CN102581186B - Method for controlling internal defect of large forging - Google Patents

Method for controlling internal defect of large forging Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102581186B
CN102581186B CN201210034039.6A CN201210034039A CN102581186B CN 102581186 B CN102581186 B CN 102581186B CN 201210034039 A CN201210034039 A CN 201210034039A CN 102581186 B CN102581186 B CN 102581186B
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forging
blank
fire
drafts
work
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CN201210034039.6A
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CN102581186A (en
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叶君芳
许寅生
徐永华
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德谦杭重锻造有限公司
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Abstract

The invention relates to a quality control method of a large forging. The aim is to provide a method with good defect controlling effect and stable forging quality. A method for controlling internal defects of the large forging comprises the steps of firstly heating blank material to 1275-1285 DEG C, keeping for 10-17h, discharging, firstly forging, pressing a clamp handle on the blank material, and removing the bottom; secondly heating the blank material to 1295-1320 DEG C for high-temperature diffusion treatment, keeping for 25-31h, discharging, and secondly forging the blank material according to specified reduction amount, feed value and turning mode; and forging the blank material into forging products according to technological requirements, or thirdly heating the blank material to 1275-1285 DEG C, keeping for 5-7h, discharging, thirdly forging the blank material according to specified reduction amount, feed value and turning mode, and forging the blank material into forging products.

Description

The control method of inside Heavy Forgings defect

Technical field

The present invention relates to hot-working industry, specifically about a kind of method of quality control of large forgings.

Background technology

The origin cause of formation of inside Heavy Forgings defect: the one, itself brings steel ingot; The techniques such as the production process of large forgings comprises smelting, note ingot, solidifies, forging and heat treatment.Due to defects such as metallurgical and coagulating property have determined inevitably to exist in steel ingot hole, are mingled with, segregation tissues, and the larger defect of steel ingot is more serious.The 2nd, while forging, forge the excessive tension of the improper initiation of parameter control and impel the original defect of steel ingot to expand, or cause new crackle defect in the combination of steel ingot matrix compared with weakness.

The essence of inside Heavy Forgings defect is macroscopical heterogeneity performance of material composition and structure.The document of relevant this respect research is many, is mostly to adopt physics to simulate the method for (manufacture of intraocular defect) from thermodynamics viewpoint, explains theoretically mechanism that crackle (defect) is repaired and prerequisite thermodynamic condition, deformation condition.But all do not provide a universal method with general directive significance, there is not yet the patent report of controlling heavy forging internal flaw yet.

Summary of the invention

The object of the invention is to overcome the deficiency in above-mentioned background technology, a kind of control method of inside Heavy Forgings defect is provided, the method should have the feature that defect is effective, forging quality stable and operation is simple of controlling.

Technical scheme provided by the invention is: the control method of inside Heavy Forgings defect, carry out according to following steps:

1), for the first time blank heating to 1275~1285 DEG C, insulation 10~17h, then comes out of the stove and forges for the first time, compacting pincers handle on blank simultaneously, and remove bottom;

2) for the second time High temperature diffusion processing is carried out in blank heating to 1295~1320 DEG C, after insulation 25~31h, come out of the stove, drafts, feed and upset mode are according to the rules forged for the second time to blank;

3) according to technological requirement, blank forging is become to product forging; Or,

Blank heating to 1275~1285 DEG C, after insulation 5~7h, come out of the stove for the third time, drafts, feed and upset mode are according to the rules forged for the third time to blank, then according to technological requirement, blank forging are become to product forging.

In forging for the second time and forging for the third time, described drafts: two-sided 19~21%; Described feed and upset mode are according to anvil width ratio expect wide ratio control;

Wherein: drafts is blank height decrease and the ratio that is out of shape front height in each forging and stamping process;

W is the width of anvil on hydraulic press; H is the height before blank deformation;

B is the blank width contacting with anvil on hydraulic press; H is the height before blank deformation.

