CN102589430A  Calibrating method for multiinstrument coordinate unification device  Google Patents
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 CN102589430A CN102589430A CN2012100225241A CN201210022524A CN102589430A CN 102589430 A CN102589430 A CN 102589430A CN 2012100225241 A CN2012100225241 A CN 2012100225241A CN 201210022524 A CN201210022524 A CN 201210022524A CN 102589430 A CN102589430 A CN 102589430A
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Abstract
The invention relates to a calibrating method for a multiinstrument coordinate unification device, which is used for solving the problem that the coordinate unification accuracy is low since a measuring errors are unknown in each coordinate transformation process. The calibrating method is implemented on the basis of the multiinstrument coordinate unification device. The multiinstrument coordinate unification device comprises a datum transformation standard, wherein the datum transformation standard comprises a carbon fiber substrate, a lining and a target ball seat. The calibrating method for multiinstrument coordinate unification comprises the following steps of: measuring the coordinate value of the ball center of the target ball seat on the same datum transformation standard by using an electronic theodolite, a laser tracker and a laser radar; evaluating the gravity center or center of an Nsided structure under the coordinate systems of three instruments respectively according to obtained coordinates of the electronic theodolite, the laser tracker and the laser radar; and translating and rotating the coordinates according to the coordinate value of the evaluated gravity center or center for realizing coordinate transformation to realize coordinate unification. The method is suitable for precision assembly such as aviation, ships, automobiles and the like as well as precision processing industries such as machine tools and the like.
Description
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of coordinate measuring method, be specifically related to the calibration steps of the unitized device of multiple instruments coordinate.
Background technology
The multiple instruments coordinate unified approach of using at present is: on public viewing position, 3 single target ball seats are set, respectively the identical hemisphere target of diameter, prism of corner cube target and instrument ball target; Be placed on successively on the target ball seat, use the sphere centre coordinate of corresponding apparatus measures target simultaneously, through corresponding mathematical computations; And can set up the mutual relationship of each instrument coordinates system, promptly coordinate is unitized, wherein; The hemisphere target is that transit is used; The prism of corner cube target is a laser tracker usefulness, and instrument ball target is laser radar usefulness, and is as shown in Figure 1.Under the art methods, to be example apart from electronic theodolite and laser tracker and the unification of laser radar coordinate under the 5 meters states in measured point, the measurement standard difference is about 0.090mm, and when laser tracker and laser radar coordinate were unified, the measurement standard difference was about 0.061mm.The shortcoming of this method is, each measuring error is unknown, and the unitized precision of coordinate is low.
Summary of the invention
The present invention is unknown in order to solve each measuring error, the coordinate low problem of precision that unitizes.Thereby the calibration steps of the unitized device of multiple instruments coordinate is provided.
The calibration steps of the unitized device of multiple instruments coordinate; This method is based on multiple instruments coordinate unitized device and realizes, said device comprises electronic theodolite, laser tracker and laser radar, and said device also comprises M benchmark transfer standard device (M >=3); Described M benchmark transfer standard device is all in the public visual position of electronic theodolite, laser tracker and laser radar; Each benchmark transfer standard device comprises 1 carbon fiber reinforced substrate, a N lining and N target ball seat (N >=3), and N target ball seat formed a N limit shape, and N the equal interference of lining is assemblied on the bush hole of carbon fiber reinforced substrate; N target ball seat is individually fixed on N the lining
This method comprises the steps:
One, surveys the coordinate figure of N the target ball seat centre of sphere on the same benchmark transfer standard device with electronic theodolite, laser tracker and laser radar;
The coordinate of the electronic theodolite that two, obtains, laser tracker and laser radar according to step 1, the center of gravity or the center of under the coordinate system of electronic theodolite, laser tracker and laser radar, asking for N limit shape respectively;
In like manner, ask for the center of gravity or the center of N limit shape under other the coordinate system of electronic theodolite, laser tracker and laser radar of M1 benchmark transfer standard device;
The center of gravity of three, trying to achieve according to step 2 or the coordinate figure at center, translation, rotation through coordinate realize that coordinate conversion realizes the unification of coordinate.
