CN102536239A - Long-wall working face coal pillar-free mining method - Google Patents

Long-wall working face coal pillar-free mining method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102536239A
CN102536239A CN2012100036663A CN201210003666A CN102536239A CN 102536239 A CN102536239 A CN 102536239A CN 2012100036663 A CN2012100036663 A CN 2012100036663A CN 201210003666 A CN201210003666 A CN 201210003666A CN 102536239 A CN102536239 A CN 102536239A
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gate road
coal
mining
tunnel
board
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CN102536239B (en
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何满潮
张国锋
孙晓明
刘万波
汤晓东
俞学平
魏正均
杨晓杰
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何满潮
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Abstract

The invention discloses a long-wall working face coal pillar-free mining method which comprises the following steps of: (1) digging an upper gate road tunnel and a lower gate road tunnel; (2) reinforcing a roof plate of the lower gate road tunnel, and drilling an energy collecting hole for presplitting blasting on the roof plate; (3) recovering till that a gob is formed; (4) blasting in response to the energy collecting hole, so that a kerf is formed at the roof plate; (5) breaking and sinking a mining face, so that a new tunnel is formed; (6) taking the original lower gate road tunnel as the upper gate road tunnel of the next mining face, and digging a lower gate road tunnel opposite to the upper gate road tunnel, so that a new mining face is formed; and (7) repeating the steps (2)-(6), and continuously mining coal till that the coal bed is completely mined. Every two mining faces in the method are continuous, and can not be supported by coal pillars, so that the method is high in mining efficiency, free of long-time waiting when the tunnel is formed, and high in working efficiency.

Description

A kind of coal wall does not have the coal pillar mining method
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of exploitation method of coal seam, especially relevant with the seam mining method of coal wall.
Background technology
Increase along with the coal mining degree of depth; Broadwall adopts the way protection of reserved coal pillar to go up gate road usually; Urgency owing to geostatic stress when the tunnel is dark increases the width increase that causes reserved coal pillar; Conventional longwall exploitation work plane stays (pick) lane production practice along sky; Potential safety hazards such as the roadway engineering amount that in the deep mining process, exists is big, digging is lower than height, production efficiency, and the gas that serious waste of resources and reserved coal pillar cause is outstanding, bump takes place frequently, leak out in the goaf have become the significant problem that perplexs and influence safety of coal mines and high-efficiency mining.
Research for no coal pillar mining in the domestic and international at present main coal mining country mainly concentrates on gob side entry driving and gob side entry retaining two aspects.Gob side entry driving is after a last working face extraction is accomplished, and the stope roof caving is abundant, and spoil obtains pushing compacting; The overlying strata ore deposit is pressed to manifest and is stopped; After the adjoining rock stability, unload pressure zone, in unloading pressure zone, tunnel a new tunnel again in goaf and one of coal body edge formation.Gob side entry driving must finish at a last section working face extraction, and the stope roof caving is accomplished also just can dig the lane after the compacting, therefore needs considerable time, takes over to the production of a lot of mines of China and causes very big difficulty.
Gob side entry retaining is in this working face extraction process, promptly to adopt relevant technology that the following crossheading in this work plane is remained, as the last crossheading of next working face extraction.In the present edge air gallery technology, supporting has successively developed log hut, H shaped steel shack, compressibile support, anchor rete cord etc. in the lane, and roadside support has developed technology such as grillage, close standing props, waste pack, concrete block, paste body filling and high-water material filling.Though obtain certain achievement, still have a lot of deficiencies and problem: ignore the support action of the other coal body in lane, the active support technical application is few in the lane, and roadside support and surrouding rock deformation are inharmonious, and the supporting design lacks systematicness.
Summary of the invention
To the problem that exists in the prior art, the coal wall that the purpose of this invention is to provide that a kind of supporting is reliable, production efficiency is high and coal column need not be set does not have the coal pillar mining method.