Operation principle of the present invention is: because High temperature diffusion adopts the temperature (1300 DEG C left and right) higher than common thermal diffusion temperature and longer time (former thermal diffusion time is more than one times), create good thermodynamic condition, under extension (concentration gradient) effect, the migration of metallic atom orientation, macroscopic view, impels steel ingot internal flaw to carry out self-regeneration.Consider relatively mercapto pine of ingot structure, corresponding interatomic diffusion length is longer, so High temperature diffusion is to carry out after with suitable forging (for the first time forge) giving steel ingot, to improve the mercapto pine phenomenon of ingot structure, shorten the interatomic distance of ingot structure, make the effect of High temperature diffusion more outstanding.In addition,, owing to having controlled the wide ratio of drafts, anvil width ratio and material in forging process, in deformable body, can not produce tension, and then eliminate the possibility that produces new defect.

The invention has the beneficial effects as follows: the method providing, effectively control the internal flaw (the dense defect of forging inside is controlled at Φ below 1.6) of forging; And control method is simple, be easy to operation design, be applicable to normal operations employee and use.

Brief description of the drawings

Fig. 1 is the forging process schematic diagram of blank between the upper and lower anvil of hydraulic press.

Detailed description of the invention

A thermodynamic (al) general principle is any composition and structure material of inhomogeneous (comprising defect), under certain thermodynamic condition, all will be tending towards homogenising.Its essence is under extension (concentration gradient) effect, the migration of metallic atom orientation, macroscopic view.For the defect of inside Heavy Forgings some levels, it is effective and economical adopting thermal diffusion method to dwindle and even eliminate.

Because heavy forging internal flaw is that steel ingot itself brings and controls improper causing because forging, so whether can just give sufficient thermodynamic condition in the Heating Steel Ingots stage, coordinate again the control of forging process parameter to reach the object of prior control heavy forging internal flaw, instead of remedy again after by the time producing excessive defect.Here it is inventor's thinking.

Referring to Fig. 1: the drafts (two-sided 19~21%) of forging process, refer to that blank 2 height decrease in each forging and stamping process is 19~21% with the ratio of the front height of distortion, each forging and stamping process refers to that blank is through progressively sending to, repeatedly make after forging and stamping positive and negative two sides all through the process that forges and presses (while specifically forging and stamping, first, through progressively sending to, repeatedly making blank positive all through forging and stamping after forging and stamping, then turn over turnback again through progressively sending to, repeatedly making blank reverse side all through forging and stamping after forging and stamping).

Described feed refers to before each forging and stamping, and blank moves horizontally and enters the forward travel distance (blank direction of advance is as shown in arrow S in Fig. 1) between anvil 1 and lower anvil 3 on hydraulic press;

Described upset mode refers to that manipulator catches the pincers handle of blank, makes the angle of blank upset; Be generally 90 degree or 180 degree, determine according to technological requirement.

Feed of the present invention, upset mode are according to anvil width ratio expect wide ratio control.

W is the width of anvil on hydraulic press; H is the height before blank deformation;

B is the blank width contacting with anvil on hydraulic press; H is the height before blank deformation.

Control method provided by the invention, blank need to be through the inferior heating of two or three fire in heating furnace; Specifically carry out according to following steps:

1), for the first time blank heating to 1275~1285 DEG C, insulation 10~17h, then comes out of the stove and forges for the first time; Object is to improve the mercapto pine phenomenon of ingot structure, shortens interatomic distance, for early-stage preparations are carried out in High temperature diffusion processing; Simultaneously on blank compacting pincers (pincers: when blank forging, convenient operation machine is grabbed the end of folder), chamfered edge (each acute angle of forging and stamping blank, makes blank outline trend towards circle), cut bottom (Above The Ingot Bottom contamination precipitation is more, needs excision to abandon)

2) for the second time High temperature diffusion processing is carried out in blank heating to 1295~1320 DEG C, after insulation 25~31h, come out of the stove, then according to the drafts of process stipulation, feed and upset mode, blank is forged to (jumping-up, pulling) again.Like this, utilize High temperature diffusion technology to repair original tissue defects on the one hand, improve on the other hand interior tissue performance and the quality of blank by forging; Control and forge parameter simultaneously, guarantee can not produce new tension, prevention produces new defect;

3) forging less to some sectional dimensions (as embodiment 2), can reach compacting and eliminate the effect of the defect of steel ingot inside through jumping-up once, pulling after High temperature diffusion; Then, direct forging molding just.