The advantage of this programme of the present invention is: 1, " repeatability of " center " is higher than the repeatability at single target center; 2, error can be controlled in certain scope: triangle that measures or quadrilateral can with comparing of having demarcated, when finding that error is excessive, can remeasure, up to obtaining satisfied result.That is to say, carry out coordinate when unitized, have at least 3 standards to be positioned at public visual position; Each instrument is measured the target of oneself respectively, and electronic theodolite supplies laser radar tool using ball target with hemisphere target and laser tracker with the prism of corner cube target, promptly uses by " error controllable type benchmark transfer standard device "; When transit and tracker and laser radar coordinate are unified; Standard deviation is for being not more than 0.060mm, and when tracker and laser radar coordinate were unified, standard deviation was for being not more than 0.041mm.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is traditional unitized structural drawing of coordinate, and Fig. 2 is an error controllable type benchmark transfer standard device, and Fig. 3 is the structural drawing of the unitized device of multiple instruments coordinate.
Embodiment
The calibration steps of embodiment one, the unitized device of multiple instruments coordinate; This method is based on and realizes with the unitized device of multiple instruments coordinate; Said device comprises electronic theodolite 2, laser tracker 3 and laser radar 4; Said device also comprises M benchmark transfer standard device 1 (M >=3), and described M benchmark transfer standard device 1 is all in electronic theodolite 2, laser tracker 3 and laser radar 4 public visual positions, and each benchmark transfer standard device 1 comprises 1 carbon fiber reinforced substrate 11, a N lining 12 and N target ball seat 13 (N >=3); N target ball seat 13 forms a N limit shape; N the equal interference of lining 12 is assemblied on the bush hole of carbon fiber reinforced substrate 11, and N target ball seat 13 is individually fixed on N the lining 12
This method comprises the steps:
One, surveys the coordinate figure of N the target ball seat 13 centre of sphere on the same benchmark transfer standard device 1 with electronic theodolite 2, laser tracker 3 and laser radar 4;
The coordinate of the electronic theodolite 2 that two, obtains, laser tracker 3 and laser radar 4 according to step 1, the center of gravity or the center of under the coordinate system of electronic theodolite 2, laser tracker 3 and laser radar 4, asking for N limit shape respectively;
In like manner, ask for the center of gravity or the center of N limit shape under other the coordinate system of electronic theodolite 2, laser tracker 3 and laser radar 4 of M1 benchmark transfer standard device 1;
The center of gravity of three, trying to achieve according to step 2 or the coordinate figure at center, translation, rotation through coordinate realize that coordinate conversion realizes the unification of coordinate.
The difference of embodiment two, this embodiment and embodiment one is: it also comprises the precision after step 4, the checking coordinate conversion; Station meter with a known length; Measure its two ends coordinate figure with three kinds of instruments after the unified coordinate system respectively; According to the consistent degree that obtains data, or obtain its length, compare with known length and obtain error according to space distance between two points formula.
The difference of embodiment three, this embodiment and embodiment two is: step 4, can also appoint and get a kind of instrument mark object staff one and sit up straight scale value; Another kind of instrument mark object staff other end coordinate figure; According to space distance between two points formula; Ask this gauge length, but its error of coordinate of inverse.