For realizing above-mentioned purpose, technical scheme of the present invention is following:
A kind of coal wall does not have the coal pillar mining method, comprises the steps:
(1) two tunnels that excavate to be communicated with on the coal seam adopt as head face on gate road and following gate road;
(2) following gate road top board is reinforced, and on this time gate road top board work plane one side direction, be drilled with and be used for a plurality of cumulatives hole of presplit blasting;
(3) carry out back production, until forming the goaf, the tunnel disappears;
(4) explosion is carried out in the corresponding cumulative hole site of the top board of former down crossheading position in the goaf, top board form near a side of production face along whole former gate road down and on the directed joint-cutting that extends below;
(5) pressure from deep layer rock stratum, top, goaf sinks the production face roof break, and former gate road position down becomes the tunnel again;
(6) with the last gate road of the automatic tunnel that forms, former gate road position down, and excavate the relatively upward following gate road of gate road, form new production face as next production face;
(7) repeating said steps (2)-(6) cut coal continuously, finish until this seam mining.
Further, also comprise the steps: sensor installation on the top board of following gate road in the said step (2), and wire transmission is carried out remote real time monitoring to ground to following gate road state.
Further, adopt constant resistance and large deformation anchor rod that the back of crossheading under the conduct is reinforced in the said step (2).
Further, adopt two-way cumulative presplit blasting method to carry out directed joint-cutting in the said step (4).
Further, in said step (1) and the step (6), also need carry out the leakproof fire prevention and handle the tunnel.
Further, sensor comprises roof delamination appearance and the stressed appearance of anchor pole in the said step (2).
Beneficial effect of the present invention is, the present invention compared with prior art is drilled with on the top board of gate road work plane one side down among the present invention and is used for the cumulative hole of presplit blasting; And carry out explosion in corresponding cumulative hole site, and forming the joint-cutting that extends along former gate road direction down at top board near a side of production face, the goaf collapses along this joint-cutting; Make former down gate road position automatic lane forming, and this back can not receive the goaf to collapse to fall to influencing, can keep state preferably; Be the last gate road continuation next round exploitation of next production face then with this tunnel; Between per two production face is continuous, and no coal column supports, and coefficient of mining is high; And become the lane process need not wait as long for, operating efficiency improves.
Description of drawings
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing the present invention is done further explain:
Fig. 1 does not have production face structure schematic top plan view in the coal pillar mining method for a kind of coal wall of the present invention;
Production face structure master does not look sketch map to Fig. 2 in the coal pillar mining method for a kind of coal wall of the present invention has;
Head does not adopt crossheading reinforcing and hole structure sketch map under the face to Fig. 3 in the coal pillar mining method for a kind of coal wall of the present invention has;
Head does not adopt face formation goaf structural representation to Fig. 4 in the coal pillar mining method for a kind of coal wall of the present invention has;
Fig. 5 does not have in the coal pillar mining method goaf structural representation that falls that collapses for a kind of coal wall of the present invention;
Fig. 6 does not have constant resistance and large deformation anchor rod structural representation in the coal pillar mining method for a kind of coal wall of the present invention.
The specific embodiment
The exemplary embodiments that embodies characteristic of the present invention and advantage will be described in detail in following explanation.Be understood that the present invention can have various variations on various embodiment, its neither departing from the scope of the present invention, and explanation wherein and accompanying drawing be the usefulness of being used as explanation in itself, but not in order to restriction the present invention.
The no coal pillar mining method that adopts among the present invention at first need form head and adopt face.Like Fig. 1 and shown in Figure 2; The method that formation head adopts face 1 is identical with existing method; On the edge of seam mining, establish and exploit the position first, on this position, adopt the S100A type machine of always determining to excavate 2,3, two parallel tunnels 2,3, two parallel tunnels and be communicated with through tunnel 4 at afterbody.Submarginal tunnel 2 is last gate road, is following gate road near the tunnel of continuing production face 3, and gate road 2 is a back production face 4 with the tunnel of following gate road 3 in the connection.Each production face all must form two tunnels, and last gate road is to be used for the transport of materials tunnel, and following gate road is the tunnel that is used for return air.In the reality exploitation, exploit from back production face 4, until adopting empty all coals of zone between gate road 2 and the following gate road 3 of going up, carry out the exploitation of next production face again.
