer in a network system structure, the cross-layer design structure applicable to the wireless sensor network is provided, so as to better describe the interaction among all the layers. The overall performance of the wireless sensor network is effectively improved finally.

Description

Adaptive wireless sensor network routing method based on cross-layer optimizing
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of wireless sensor network routing method, particularly relate to a kind of adaptive wireless sensor network routing method, belong to the wireless sensor network technology field based on cross-layer optimizing.
Background technology
Along with micro-electromechanical technology, sensor technology, the communication technology, embedded computing technique, distributed information processing and development of internet technology; Be prone to wireless sensor network (the Wireless Sensor Networks of distribution, low-power consumption; WSNs) research worldwide more and more comes into one's own, and at numerous areas such as Industry Control, environment measuring, medical monitoring, communications and transportation, rescue and relief works wide application prospect is arranged.Wirelessly form by the node that has information gathering, data processing and forwarding routing function in a large number usually from organizing sensor network; Form through the wireless multi-hop communication mode wireless from organizing sensing network system, but its have easy deployment, self-organizing, advantages such as monitoring accuracy is high, fault-tolerance is high, the big remote monitoring in overlay area.Shortcoming is, energy constraint, resource-constrained, change in topology is frequent etc., wireless sensor network is faced with the unique technique challenge.Traditional method for routing can not adapt to WSNs; Routing Protocol like traditional shortest path criterion design wireless multi-hop network is not considered the factors such as influence of the variation of its lower floor's physical channel characteristics to MAC layer access performance; Cause selected path can't adapt to the bottom changes of properties; Be that performances such as transmission delay, throughput and reliability can't reach desirable index, therefore, must corresponding with it simple, the effective method for routing of design.Promptly when the method for routing of design optimization; Not only to consider the relevant parameter of network layer; And should consider the relevant parameter of other layer; Can be like network layer the basis for estimation of the parameters such as energy information of physical layer as Route Selection, thus make each layer of network share the information relevant with other layer, wireless network is carried out OVERALL OPTIMIZA-TION DESIGN FOR.
Because the dynamic change of wireless sensor network internal and external environment, like factors such as topologies change, dump energy changes, the method for routing of wireless sensor network is necessary can the adaptive network environment.Because topological control, energy management, low power dissipation design etc. all embody in each layer design to some extent, but to make whole network data transmission, life-span reach optimum, also need design the cross-layer optimizing method for routing that can adapt to each layer parameter dynamic change.
Summary of the invention
Main purpose of the present invention is; Overcome the defective of the method for routing existence of existing wireless sensor network, and a kind of novel adaptive wireless sensor network routing method based on cross-layer optimizing is provided, technical problem to be solved is to make it adapt to each layer parameter dynamic change; More optimize the design of wireless sensor network and the transmission of data; Make whole network data transmission, life-span reach optimum, thereby be suitable for practicality more, and have the value on the industry.
The technical scheme that the present invention addresses the above problem is: topological controlling mechanism, sleep scheduling mechanism are combined with the network layer data transmission; Propose a kind of cross-layer optimizing method for routing TPGFPlus that combines physical layer, MAC layer and network layer, solved energy constraint and reliability of data transmission in the wireless sensor network, real-time problem.In wireless sensor network, at first parameter informations such as the transmitting power of physical layer, energy state are delivered to the MAC layer, the MAC layer utilizes these information to carry out sleep scheduling, thus regulated and control network connective with the sleep rate.Then, the parameter of each layer changed and carries out Route Selection more than network layer adapted to.Said wireless sensor network comprises base station and a plurality of wireless senser ordinary node; All nodes all are random distribution and actionless; All ordinary node energy are all limited except that the base station has sufficient energy, and it is controlled in order to replenish self-energy and its radio transmitted power that said ordinary node all has energy collecting device.
Cross-layer optimizing method for routing practical implementation process comprises following steps:
(1) physical layer employing energy supplement and power control mechanism pass to the MAC layer with the energy information and the transmit power parameter of the wireless sensor node in the wireless sensor network; Energy supplement and power control mechanism are: wireless sensor node is self charging through the energy collecting device of the makeup energy that has, and according to its transmitting power of self-energy situation adjustment;
(2) the MAC layer utilizes the information of physical layer transmission to carry out sleep scheduling, the connective and sleep rate of regulated and control network, and the sleep scheduling method is: sensor node is worked in coordination with according to the self-energy situation and is carried out periodically enlivening and the state switching of sleeping;
(3) parameter of each layer changed the greedy road of employing double bounce and carries out Route Selection more than network layer adapted to.
