CN102564232A - Three-shaft rotary aiming structure - Google Patents

Three-shaft rotary aiming structure Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102564232A
CN102564232A CN2010105844605A CN201010584460A CN102564232A CN 102564232 A CN102564232 A CN 102564232A CN 2010105844605 A CN2010105844605 A CN 2010105844605A CN 201010584460 A CN201010584460 A CN 201010584460A CN 102564232 A CN102564232 A CN 102564232A
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aiming
plane
rotate
shaft
space
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胡风学
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胡风学
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Abstract

The invention relates to an improved weapon aiming rotary structure for traditional measuring instruments and sophisticated military weapons, and discloses a 'three-shaft rotary aiming structure'. Most of traditional measuring instruments and military weapons are single-shaft or double-shaft rotary aiming structures, and the structures only can rotate on horizontal planes or vertical planes but cannot rotate on inclined planes, are inapplicable to setting inclined planes when in engineering measurement, and are inapplicable to laser weapons for tracking linearly moving objects in aiming spaces in the military field. The 'three-shaft rotary aiming structure' (as shown in figures in abstract) is additionally provided with a spatial rotary frame on a transverse shaft of a traditional double-shaft rotary structure, a spatial shaft is placed on the spatial rotary frame, and accordingly a collimation shaft can rotate around a vertical shaft and the transverse shaft, and can also rotate around the spatial shaft. The rotary structure not only can rotate on a horizontal plane and a vertical plane, but also can rotate on an optional spatial inclined plane. An inclined plane setting program for engineering measurement is optimized. The problem that a military aiming weapon, particularly a laser weapon, tracks a linearly moving object in an aiming space difficultly is solved.