As shown in Figure 3 then, the following gate road 3 of head being adopted face 1 carries out supporting.Supporting comprises passive protecting and active support, and passive protecting is in following gate road 3, to take to put framework, bears down the strength that gate road 3 top boards press down passively, and this kind support pattern consumptive material is high, cost is high and supporting effect is limited.Active support is installing anchor pole additional on gate road 3 top boards 5 down, and with Strengthening Roof 5, these anchor pole 6 general length are at 5-10 rice, through connecting the top board 5 that the comparatively firm lithosphere in upper strata comes gate road 3 under the jacking.Common bolt deformation amount is little, fractures easily, adopts constant resistance and large deformation anchor rod to reinforce among the present invention, and notification number is that the patent of CN101858225B has been carried out open in detail to this constant resistance and large deformation anchor rod.Constant resistance and large deformation anchor rod 6 is evenly distributed on head and adopts on the top board 5 of following gate road 3 of face 1, and spacing is set in 2-5 rice as required.
As shown in Figure 6, constant resistance and large deformation anchor rod 6 is can keep constant-resistance and lean on mechanical carriage to keep the anchor pole of elongation to a of roadway with large deformation and high stress tunnel design specially.Constant resistance and large deformation anchor rod 6 comprises nut 61, ball pad 62, pallet 63, constant-resistance device 64, the adapter sleeve 65 and the body of rod 66; Constant-resistance device 64 is tubular structure, is set in the afterbody of the body of rod 66, and pallet 63 and nut 61 are sleeved on the afterbody of constant-resistance device 64 successively; Wherein the mid portion of pallet 63 is provided with a hole and passes for constant-resistance device 64; Nut 61 is threadedly connected to constant-resistance device 64, and the ball pad 62 of buffering is installed between nut 61 and the pallet 63, and adapter sleeve is installed in constant-resistance device 64 other ends.
When being applied to constant resistance and large deformation anchor rod 6 in the tunnel; When the deformation energy of roadway surrounding rock exceeds the scope that anchor pole can bear; The constant-resistance device 64 that is provided with helicitic texture through its bonding surface produces relative displacements with anchor rod body 66, and also promptly this anchor pole 6 shows as the large deformation of radial drawing along with the country rock large deformation.After the country rock generation large deformation; Its energy obtains discharging, and constant resistance and large deformation anchor rod 6 still can keep constant working resistance after stretching, and the deformation energy of country rock is less than the constant working resistance of constant resistance and large deformation anchor rod 6; Constant-resistance device 64 restores to the original state and being sleeved on 66 last times of the body of rod tightly; The tunnel will be in stable state once more, realize the stable of tunnel, eliminate potential safety hazards such as roof fall impact.Constant resistance and large deformation anchor rod 6 bearing capacities 15~20KN, elongation all can reach 300~600mm, has bigger deformability to adapt to the large deformation ability of gob side entry.
In addition, adopt crossheading 3 under the face at head and adopt near head on the top board 5 of a side of face 1, use the MQT-120J rig on top board 5, upwards to be drilled with the cumulative hole 7 that is arranged in a linear successively, carry out explosion through this cumulative hole 7, realize directed joint-cutting with convenient.These cumulative hole 7 spacings are confirmed according to actual rock stratum characteristics at 2-5 rice.Simultaneously, also need each tunnel 2,3,4 spraying urine aldehyde plastic foam be prevented fires with leakproof.
Among the present invention, roof delamination appearance and the stressed appearance of anchor pole are installed on the top board 5 of adopting gate road 3 under the face as head also, also the shaped position sensor can be installed on sidewall that descends gate road 3 and relevant position, bottom surface.The roof delamination appearance is installed on the top board 5, can find out the relative displacement variation of definite near point with respect to the far point of confirming, with monitoring top board 5 falling states; The stressed appearance of anchor pole is installed on the top board 5 through anchor pole 6, can find out the pressure of pallet 63 end faces of 5 pairs of constant resistance and large deformation anchor rods 6 of top board, with monitoring top board 5 whereabouts pressure changing; The shaped position sensor is installed in down respectively on the top board 5, bottom surface and two sidewalls of gate road 3, gate road 3 cross sectional shapes is down changed monitor.Roof delamination appearance, the stressed appearance of anchor pole and shaped position sensor are monitored the signal that obtains and all are transferred on the ground through circuit; Carry out data transaction on the ground; And through forms such as Ethernet to the conversion after data carry out remote transmission; The staff can realize following gate road 3 states are carried out remote real time monitoring in remote monitoring and these data of analysis.