Said energy collecting device adopts solar energy power taking, temperature difference power taking or relies on mechanical movement initiation energy conversion technique generation electric energy is said wireless senser makeup energy.Each node all has a unique network address, and each node can obtain that jump base station and own, the positional information of two-hop neighbor node, and the energy information of a jumping, two-hop neighbor node.When if the current energy level of certain node is higher than a certain set point ; Can increase self transmitting power; The regulating networks topological structure, and then influence network sleep rate and Route Selection.
According to energy information, node duty ratio mechanism is periodically regulated self state of living in, adjustment network connectivty and sleep rate.Each node periodically wakes up earlier, gets into active state and neighbor node and communicates the judgement of sleeping then, if when current energy level is lower than set point, the present node state is made as sleep, otherwise be made as active, up to the beginning of following one-period.Low-yield node can carry out energy supplement for time enough is provided self through getting into the sleep state of low-power consumption, has also avoided the network hole that totally causes because of the part of nodes energy consumption simultaneously, guarantees the reliability transmission of data.Under active state, node possibly keep monitoring, and also possibly send data.
On the basis of above each layer parameter dynamic change, network layer adopts the greedy method for routing of the double bounce of different forwarding standards to carry out the tolerance and the selection of transfer of data route, and the forwarding forwarding of data standard that it adopts is one of following three standards:
Standard 1: the nearest node of chosen distance destination node is transmitted;
Standard 2: the node of selecting to arrive the destination node beeline is transmitted;
Standard 3:, select to make the node of transmitting best results to transmit according to the weighted calculation of factors such as internodal distance, node energy.
The concrete routing procedure of the greedy route of described network layer double bounce comprises route discovery and two stages of routing optimality, and said route discovery phase lookup is by the path of source node to the base station, and its step comprises:
Whether step a. inspection present node exists a hop neighbor node that is in active state: if do not exist, then send non-acknowledgement frame by present node, and be labeled as breakpoint to present node, return back to a last hop node place of present node then, repeating step 1; If exist, judge that the base station whether in present node one jumping scope, as if in a jumping scope, then directly sets up the path, otherwise change step 2 over to;
Step b. judges the base station whether in the double bounce scope of present node, if in the double bounce scope, then present node from one of which hop neighbor node according to said forwarding Standard Selection next-hop node as middle forward node; If not in the double bounce scope of present node, then change step 3 over to;
Step c is judged whether present node exists and is in that one of active state is jumped, two-hop neighbor node: if exist, then from one of which jump, two-hop neighbor node chosen distance base station is nearest one jump or two-hop neighbor node as forward node; If the forward node of selecting is a hop node, directly transmit; If the forward node of selecting is two hop nodes, then need from one of which hop neighbor node forward node according to said forwarding Standard Selection next-hop node; With the forward node is present node repeating step 1.
Preferably, behind the path of base station, the said routing optimality stage is optimized this path said route discovery phase lookup by source node, and its step comprises:
Steps d. distribute a tag number that successively decreases successively to each node in this path;
Step e. does not optimize the path by the base station through this and oppositely sends acknowledgement frame to source node, carries out the route optimization process based on label in this process; Arbitrary node can only be transmitted to acknowledgement frame and self have same paths number and the node with maximum tag number in the path; Eliminate route loop and form by source node to the shortest path of base station, and remove tag number and the path sequence number on the unchecked node as optimized path.
Preferably, said double bounce multi-path routing method also comprises duplication stages, and said duplication stages repeats said route discovery stage and routing optimality stage, searches other on the node by the path of source node to the base station thereby never choose.Through repeating above route discovery stage and routing optimality stage, can find many disjoint optimization paths.Packet is optimized the path transmission along this.