Description

Three rotation aiming structures
Affiliated technical field
What the present invention relates to is the improvement to traditional measurement instrument and most advanced and sophisticated military weapon aiming revolute axes configuration.
Background technology
The rotational structure of traditional measurement instrument has only a rotation and diaxon to rotate two types.Most advanced and sophisticated military weapon aiming adopts the diaxon rotational structure more.
The representative measure instrument of a rotational structure has the spirit level (see figure 1), and its rotational structure schematic perspective view is seen Fig. 2.This instrument has only a rotating shaft---vertical pivot VV.When instrument vertical pivot vertical was settled, the collimation axis CC of run-home can only horizontally rotate around vertical pivot VV, back-out be one with instrument with high horizontal plane.So the collimation axis of a rotational structure can only aim at instrument with the target in the high horizontal plane.Military weapon seldom adopts this rotational structure.
On behalf of type, the measuring instrument of diaxon rotational structure mainly contain theodolite (see figure 3), total powerstation, radio telescope (see figure 4) etc.Its rotational structure schematic perspective view is seen Fig. 5.The rotational structure of this quasi-instrument has two rotating shafts---vertical pivot VV and transverse axis HH.The relation of collimation axis, transverse axis and vertical pivot is: collimation axis is perpendicular to transverse axis (CC ⊥ HH), and transverse axis is perpendicular to vertical pivot (HH ⊥ VV).When instrument vertical pivot vertical was settled, the collimation axis CC of run-home both can rotate in horizontal plane around vertical pivot, also can in vertical guide, rotate around transverse axis.Collimation axis around vertical pivot and transverse axis alternately rotation can aim at the space and remove all fixed targets the instrument manufacturing dead angle.When the collimation axis level, fixedly transverse axis lets collimation axis when vertical pivot rotates, back-out be the horizontal plane that a collimation axis and transverse axis are confirmed.Collimation axis can tracking aiming and instrument with all targets in the high horizontal plane; When fixing vertical pivot, let collimation axis rotate around transverse axis, back-out be the vertical guide that a collimation axis and vertical pivot are confirmed.Collimation axis can all interior targets of this vertical guide of tracking aiming.The diaxon rotational structure has many good qualities than a rotational structure, and a lot of military weapons all adopt this diaxon rotational structure.Like Krupp artillery (see figure 6), tank roof big gun (see figure 7) and generating laser (see figure 8) etc.But,, still be that military weapon all has very big deficiency as measuring instrument during practical application because rotational structure and diaxon rotational structure can not rotate any clinoplain in space.
In the engineering survey specialty.As long as the vertical pivot vertical is settled, what the spirit level collimation axis screwed out is exactly a horizontal plane parallel with horizontal plane to the spirit level of a rotational structure when mark is established the stringcourse of horizontal plane, and this horizontal plane equates with the vertical distance of former stringcourse point with new stringcourse point everywhere.As long as by this horizontal plane upwards (or downwards) measure this vertical distance, be exactly new stringcourse, very simple and convenient.(see figure 9)
When mark is established the stringcourse of clinoplain; The spirit level of a rotational structure can only provide horizontal line of sight, newly marks stringcourse point and need try to achieve apart from the vertical distance of horizontal line of sight and the inclination angle calculating of distance between former new stringcourse point and clinoplain according to former stringcourse point apart from the vertical distance of horizontal line of sight.Because the distance between new former stringcourse is different, in the hope of vertical distance also have nothing in common with each other cumbersome (see figure 10).
The stringcourse that the transit mark of diaxon rotational structure is established clinoplain is that the pseudo-inclination angle that the horizontal angle according to the inclination angle of clinoplain and the tendency of measuring the clinoplain of giving and stringcourse direction is scaled the stringcourse direction is again demarcated.Because the horizontal angle between new stringcourse and clinoplain tendency has nothing in common with each other,, need to calculate while surveying at the scene, very trouble (seeing Figure 11) so the pseudo-inclination angle of institute's target also has nothing in common with each other.
The engineering survey aspect needs a kind of instrument to demarcate the stringcourse that the horizontal plane stringcourse is demarcated the inclined plane easily as spirit level.
In military field; When traditional diaxon rotation cannon hits the spatial movement target; Mostly be to judge rule of thumb with experienced aiming person whether moving target moves by straight line, and the direction and the speed that move, and then estimate the position that arrives after its certain time; Azimuth and the inclination angle of gun laying should the time time, moving target is hit in emission more again.This method artillerymans are referred to as " beating straight line ".The disadvantage of this method aims at a target exactly need rotate two axles, and the range estimation estimation, and attack precision is lower.(seeing Figure 12).
Fast with its speed when laser weapon, precision is high, and intercept distance is far away, and transfer fire is rapid, does not have high trajectory, need not calculate advantages such as the lead and the vibration influence that do not recoil and climb up the arena of history, and is more and more in good graces.Laser weapon directly hits the mark by intense laser beam and stops certain hour and damage, so speed and required precision that laser weapon is followed the tracks of aiming are very high.It is most important to develop high-precision aiming tracking system.Because the limitation of diaxon rotation aiming structure needs the alternately rotation of vertical pivot and transverse axis during the aiming extraterrestrial target, target trajectory is shown in figure 13.Extraterrestrial target moves along straight line, and target trajectory is a broken line, so the diaxon rotational structure can not " directly hit the mark and stop certain hour ", so existing diaxon rotation aiming structure can not satisfy laser weapon needs.