After accomplishing above-mentioned work, progressively carry out back production, until forming the goaf in this production face.As shown in Figure 4, behind the formation goaf, the following gate road 3 one side sidewalls that head adopts face 1 disappear, and join together with the goaf, and the tunnel disappears.
After head adopts face 1 formation goaf; Two-way cumulative presplit blasting device is installed in the position in corresponding cumulative hole 7 on the top board 5 of former gate road 3 down; Connect the explosion lead-in wire, this place's top board 5 is carried out explosion presplitting, form a presplitting face near goaf one side at the former top board 5 of gate road 3 down; This presplitting face is the joint-cutting of the two-way extension of crossheading 3 directions under top board 5 is former near the edge of a side of production face, just on the top board 5 of former gate road 3 down, has realized directed joint-cutting.The patent No. of two-way cumulative presplit blasting method is ZL200610113007X, and this blasting method can realize the presplitting effect to top board 5 country rocks, can protect top board 5 not receive the destruction of explosion again simultaneously; Be simple and easy to use; Demolition effect is good, and is with low cost, easy to operate.
This blasting technique big gun hole of on the presplitting line, constructing is adopted the powder charge of two-way cumulative device, and is made the cumulative direction corresponding to rock mass presplitting direction.Detonation product will form cumulative stream on two direction initializations, and will produce concentrated tensile stress, and presplitting big gun hole is run through along the cumulative direction, form presplitting face.Because the rock between boring is broken; The rendrock unit consumption will descend greatly; Owing to the protection of cumulative device to country rock, borehole circumference rock mass institute damaged also reduces greatly simultaneously, so this technology can reach the purpose that can protect the gob side entry top board when realizing presplitting again.Wherein two-way cumulative device is that (uniaxial compressive strength is that the tubing (comprising two kinds of pvc pipe and metal tubes) of 1.6MPa~2.0MPa) is through processing by certain intensity; The cumulative assembly dia is different according to blasthole diameter, and the size of its value is confirmed according to the coefficient of decoupling charge of specific rock mass; Cumulative hole shape on the bidirectional stretch cumulative device is various, can be circular, oval, square, rectangle etc., and its parameter is confirmed according to lithology, explosive; The stress of primary rock states of cumulative hole pore size on the bidirectional stretch cumulative device, pitch of holes and lithology, rock mass structure and construction rock mass etc. are relevant, need set up corresponding functional relation, and the result designs according to correlation computations.
The goaf is under the directed joint-cutting influence and under the deep layer rock pressure effect of above goaf, and the goaf collapses and, and is as shown in Figure 5.Because former head adopts the top board 5 of gate road 3 under the face and has implemented directed joint-cutting; The goaf collapse fall Shi Buhui band down former head adopt the top board 5 of gate road 3 under the face; The collapse goaf that falls collapses along presplitting face in gate road 3 presplitting sides down and falls behind the lateral wall (being a-quadrant among Fig. 5) that has formed time gate road 3, and former gate road 3 positions down become the tunnel again.Lateral wall to the last gate road 3 of new formation adopts plain concrete to whitewash airtight; Prevent that the pernicious gases such as gas, CO in the goaf from getting in the new last gate road 3 that forms, the following gate road 3 that former like this head adopts face just is retained the last gate road that is used as second work plane and reuses.In like manner, when carrying out the back production of the 3rd work plane, utilize process of the present invention that the following gate road of second work plane last gate road as the 3rd work plane is used.
At last, adopt the last gate road of the tunnel 3 of the automatic formation in gate road position under the face with former head, and excavate the relatively upward following gate road of gate road 3, and form new production face as next production face.Simultaneously, also need each tunnel spraying urine aldehyde plastic foam be prevented fires with leakproof.
Repeat above-mentioned stages of mining, cut coal continuously, finish until this seam mining.Just realized that the coal wall do not have coal pillar mining.