The beneficial effect that the present invention reached is: the traditional hierarchical design of wireless sensor network has certain limitation, and the optimal design of each layer can not guarantee that whole Network Design is optimum.Drawback for fear of traditional layered protocol stack; The present invention is from whole angle; Simple and effective method for routing based on cross-layer optimizing has been proposed; Take all factors into consideration physical layer energy supplement and the greedy route of power control techniques, MAC layer sleep scheduling and network layer double bounce in the network architecture, solved energy of wireless sensor network management and reliability of data transmission and real-time problem, and on this basis; Proposed to be applicable to layer design architecture of striding of wireless sensor network, so that describe the reciprocation between each layer better.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the designed holder composition of the adaptive wireless sensor network routing method based on cross-layer optimizing of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is the instance graph of the adaptive wireless sensor network routing method based on cross-layer optimizing of the present invention;
Fig. 3 is path optimization's instance graph of the adaptive wireless sensor network routing method based on cross-layer optimizing of the present invention;
Fig. 4 is the forwarding instance figure of the adaptive wireless sensor network routing method based on cross-layer optimizing of the present invention.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing the present invention is further described.Following examples only are used for technical scheme of the present invention more clearly is described, and can not limit protection scope of the present invention with this.
As shown in Figure 1; The design architecture of the adaptive wireless sensor network routing method based on cross-layer optimizing of the present invention; Parameter transmission between each layer has simply been described with mutual; Ground floor is the physical layer 8 in the corresponding traditional batch agreement, the network layer 6 in 7, the three layers of corresponding traditional batch agreement of MAC layer in the corresponding traditional batch agreement of the second layer.Physical layer 8, MAC layer 7, network layer 6 mutual each autoregressive parameter, physical layer 8 passes to MAC layer 7 with parameters such as its energy information and transmitting powers, for MAC sleep scheduling mechanism provides basis for estimation.Simultaneously, MAC layer 7 also will be to changing the energy information of physical layer 8.In addition, the duty ratio sleep mechanism of MAC layer 7 will be adjusted the connectedness of network, for network layer 6 provides selectable forward node information.Simultaneously, also will to react on node energy information be the operation of the MAC layer of decision parameter to the energy consumption that transmission brought of network layer 6 data.Wireless sensor network comprises base station 1; A plurality of wireless senser ordinary nodes 2; Source node 3, high-energy node 4, all nodes all are random distribution and actionless; All ordinary node 2 energy are all limited except that base station 1 has sufficient energy; Ordinary node 2 connects energy collecting device, and energy collecting device is controlled in order to replenish self-energy and its radio transmitted power, and it is said wireless senser makeup energy that energy collecting device adopts solar energy power taking, temperature difference power taking or dependence mechanical movement initiation energy conversion technique to produce electric energy.Each node all has a unique network address, and each node can obtain that jump base station 1 and own, the positional information of two-hop neighbor node, and the energy information of a jumping, two-hop neighbor node.If when the current energy level of certain node is higher than a certain set point, can increase self transmitting power, the regulating networks topological structure, and then influence network sleep rate and Route Selection.According to energy information, node duty ratio mechanism is periodically regulated self state of living in, adjustment network connectivty and sleep rate.Each node periodically wakes up earlier, gets into active state and neighbor node and communicates judgements of sleeping then, if when current energy level is lower than set point, the present node state is made as the node 5 of sleeping, otherwise be made as active, up to the beginning of following one-period.Low-yield node can carry out energy supplement for time enough is provided self through getting into the sleep state of low-power consumption, has also avoided the network hole that totally causes because of the part of nodes energy consumption simultaneously, guarantees the reliability transmission of data.Under active state, node possibly keep monitoring, and also possibly send data.
As shown in Figure 2, the process of setting up of route of the present invention is described with the instance graph of the adaptive wireless sensor network routing method based on cross-layer optimizing of the present invention.Will send to base station BS when node a has packet, and node a is outside the double bounce scope of base station BS.At first collector node a energy information supposes that its transmitting power scope is the scope shown in the radius TR1, and with the state of the whole network node of duty ratio mechanism adjustment, the node that energy is low excessively will get into sleep, like the node entering sleep of solid black circle mark among the figure; Otherwise, keep active state, like the node of other open circles marks among the figure; If find that the part of nodes energy level is higher,, can enlarge its transmitting power extremely with the scope shown in the radius TR2 like node g.Afterwards; Node a carries out the greedy route of double bounce; Node a is through relatively it is in all jumpings (like node b, c, d, e, f) and the distance of two-hop neighbor node (like node g) apart from base station BS of active state; Then need select a hop neighbor node b as middle forward node if selected as its next jumping according to one of said forwarding standard apart from the nearest two hop node g of base station BS.