Military field presses for a kind of aiming rotational structure can shine tracking target always.
Summary of the invention
For overcome one with the diaxon rotational structure in the deficiency aspect the aiming, I invented three the rotation aiming structures.This structure has solved the deficiency as measuring instrument and military weapon aiming aspect well.
The rotating shaft schematic perspective view of three rotational structures is seen Figure 14.Its three-view diagram is seen Figure 15.It is on the transverse axis of diaxon rotational structure, to increase by one around the space rotating frame 1 that transverse axis rotates, installing space axle KK in space rotating frame 1, and collimation axis CC is installed on the spatial axes.Their relation is: collimation axis can rotate around spatial axes perpendicular to spatial axes (CC ⊥ KK); Spatial axes can be rotated around transverse axis perpendicular to transverse axis (KK ⊥ HH); Transverse axis can rotate around vertical pivot perpendicular to vertical pivot (HH ⊥ VV).And each O that intersects at a point.
Be mounted with horizontal limb 2 at the center of vertical pivot, the clockwise mark of the angle of horizontal limb 2, the anglec of rotation of collimation axis in horizontal plane can read on horizontal limb 2; Be mounted with vertical circle 3 at the center of transverse axis; The counterclockwise mark of the angle of vertical circle 3; (in the relation of collimation axis, spatial axes and transverse axis, because collimation axis is perpendicular to spatial axes, spatial axes is perpendicular to transverse axis; And collimation axis can rotate around spatial axes, thus collimation axis around plane that transverse axis rotates forever perpendicular to the plane (CHCH ⊥ KHKH) at spatial axes and transverse axis place.If by counterclockwise setting shown in Figure 16, then the number of degrees on plane, collimation axis and transverse axis place can directly be read by vertical circle the reading of vertical circle for we.Collimation axis promptly is the tendency on this plane perpendicular to the direction of transverse axis simultaneously, and the inclination angle of this direction is the true dip angle on this plane.) angle of inclination on plane, collimation axis and transverse axis place can read on vertical circle 3; On the spatial axes that is parallel to plane, collimation axis and transverse axis place, be mounted with space scale 4, the clockwise mark of the number of degrees of space scale, the anglec of rotation of collimation axis in collimation axis and plane, transverse axis place can be read by the space scale.
The theory support of three rotational structure aimings
We know: " the outer a bit definite plane of space straight line and straight line ".If we regard the center O (four intersection points) of three rotation aiming structures a bit as, this all confirms a plane with any straight line in space so.If we aim at the transverse axis of three-axis structure trend---the horizontal direction on this plane; Aim at the inclination angle on collimation axis and plane, transverse axis place the true dip angle on this plane; Collimation axis rotates certain inswept this plane around spatial axes so, also certain inswept that straight line of confirming this plane.Three rotational structure aiming space line sketch mapes are seen Figure 17.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is a spirit level, and Fig. 2 is a rotational structure rotating shaft sketch.Fig. 3 is a theodolite, and Fig. 4 is a radio telescope, and Fig. 5 is a diaxon rotational structure rotating shaft sketch.Fig. 6 is the Krupp artillery, and Fig. 7 is the tank cannon, and Fig. 8 is vehicle-mounted laser weapon.When Fig. 9 represented spirit level setting-out horizontal plane stringcourse, the horizontal plane that spirit level screws out equated apart from the distance of stringcourse everywhere.When Figure 10 represented the stringcourse on spirit level setting-out inclined plane, the horizontal line that spirit level screws out did not wait apart from the stringcourse point of new setting-out everywhere, need be according to the inclination angle adjustment on distance and inclined plane.When Figure 11 representes theodolite setting-out inclined plane stringcourse, need on-the-spot measuring and calculating, the vertical distance of calculating equates everywhere, but operation sequence is complicated.Figure 12 representes the cannon of target that straight line moves and broken line aiming.What Figure 13 represented is that the laser that diaxon rotates can not rotate tracking prolonged exposure moving target.Figure 14, Figure 15 are the schematic perspective view and the three-view diagram of three rotational structures.Figure 16 is the relation of vertical circle and target plane.Figure 17 is that space arbitrary line sketch map is followed the tracks of in three rotational structure aimings.The plane of instrument rotation equated with the distance of stringcourse everywhere when Figure 18, Figure 19 represented any clinoplain in three rotational structure setting-out spaces.Figure 20 representes that three rotational structures can be applied to all kinds of cannons.Figure 21 representes that three rotational structures can let laser aiming follow the tracks of the space line moving target.Figure 22 is three rotational structure laser aiming air defense sketch mapes.Figure 23 Figure 24 is the plane and the schematic perspective view of three rotation aiming laser aiming space flight enemy planes.
The specific embodiment