The difference of embodiment four, this embodiment and embodiment two is: work as M=3; During N=4; 1,3 carbon fiber reinforced substrate 11 of 3 benchmark transfer standard devices, 4 lining 12 and 4 target ball seat 13 (N >=3) are then arranged; 4 target ball seat 13 form one 4 limit shape, and the Calibration Method of the unitized device of its multiple instruments coordinate is:
A, survey the coordinate figure of 4 target ball seat 13 on the same benchmark transfer standard device 1 with electronic theodolite 2, laser tracker 3 and laser radar 4, it is following to obtain three coordinate figures:
Coordinate under electronic theodolite 2 coordinate systems:
$\left\{\begin{array}{c}({{x}^{\′}}_{1},{{y}^{\′}}_{1},{{z}^{\′}}_{1})\\ ({{x}^{\′}}_{2},{{y}^{\′}}_{2},{{z}^{\′}}_{2})\\ ({{x}^{\′}}_{3},{{y}^{\′}}_{3},{{z}^{\′}}_{3})\\ ({{x}^{\′}}_{4},{{y}^{\′}}_{4},{{z}^{\′}}_{4})\end{array}\right\},$ Coordinate under laser tracker 3 coordinate systems
$\left\{\begin{array}{c}({{x}^{\′\′}}_{1},{{y}^{\′\′}}_{1},{{z}^{\′\′}}_{1})\\ ({{x}^{\′\′}}_{2},{{y}^{\′\′}}_{2},{{z}^{\′\′}}_{2})\\ ({{x}^{\′\′}}_{3},{{y}^{\′\′}}_{3},{{z}^{\′\′}}_{3})\\ ({{x}^{\′\′}}_{4},{{y}^{\′\′}}_{4},{{z}^{\′\′}}_{4})\end{array}\right\},$ Coordinate under laser radar 4 coordinate systems:
$\left\{\begin{array}{c}({{x}^{\′\′\′}}_{1},{{y}^{\′\′\′}}_{1},{{z}^{\′\′\′}}_{1})\\ ({{x}^{\′\′\′}}_{2},{{y}^{\′\′\′}}_{2},{{z}^{\′\′\′}}_{2})\\ ({{x}^{\′\′\′}}_{3},{{y}^{\′\′\′}}_{3},{{z}^{\′\′\′}}_{3})\\ ({{x}^{\′\′\′}}_{4},{{y}^{\′\′\′}}_{4},{{z}^{\′\′\′}}_{4})\end{array}\right\};$
What x, y, z represented is 4 coordinate figures that point records under different instruments on the benchmark transfer standard device 1, first point of benchmark transfer standard device 1, it at the measured coordinate of the coordinate system of electronic theodolite 2 be (x '
_{1}, y '
_{1}, z '
_{1}), the coordinate measured in the coordinate system of laser tracker 3 be (x "
_{1}, y "
_{1}, z "
_{1}), the coordinate measured in the coordinate system of laser radar 4 be (x " '
_{1}, y " '
_{1}, z " '
_{1}); The same meaning of other 3 points in like manner;
The coordinate of b, the electronic theodolite 2 that obtains according to step a is asked for two cornerwise straightline equation l ' respectively under the coordinate system of electronic theodolite 2
_{1}, l '
_{2}, ask two straight line common vertical line section mid point D '
_{1}
The coordinate of the laser tracker 3 that obtains according to step a, at laser tracker 3 is to ask for two cornerwise straightline equation l under the coordinate respectively "
_{1}, l "
_{2}, ask two straight line common vertical line section mid point D "
_{1}
The coordinate of the laser radar 4 that obtains according to step a is asked for two cornerwise straightline equation l respectively under the coordinate system of laser radar 4 " '
_{1}, l " '
_{2}, ask two straight line common vertical line section mid point D " '
_{1}
In like manner, measure the common vertical line section mid point D ' of second ongauge plate, two straight lines under the coordinate system of electronic theodolite 2
_{2}, be the common vertical line section mid point D of two straight lines under the coordinate at laser tracker 3 "
_{2}Common vertical line section mid point D with two straight lines under the coordinate system of laser radar 4 " '
_{2}The common vertical line section mid point D ' of the 3rd ongauge plate two straight lines under the coordinate system of electronic theodolite 2
_{3}, be the common vertical line section mid point D of two straight lines under the coordinate at laser tracker 3 "
_{3}Common vertical line section mid point D with two straight lines under the coordinate system of laser radar 4 " '
_{3}
Three, can know D ' according to step b
_{i}, D "
_{i}, D " '
_{i}(i=1; 2,3) being same coordinate under different coordinates, is the work true origin with the true origin of electronic theodolite 2; With the coordinate under the coordinate system of transit is the work coordinate; So just can realize the coordinate conversion under other two kinds of instruments being under the transit coordinate system through translation, the rotation of coordinate, realize the unification of coordinate, its coordinate conversion fundamental formular is:
In the formula,
$\left[\begin{array}{c}{X}_{B}\\ {Y}_{B}\\ {Z}_{B}\end{array}\right]$ By being asked instrument B instrument coordinates system threedimensional coordinate down;
$\left[\begin{array}{c}{X}_{A}\\ {Y}_{A}\\ {Z}_{A}\end{array}\right]$ Be threedimensional coordinate under the common point A instrument coordinates; M is the dimension scale factor; ω
_{x}, ω
_{y}, ω
_{z}The rotation angle that is three coordinate axis is called Eulerian angle again; What X, Y, Z explained is to change between the coordinate, and the coordinate figure that more promptly under A instrument coordinates system, records does
$\left[\begin{array}{c}{X}_{A}\\ {Y}_{A}\\ {Z}_{A}\end{array}\right],$ Convert it into coordinate under the B coordinate system, then application of formula
$\left[\begin{array}{c}{X}_{B}\\ {Y}_{B}\\ {Z}_{B}\end{array}\right]=\left[\begin{array}{c}{X}_{A}\\ {Y}_{A}\\ {Z}_{A}\end{array}\right]+\left[\begin{array}{ccccccc}1& 0& 0& 0& {Z}_{A}& {Y}_{A}& {X}_{A}\\ 0& 1& 0& {Z}_{A}& 0& {X}_{A}& {Y}_{A}\\ 0& 0& 1& {Y}_{A}& {X}_{A}& 0& {Z}_{A}\end{array}\right]\left[\begin{array}{c}{T}_{X}\\ {T}_{Y}\\ {T}_{Z}\\ {\mathrm{\ω}}_{x}\\ {\mathrm{\ω}}_{y}\\ {\mathrm{\ω}}_{z}\\ m\end{array}\right],$ Wherein,
$\left[\begin{array}{c}{T}_{X}\\ {T}_{Y}\\ {T}_{Z}\end{array}\right]$ Be to the translational movement of B coordinate by the A coordinate at X, Y, Z axle.
The difference of embodiment five, this embodiment and embodiment four is: 2 electronic theodolites 2 are arranged, and its Calibration Method is identical with embodiment four.
Claims (4)
1. the calibration steps of the unitized device of multiple instruments coordinate; This method is based on and realizes with the unitized device of multiple instruments coordinate; Said device comprises electronic theodolite (2), laser tracker (3) and laser radar (4); It is characterized in that: said device also comprises M benchmark transfer standard device (1) (M >=3), and described M benchmark transfer standard device (1) is all in electronic theodolite (2), laser tracker (3) and the public visual position of laser radar (4), and each benchmark transfer standard device (1) comprises 1 carbon fiber reinforced substrate (11), a N lining (12) and N target ball seat (13) (N >=3); N target ball seat (13) formed a N limit shape; N lining (12) all interference is assemblied on the bush hole of carbon fiber reinforced substrate (11), and N target ball seat (13) is individually fixed on N the lining (12)
This method comprises the steps:
One, surveys the coordinate figure of N target ball seat (13) centre of sphere on the same benchmark transfer standard device (1) with electronic theodolite (2), laser tracker (3) and laser radar (4);
The coordinate of the electronic theodolite that two, obtains (2), laser tracker (3) and laser radar (4) according to step 1, the center of gravity or the center of under the coordinate system of electronic theodolite (2), laser tracker (3) and laser radar (4), asking for N limit shape respectively;
In like manner, ask for the center of gravity or the center of N limit shape under the coordinate system of electronic theodolite (2), laser tracker (3) and laser radar (4) of other M1 benchmark transfer standard device (1);
The center of gravity of three, trying to achieve according to step 2 or the coordinate figure at center, translation, rotation through coordinate realize that coordinate conversion realizes the unification of coordinate.
2. the calibration steps of the unitized device of multiple instruments coordinate according to claim 1; It is characterized in that: the calibration steps of the unitized device of multiple instruments coordinate also comprises the precision after step 4, the checking coordinate conversion; With the station meter of a known length, measure its two ends coordinate figure with three kinds of instruments after the unified coordinate system respectively, according to the consistent degree that obtains data; Or obtain its length according to space distance between two points formula, compare with known length and obtain error.