Like Fig. 3, shown in Figure 4, be path optimization's instance graph of the adaptive wireless sensor network routing method based on cross-layer optimizing of the present invention, that gives route discovery phase lookup among Fig. 3 distributes a tag number that successively decreases successively by source node each node in the path of base station;-1;-2 ... ,-12; Do not optimize the path by base station BS 1 through this and oppositely send acknowledgement frame to source node a1; Arbitrary node can only be transmitted to the node with maximum tag number with acknowledgement frame in the path; Eliminate route loop, as shown in Figure 4, make source node a1 the shortest through this route optimization process to the path of base station BS 1.
As shown in Figure 5, be the forwarding instance figure of the adaptive wireless sensor network routing method based on cross-layer optimizing of the present invention.Node a can jump from one of which and enliven the middle forward node of selecting to arrive its two hop node g neighbor node b, c, the d.Wherein, distance is the shortest between making from a to g via node c; Node d is nearest apart from g; Node b can satisfy the Weighted optimal of distance and factors such as energy.According to concrete applied environment demand, node a selects different data forwarding standards.
The above only is preferred embodiment of the present invention, is not the present invention is done any pro forma restriction; Though the present invention discloses as above with preferred embodiment; Yet be not in order to limiting the present invention, anyly be familiar with the professional and technical personnel, in not breaking away from technical scheme scope of the present invention; When the technology contents of above-mentioned announcement capable of using is made a little change or is modified to the equivalent embodiment of equivalent variations; In every case be the content that does not break away from technical scheme of the present invention, to any simple modification, equivalent variations and modification that above embodiment did, all still belong in the scope of technical scheme of the present invention according to technical spirit of the present invention.

Claims (8)

1. the adaptive wireless sensor network routing method based on cross-layer optimizing is characterized in that,
Comprise following steps:
(1) physical layer employing energy supplement and power control mechanism pass to the MAC layer with the energy information and the transmit power parameter of the wireless sensor node in the wireless sensor network; Energy supplement and power control mechanism are: wireless sensor node is self charging through the energy collecting device of the makeup energy that has, and according to its transmitting power of self-energy situation adjustment;
(2) the MAC layer utilizes the information of physical layer transmission to carry out sleep scheduling, the connective and sleep rate of regulated and control network, and the sleep scheduling method is: sensor node is worked in coordination with according to the self-energy situation and is carried out periodically enlivening and the state switching of sleeping;
(3) parameter of each layer changed the greedy road of employing double bounce and carries out Route Selection more than network layer adapted to.
2. the adaptive wireless sensor network routing method based on cross-layer optimizing according to claim 1; It is characterized in that said energy collecting device adopts solar energy power taking, temperature difference power taking or relies on mechanical movement generation electric energy is said wireless sensor node makeup energy.
3. the adaptive wireless sensor network routing method based on cross-layer optimizing according to claim 1; It is characterized in that: the greedy route of described network layer double bounce comprises route discovery and two stages of routing optimality; Route discovery is searched by the path of source node to the base station; Routing optimality then is optimized the path that is found, and cancellation loop makes the gained path reach the shortest.
4. the adaptive wireless sensor network routing method based on cross-layer optimizing according to claim 1; It is characterized in that: said wireless sensor node has a plurality of different transmission power ranks; Each node periodically obtains himself energy state; When if the current energy level of certain node is higher than set point, then increase self transmitting power, and regulating networks topological structure.
5. the adaptive wireless sensor network routing method based on cross-layer optimizing according to claim 1; It is characterized in that: described MAC layer sleep scheduling process does; According to present node and one of which jump, dump energy, collection of energy speed and the rate of energy dissipation of double bounce neighbors calculate current energy level; When if current energy level is lower than set point, then this node gets into sleep state, otherwise keeps active state.
6. according to claim 1 or 3 described adaptive wireless sensor network routing methods based on cross-layer optimizing; It is characterized in that: network layer adopts the greedy route of the double bounce of different forwarding standards to carry out the tolerance and the selection of transfer of data route, the forwarding forwarding of data standard that it adopts be below arbitrary standard:
Standard 1: the nearest node of chosen distance destination node is transmitted;
Standard 2: the node of selecting to arrive the destination node beeline is transmitted;
Standard 3:, select the node of the feasible forwarding best results of calculating to transmit according to the weighted calculation of internodal distance, node energy factor.