For example, and the forging larger to some sectional dimension (as embodiment 1) needs to increase the fire (heating for the third time, even the 4th heating) of high-temperature heating, to guarantee reparation and the elimination of defect of steel ingot inside; That is:

For the third time blank heating to 1275~1285 DEG C, after insulation 5~7h, come out of the stove, drafts, feed and upset mode according to the rules forged (jumping-up, pulling again) for the third time to blank, further to improve interior tissue performance and the quality of blank; Then be product forging according to the shape need forging and molding of product; When forging, all need to control and forge parameter, prevention produces new defect.

Embodiment 1:

High pressure turbine spindle forges

18.145 tons of forge weight, material is 30CrlMolV; Forging this main shaft needs 3 fire, selects the steel ingot blank of 27 tons of weights.

The first fire: blank heating to 1280 DEG C (furnace temperature), the forging of coming out of the stove after insulation 16h; Compacting simultaneously clamps handle, chamfered edge, cuts bottom, approximately removes 1350kg.

The second fire: the forging of coming out of the stove after blank heating to 1300 DEG C (furnace temperature) High temperature diffusion (insulation) 30h:

First operation: jumping-up is to diameter of phi 1800mm;

Second operation work: blank being pulled into 1680mm × 1400mm(sectional dimension) flat side;

Three process: drafts, feed and upset mode are in accordance with regulations forged; Described drafts: two-sided 19~21%; Described feed and upset mode are according to anvil width ratio expect wide ratio 1.18 control (on hydraulic press, the wide 850mm of flat anvil, lower platform size are 2300mm × 2300mm).1680mm × 1400mm blank is pulled out to sectional dimension to be the square billet of 1140mm × 1140mm, to roll the circle material that pulls into Φ 1160mm again.

The 3rd fire: blank heating to 1280 DEG C (furnace temperature), the forging of coming out of the stove after insulation 6h:

First operation: use jumping-up flat board that the circle material jumping-up of Φ 1160mm is arrived to diameter of phi 1800mm;

Second operation work: pull into 1680mm × 1400mm(sectional dimension) flat side;

Three process: drafts, feed and upset mode are in accordance with regulations forged; Described drafts: two-sided 19~21%; Described feed and upset mode are according to anvil width ratio expect wide ratio control (on hydraulic press, the wide 850mm of flat anvil, lower platform size are 2300mm × 2300mm).1680mm × 1400mm blank is pulled out to sectional dimension to be the square billet of 1120mm × 1120mm, to roll the circle material that pulls into Φ 1130mm again;

The 4th procedure: number print, indent, and carry out forging operation and be finally forged into main shaft forging.

(the conventional work step that number seal, indent are forging process; The mark that follow-up work step forms according to number seal, indent, continues blank to forge, and makes its shape, structure meet designing requirement)

Embodiment 2:

High pressure positive blower main shaft

14.41 tons of forge weight, material is 25CrNiMoV; Required steel ingot is 20 tons of anistree ingots.

This main shaft need forge through 2 fire.

The first fire: by 20 tons of steel ingot blank heating to 1280 DEG C (furnace temperature >, the forging of coming out of the stove after insulation 10h; Pressing tongs handle, chamfered edge, cut bottom about 1000kg.