3. the calibration steps of the unitized device of multiple instruments coordinate according to claim 1; It is characterized in that: the calibration steps of the unitized device of multiple instruments coordinate also comprises the precision after step 4, the checking coordinate conversion; Appoint and to get a kind of instrument mark object staff one and sit up straight scale value, another kind of instrument mark object staff other end coordinate figure is according to space distance between two points formula; Ask this gauge length, but its error of coordinate of inverse.
4. the calibration steps of the unitized device of multiple instruments coordinate according to claim 1; It is characterized in that: work as M=3; During N=4; 3 benchmark transfer standard devices (1), 3 carbon fiber reinforced substrates (11), 4 linings (12) and 4 target ball seats (13) (N >=3) are then arranged, and 4 target ball seats (13) are formed one 4 limit shape, and the Calibration Method of the unitized device of its multiple instruments coordinate is:
A, survey the coordinate figure of 4 the target ball seats (13) on the same benchmark transfer standard device (1) with electronic theodolite (2), laser tracker (3) and laser radar (4), it is following to obtain three coordinate figures:
Coordinate under electronic theodolite (2) coordinate system:
$\left\{\begin{array}{c}({{x}^{\′}}_{1},{{y}^{\′}}_{1},{{z}^{\′}}_{1})\\ ({{x}^{\′}}_{2},{{y}^{\′}}_{2},{{z}^{\′}}_{2})\\ ({{x}^{\′}}_{3},{{y}^{\′}}_{3},{{z}^{\′}}_{3})\\ ({{x}^{\′}}_{4},{{y}^{\′}}_{4},{{z}^{\′}}_{4})\end{array}\right\},$ Coordinate under laser tracker (3) coordinate system
$\left\{\begin{array}{c}({{x}^{\′\′}}_{1},{{y}^{\′\′}}_{1},{{z}^{\′\′}}_{1})\\ ({{x}^{\′\′}}_{2},{{y}^{\′\′}}_{2},{{z}^{\′\′}}_{2})\\ ({{x}^{\′\′}}_{3},{{y}^{\′\′}}_{3},{{z}^{\′\′}}_{3})\\ ({{x}^{\′\′}}_{4},{{y}^{\′\′}}_{4},{{z}^{\′\′}}_{4})\end{array}\right\},$ Coordinate under laser radar (4) coordinate system:
$\left\{\begin{array}{c}({{x}^{\′\′\′}}_{1},{{y}^{\′\′\′}}_{1},{{z}^{\′\′\′}}_{1})\\ ({{x}^{\′\′\′}}_{2},{{y}^{\′\′\′}}_{2},{{z}^{\′\′\′}}_{2})\\ ({{x}^{\′\′\′}}_{3},{{y}^{\′\′\′}}_{3},{{z}^{\′\′\′}}_{3})\\ ({{x}^{\′\′\′}}_{4},{{y}^{\′\′\′}}_{4},{{z}^{\′\′\′}}_{4})\end{array}\right\};$
What x, y, z represented is 4 coordinate figures that point records under different instruments on the benchmark transfer standard device (1), first point of benchmark transfer standard device (1), it at the measured coordinate of the coordinate system of electronic theodolite (2) be (x '
_{1}, y '
_{1}, z '
_{1}), the coordinate measured in the coordinate system of laser tracker (3) be (x "
_{1}, y "
_{1}, z "
_{1}), the coordinate measured in the coordinate system of laser radar (4) be (x " '
_{1}, y " '
_{1}, z " '
_{1}); The same meaning of other 3 points in like manner;
The coordinate of b, the electronic theodolite (2) that obtains according to step a is asked for two cornerwise straightline equation l ' respectively under the coordinate system of electronic theodolite (2)
_{1}, l '
_{2}, ask two straight line common vertical line section mid point D '
_{1}
The coordinate of the laser tracker (3) that obtains according to step a, at laser tracker (3) is to ask for two cornerwise straightline equation l under the coordinate respectively "
_{1}, l "
_{2}, ask two straight line common vertical line section mid point D "
_{1}
The coordinate of the laser radar (4) that obtains according to step a is asked for two cornerwise straightline equation l respectively under the coordinate system of laser radar (4) " '
_{1}, l " '