7. the adaptive wireless sensor network routing method based on cross-layer optimizing according to claim 3 is characterized in that: said route discovery phase lookup is by the path of source node to the base station, and its step comprises:
Whether step a. inspection present node exists a hop neighbor node that is in active state: if do not exist, then send non-acknowledgement frame by present node, and be labeled as breakpoint to present node, return back to a last hop node place of present node then, repeating step 1; If exist, judge that the base station whether in present node one jumping scope, as if in a jumping scope, then directly sets up the path, otherwise change step 2 over to;
Step b. judges the base station whether in the double bounce scope of present node, if in the double bounce scope, then present node from one of which hop neighbor node according to said forwarding Standard Selection next-hop node as middle forward node; If not in the double bounce scope of present node, then change step 3 over to;
Step c is judged whether present node exists and is in that one of active state is jumped, two-hop neighbor node: if exist, then from one of which jump, two-hop neighbor node chosen distance base station is nearest one jump or two-hop neighbor node as forward node; If the forward node of selecting is a hop node, directly transmit; If the forward node of selecting is two hop nodes, need be present node repeating step 1 with this forward node then according to the forward node of said forwarding Standard Selection next-hop node from one of which hop neighbor node.
8. the adaptive wireless sensor network routing method based on cross-layer optimizing according to claim 7; It is characterized in that: said route discovery phase lookup by source node behind the path of base station; This path is optimized by the said routing optimality stage, its step comprises:
Steps d. distribute a tag number that successively decreases successively to each node in the path of route discovery phase lookup;
Step e. oppositely sends acknowledgement frame to source node by the base station through this path of not optimizing; Carry out the route optimization process based on label in this process: arbitrary node can only be transmitted to acknowledgement frame and self have same paths number and the node with maximum tag number in the path; Eliminate route loop; Composition by source node to the shortest path of base station as optimized path, and remove tag number and the path sequence number on the unchecked node.
CN2012100349795A 2012-02-16 2012-02-16 Self-adaptive wireless sensor network routing method based on cross-layer optimization Pending CN102595550A (en)

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CN102929205A (en) * 2012-11-14 2013-02-13 天津市翔晟远电力设备实业有限公司 Intelligent energy management and application system under poor energy
CN102938892A (en) * 2012-10-12 2013-02-20 浪潮电子信息产业股份有限公司 Method for designing cross-layer protocol for cognitive wireless sensor network
CN103781144A (en) * 2014-02-28 2014-05-07 东南大学 Zigbee network tree-shaped routing method for neighbor table mode interaction
CN104244356A (en) * 2014-09-02 2014-12-24 北京空间飞行器总体设计部 Orientation ant colony route optimization method based on evolution graph full route forecasting
CN105451292A (en) * 2015-11-09 2016-03-30 常州英集动力科技有限公司 Grid structure-based hierarchical network charging method and system in WRSNs
CN106332213A (en) * 2016-08-24 2017-01-11 河海大学 Method for reducing routing hops of ZigBee wireless transmission network
CN109618358A (en) * 2019-01-29 2019-04-12 上海电力学院 A kind of wireless sensor network node energy optimizing method based on self adaptive control

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CN102271377A (en) * 2011-09-13 2011-12-07 河海大学常州校区 Double-bounce multi-path route method of wireless sensor network based on energy collection technology

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102938892A (en) * 2012-10-12 2013-02-20 浪潮电子信息产业股份有限公司 Method for designing cross-layer protocol for cognitive wireless sensor network
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CN103781144A (en) * 2014-02-28 2014-05-07 东南大学 Zigbee network tree-shaped routing method for neighbor table mode interaction
CN104244356A (en) * 2014-09-02 2014-12-24 北京空间飞行器总体设计部 Orientation ant colony route optimization method based on evolution graph full route forecasting
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CN106332213A (en) * 2016-08-24 2017-01-11 河海大学 Method for reducing routing hops of ZigBee wireless transmission network
CN106332213B (en) * 2016-08-24 2019-07-12 河海大学 A method of reducing ZigBee wireless-transmission network hop count
CN109618358A (en) * 2019-01-29 2019-04-12 上海电力学院 A kind of wireless sensor network node energy optimizing method based on self adaptive control

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Application publication date: 20120718