The second fire: blank chamfered edge is become to the blank heating to 1310 DEG C (furnace temperature) of Φ l030mm and keep the 25h(higher 100 DEG C than conventional thermal diffusion temperature) forging of carrying out coming out of the stove after High temperature diffusion;

The first work step: the blank jumping-up of Φ 1030mm is arrived to diameter of phi 1600mm × 980mm;

The second work step: the flat side who the blank of diameter of phi 1600mm × 980mm is pulled into cross section 1250mm × 1500mm;

The 3rd work step: forge (the wide 850mm of flat anvil on hydraulic press, lower platform size is 2300mm × 2300mm) by aforementioned drafts, feed and upset mode 1250mm × 1500mm blank is pulled out to the square billet that sectional dimension is 790mm × 790mm;

The 4th work step: by 790mm × 790mm blank chamfering, then pull out for the anistree of opposite side 800mm and by process distortions process figure number seal, indent;

The 5th work step: the number of pressing prints, the size of indent contrasts forging drawing by final main shaft forging forging and molding.

Claims (2)

1. high pressure turbine spindle forging method, carries out according to following steps:
18.145 tons of forge weight, material is 30CrlMolV; Forging this main shaft needs 3 fire, selects the steel ingot blank of 27 tons of weights;
The first fire: blank heating to 1280 DEG C, the forging of coming out of the stove after insulation 16h; Compacting simultaneously clamps handle, chamfered edge, cuts bottom, removes 1350kg;
The second fire: the forging of coming out of the stove after blank heating to 1300 DEG C High temperature diffusion 30h:
First operation: jumping-up is to diameter of phi 1800mm;
Second operation work: blank is pulled into the flat side that sectional dimension is 1680mm × 1400mm;
Three process: drafts, feed and upset mode are in accordance with regulations forged; Described drafts: two-sided 19~21%; Described feed and upset mode are according to anvil width ratio expect wide ratio control; 1680mm × 1400mm blank is pulled out to sectional dimension to be the square billet of 1140mm × 1140mm, to roll the circle material that pulls into Φ 1160mm again;
The 3rd fire: blank heating to 1280 DEG C, the forging of coming out of the stove after insulation 6h:
First operation: use jumping-up flat board that the circle material jumping-up of Φ 1160mm is arrived to diameter of phi 1800mm;
Second operation work: pulling into sectional dimension is the flat side of 1680mm × 1400mm;
Three process: drafts, feed and upset mode are in accordance with regulations forged; Described drafts: two-sided 19~21%; Described feed and upset mode are according to anvil width ratio expect wide ratio control; 1680mm × 1400mm blank is pulled out to sectional dimension to be the square billet of 1120mm × 1120mm, to roll the circle material that pulls into Φ 1130mm again;
The 4th procedure: number print, indent, and carry out forging operation and be finally forged into main shaft forging.
2. high pressure positive blower main shaft forging method, carries out according to following steps:
14.41 tons of forge weight, material is 25CrNiMoV; Required steel ingot is 20 tons of anistree ingots; Need forge through 2 fire;
The first fire: by 20 tons of steel ingot blank heating to 1280 DEG C, the forging of coming out of the stove after insulation 10h; Pressing tongs handle, chamfered edge, cut bottom 1000kg;
The second fire: blank chamfered edge is become to the blank heating to 1310 DEG C of Φ l030 mm and keep the 25h forging of carrying out coming out of the stove after High temperature diffusion;
The first work step: the blank jumping-up of Φ 1030 mm is arrived to diameter of phi 1600mm × 980 mm;
The second work step: the flat side who the blank of diameter of phi 1600mm × 980mm is pulled into cross section 1250mm × 1500mm;
The 3rd work step: drafts, feed and upset mode are in accordance with regulations forged; Described drafts: two-sided 19~21%; Described feed and upset mode are according to anvil width ratio expect wide ratio control; 1250mm × 1500mm blank is pulled out to the square billet that sectional dimension is 790mm × 790mm;
The 4th work step: by 790mm × 790mm blank chamfering, then pull out for the anistree of opposite side 800mm and by process distortions process figure number seal, indent;
The 5th work step: the number of pressing prints, the size of indent contrasts forging drawing by final main shaft forging forging and molding.
CN201210034039.6A 2012-02-15 2012-02-15 Method for controlling internal defect of large forging CN102581186B (en)

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