Aspect engineering survey,, can reach the purposes of a multi-purpose instrument if measuring instrument adopts three rotational structures.When the collimation axis select shaft of three rotational structures and be horizontally disposed with, collimation axis can only be rotated around vertical pivot for fixed space axle and transverse axis, and this moment, instrument can work as the spirit level use; When the collimation axis select shaft of three rotational structures is set, collimation axis can only be rotated around vertical pivot and transverse axis for the fixed space axle, and this moment, instrument can be worked as the theodolite use; The measuring instrument of three rotational structure types is particularly suitable for marking the stringcourse of establishing control inclined-plane engineering.In Figure 18; As long as on the center line of tunnel, settle instrument, let collimation axis perpendicular to transverse axis, the tendency in collimation axis aiming tunnel; The design tilt readings on roadway floor plane is aimed at the vertical circle inclination angle; Fixedly collimation axis can only be rotated around spatial axes for vertical pivot and transverse axis, and two what help to screw out promptly is the inclined plane parallel with roadway floor to collimation axis in the tunnel.Measure former stringcourse point and can establish new stringcourse at optional position, tunnel mark apart from the vertical height on inclined plane.Figure 19 is three rotation aiming structure setting-out space arbitrary plane stringcourse sketch mapes.
In military field, the trajectory correction can be ignored or with the constant processing, then the method for sight of three rotational structures also can be applicable to all kinds of artillery shootings if the Firing Velocity of cannon reaches.Figure 20 promptly is after three rotational structure cannons are settled as stated above, only rotates an axle aiming and follows the tracks of the sketch map that hits the straight line moving target.
The method of sight particularly suitable laser weapon aiming of three rotational structures.If the sighting system of laser weapon adopts three rotational structures; Import computer along the three-dimensional coordinate of straight line moving target arbitrarily as long as measure the three-dimensional coordinate and the space at three rotary laser weapon centers; Just can calculate trend, tendency and the inclination angle of laser position and moving target place face that straight line allocates fast; And then be arranged at laser weapon in the plane at this straight line and laser place, the collimation axis of rotary laser emission reaches aiming and follows the tracks of the purpose of smashing this target then.Figure 21
Figure 22 is three rotary laser air defence system sketch mapes that I design.When investigation satellite, ground photo or ocean survey vessel reach ground command center to the moving parameter of space or day null object after COMPUTER CALCULATION, analysis, processing; Transfer to the Laser emission base to the parameter on moving target and each laser and plane, moving target place, each laser base can be aimed to follow the tracks of by order parameter adjustment laser state and smash the spatial movement target.If set up the observing and controlling percussion system of sufficient density shown in Figure 22 in the whole nation, just necessarily can protect our sky, eliminate the enemy that all are come to attack.
Embodiment
Illustration 23, among Figure 24, the A point is certain generating laser place ground location.Certain moment radar records enemy plane B point coordinates and records the C point coordinates after 6 seconds again.If the speed and the state (azimuth and inclination angle) of enemy plane flight remain unchanged, can accomplish Laser emission after 3 seconds, ask the anglec of rotation of distance, orientation, inclination angle and the Laser Tracking enemy plane of A point emission laser in the time of 3 seconds.
X A=235880.380 Y A=200004.680 ?Z A=3036.000
X B=245681.250 Y B=165002.5800 Z B=90002.370
X C=255093.790 Y C=180005.430 ?Z C=100002.460
Separate: the speed and the horizontal component velocity of enemy plane flight asked in (1)
Inverse B, C two point coordinates are tried to achieve B, 2 parameters of C are following
S=17711.054 L=20339.253 γ=29.4504°
The flying speed of enemy plane is 3389.876 meter per seconds.Decomposition level is 2951.842 meter per seconds apart from component velocity.
(2) ask generating laser and enemy plane to belong to the true tendency and the true dip angle on plane
Get the true tendency α on plane, A-BC place=336.4694 ° true dip angle δ=75.2107 ° to the coordinate substitution space line of spatial point A and spatial point B, C and spatial point correlation formula
(3) ask 3 seconds after enemy plane position and laser emitting parameter
Enemy plane flies to the D point after 3 seconds.Adding that the horizontal component velocity that multiply by enemy plane in original 6 seconds was enemy plane and flies away from level that B orders apart from X in 3 seconds.
X=(3+6)×295.184=26566.578
Get X=26566.578 substitution space line and spatial point correlation function formula
Laser apart from enemy plane apart from g=105477.603
The azimuth angle alpha of laser and enemy plane=332.4133 °
The declination angle of laser and enemy plane=75.1752 °
This moment, the coordinate of enemy plane was XD=259800.059 YD=187506.853 ZD=105002.554
(4) ask the anglec of rotation of laser on the disk of space
Get the anglec of rotation of collimation axis on the disk of space to the A point at laser place and the horizontal angle beta between the trend of declination angle=75.1752 ° and the aircraft location and the face that allocates of enemy plane position after three seconds (β=332.4133 °-246.4694 °=85.9439 °) substitution Space Angle computing formula
cosβ′=cos75.1752°×cos85.9439°
β′=88.9630°
The maximum angular rate that need use when (5) asking Laser emission
The angular speed of emission laser is confirmed by the flying speed of enemy plane and the time of the distance of laser and enemy plane and the required emission laser that smashes the enemy planes.
The central angle that is got enemy plane flight laser rotation in 1 second by arc length and girth central angle formula is 1.84139 °.The central angle of laser rotation is merely 0.018 degree if enemy plane flew 0.01 second, closes 1 minute and 06 second
(6) launch-control procedure:
1. 246.4694 ° of the readings on the pointer alignment orientation scale in the portion of horizontally rotating.And fixing horizontal rotating part.
2. aim at φ=75.2107 ° and fixed space Plane of rotation to the inclination angle of space Plane of rotation.
3. the reading of following the tracks of scale to telescope is aimed at Space Angle β '=88.9630 °
4. launch laser and turn clockwise and follow the tracks of the required angle of knob.