_{2}, ask two straight line common vertical line section mid point D " '
_{1}
In like manner, measure the common vertical line section mid point D ' of second ongauge plate, two straight lines under the coordinate system of electronic theodolite (2)
_{2}, be the common vertical line section mid point D of two straight lines under the coordinate at laser tracker (3) "
_{2}Common vertical line section mid point D with two straight lines under the coordinate system of laser radar (4) " '
_{2}The common vertical line section mid point D ' of the 3rd ongauge plate two straight lines under the coordinate system of electronic theodolite (2)
_{3}, be the common vertical line section mid point D of two straight lines under the coordinate at laser tracker (3) "
_{3}Common vertical line section mid point D with two straight lines under the coordinate system of laser radar (4) " '
_{3}
Three, can know D ' according to step b
_{i}, D "
_{i}, D " '
_{i}(i=1; 2,3) being same coordinate under different coordinates, is the work true origin with the true origin of electronic theodolite (2); With the coordinate under the coordinate system of transit is the work coordinate; So just can realize the coordinate conversion under other two kinds of instruments being under the transit coordinate system through translation, the rotation of coordinate, realize the unification of coordinate, its coordinate conversion fundamental formular is:
In the formula,
$\left[\begin{array}{c}{X}_{B}\\ {Y}_{B}\\ {Z}_{B}\end{array}\right]$ By being asked instrument B instrument coordinates system threedimensional coordinate down;
$\left[\begin{array}{c}{X}_{A}\\ {Y}_{A}\\ {Z}_{A}\end{array}\right]$ Be threedimensional coordinate under the common point A instrument coordinates; M is the dimension scale factor; ω
_{x}, ω
_{y}, ω
_{z}The rotation angle that is three coordinate axis is called Eulerian angle again; What X, Y, Z explained is to change between the coordinate, and the coordinate figure that more promptly under A instrument coordinates system, records does
$\left[\begin{array}{c}{X}_{A}\\ {Y}_{A}\\ {Z}_{A}\end{array}\right],$ Convert it into coordinate under the B coordinate system, then application of formula
$\left[\begin{array}{c}{X}_{B}\\ {Y}_{B}\\ {Z}_{B}\end{array}\right]=\left[\begin{array}{c}{X}_{A}\\ {Y}_{A}\\ {Z}_{A}\end{array}\right]+\left[\begin{array}{ccccccc}1& 0& 0& 0& {Z}_{A}& {Y}_{A}& {X}_{A}\\ 0& 1& 0& {Z}_{A}& 0& {X}_{A}& {Y}_{A}\\ 0& 0& 1& {Y}_{A}& {X}_{A}& 0& {Z}_{A}\end{array}\right]\left[\begin{array}{c}{T}_{X}\\ {T}_{Y}\\ {T}_{Z}\\ {\mathrm{\ω}}_{x}\\ {\mathrm{\ω}}_{y}\\ {\mathrm{\ω}}_{z}\\ m\end{array}\right],$ Wherein,
$\left[\begin{array}{c}{T}_{X}\\ {T}_{Y}\\ {T}_{Z}\end{array}\right]$ Be to the translational movement of B coordinate by the A coordinate at X, Y, Z axle.
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CN103076041B (en) *  20121226  20150708  北京空间飞行器总体设计部  Method for determining spacecraft equipment precision 
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CN103389038A (en) *  20130716  20131113  西安交通大学  Targeting multistation measuring method for detecting geometric accuracy of numerical control machine tool through laser tracker 
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CN104567681A (en) *  20150108  20150429  航天东方红卫星有限公司  Precise measurement method for satellite precise benchmark truss structure device 
CN107543494A (en) *  20170216  20180105  北京卫星环境工程研究所  Tridimensional calibration device and the method changed using its measuring coordinate system 
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