Claims (10)

1. axle can be around three axle rotations, and four axles meet at a bit, can rotate the space arbitrary plane and only rotate the rotational structure that space arbitrary line moving target is followed the tracks of in an axle aiming.
2. structure according to claim 1 is characterized in that transverse axis perpendicular to vertical pivot (HH ⊥ VV), and transverse axis can rotate around vertical pivot.
3. structure according to claim 1 is characterized in that spatial axes perpendicular to transverse axis (KK ⊥ HH), and spatial axes can be rotated around transverse axis.
4. structure according to claim 1 is characterized in that collimation axis perpendicular to spatial axes (CC ⊥ KK), and collimation axis can rotate around spatial axes.
5. structure according to claim 1 is characterized in that collimation axis can be around vertical pivot, transverse axis and spatial axes rotation.
6. the space scale is fixed on the rotating shaft of space, and 0 ° of-360 ° of clockwise division line is arranged on the dish.
7. structure according to claim 1 can rotate and the parallel plane plane of setting-out with the measuring instrument of this structure manufacturing, establishes stringcourse for the engineering construction mark and provides convenience.
8. structure according to claim 1 is characterized in that can be positioned at conplane target following with instrument arbitrarily to the space with the astronomical observation instrument of this structure manufacturing observes.
9. structure according to claim 1 is characterized in that cannon with this structure manufacturing can only rotate an axle moving target is implemented to bombard.
10. structure according to claim 1 is characterized in that can aiming at tracking space arbitrary line moving target with the laser weapon of this structure manufacturing, until smashing it.
CN2010105844605A 2010-12-08 2010-12-08 Three-shaft rotary aiming structure Pending CN102564232A (en)

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN106092088A (en) * 2016-06-16 2016-11-09 上海航天控制技术研究所 A kind of three axle Photoelectric Tracking and Aiming mechanisms based on rotating carrier
CN108106568A (en) * 2015-08-24 2018-06-01 江苏理工学院 High-temperature forging bimirror measuring apparatus
CN110057245A (en) * 2019-03-11 2019-07-26 中国人民解放军63883部队 A kind of setting out method of directive reference, high-accuracy

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Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN108106568A (en) * 2015-08-24 2018-06-01 江苏理工学院 High-temperature forging bimirror measuring apparatus
CN108106568B (en) * 2015-08-24 2020-05-01 江苏理工学院 High-temperature forging double-mirror measuring equipment
CN106092088A (en) * 2016-06-16 2016-11-09 上海航天控制技术研究所 A kind of three axle Photoelectric Tracking and Aiming mechanisms based on rotating carrier
CN106092088B (en) * 2016-06-16 2019-04-05 上海航天控制技术研究所 A kind of three axis Photoelectric Tracking and Aiming mechanisms based on rotating carrier
CN110057245A (en) * 2019-03-11 2019-07-26 中国人民解放军63883部队 A kind of setting out method of directive reference, high-accuracy
CN110057245B (en) * 2019-03-11 2021-06-04 中国人民解放军63883部队 High-precision lofting method for shooting datum

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