Beneficial effect of the present invention is, the present invention compared with prior art is drilled with on the top board 5 of work plane one side of gate road 3 down among the present invention and is used for the cumulative hole 7 of presplit blasting; And carry out explosion in corresponding cumulative hole site, and forming the joint-cutting that extends along former gate road 3 directions down at top board 5 near a side of production face, the goaf collapses along this joint-cutting; Make former down gate road 3 position automatic lane formings, and the top board 5 in this tunnel 3 can not receive the goaf to collapse to fall to influencing, can keep state preferably; Be the last gate road continuation next round exploitation of next production face then with this tunnel 3; Between per two production face is continuous, and no coal column supports, and coefficient of mining is high; And become the lane process need not wait as long for, operating efficiency improves.
Technical scheme of the present invention is disclosed as above by preferred embodiment.Those skilled in the art should recognize change and the retouching of under the situation that does not break away from appended scope of the present invention that claim disclosed of the present invention and spirit, being done, and all belong within the protection domain of claim of the present invention.

Claims (6)

1. a coal wall does not have the coal pillar mining method, it is characterized in that, comprises the steps:
(1) two tunnels that excavate to be communicated with on the coal seam adopt as head face on gate road and following gate road;
(2) following gate road top board is reinforced, and on this time gate road top board work plane one side direction, be drilled with and be used for a plurality of cumulatives hole of presplit blasting;
(3) carry out back production, until forming the goaf, the tunnel disappears;
(4) explosion is carried out in the corresponding cumulative hole site of the top board of former down crossheading position in the goaf, top board form near a side of production face along whole former gate road down and on the directed joint-cutting that extends below;
(5) pressure from deep layer rock stratum, top, goaf sinks the production face roof break, and former gate road position down becomes the tunnel again;
(6) with the last gate road of the automatic tunnel that forms, former gate road position down, and excavate the relatively upward following gate road of gate road, form new production face as next production face;
(7) repeating said steps (2)-(6) cut coal continuously, finish until this seam mining.
2. coal wall as claimed in claim 1 does not have the coal pillar mining method; It is characterized in that; Also comprise the steps: sensor installation on the top board of following gate road in the said step (2), and wire transmission is carried out remote real time monitoring to ground to following gate road state.
3. coal wall as claimed in claim 1 does not have the coal pillar mining method, it is characterized in that, adopts constant resistance and large deformation anchor rod that the back of crossheading under the conduct is reinforced in the said step (2).
4. coal wall as claimed in claim 1 does not have the coal pillar mining method, it is characterized in that, adopts two-way cumulative presplit blasting method to carry out directed joint-cutting in the said step (4).
5. coal wall as claimed in claim 1 does not have the coal pillar mining method, it is characterized in that, in said step (1) and the step (6), also need carry out the leakproof fire prevention to the tunnel and handle.
6. coal wall as claimed in claim 2 does not have the coal pillar mining method, it is characterized in that, sensor comprises roof delamination appearance and the stressed appearance of anchor pole in the said step (2).
CN201210003666.3A 2012-01-06 2012-01-06 Long-wall working face coal pillar-free mining method Active CN102536239B (en)

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CN103195426A (en) * 2013-04-22 2013-07-10 中国矿业大学(北京) Steep-coal-seam long wall face non-pillar coal mining method
CN103233740A (en) * 2013-04-22 2013-08-07 中国矿业大学(北京) Top-cutting roadway coal-pillar-free mining method of close-range thin coal seam
CN104265294A (en) * 2014-10-22 2015-01-07 四川广旺能源发展(集团)有限责任公司 Coal pillar-free mining technology for blasting mining face of steeply dipping seam
CN104763425A (en) * 2015-02-03 2015-07-08 杨洪兴 Pressure relief presplitting blasting gob-side entry retaining pillar-free mining method
CN105089668A (en) * 2014-05-19 2015-11-25 梁捷 Longwall working face coal-pillar-free mining method
CN105134216A (en) * 2015-06-24 2015-12-09 何满潮 Anti-collapse structure beside roadway based on breaking roof 110 construction method
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CN105890478A (en) * 2016-04-28 2016-08-24 何满潮 Directional pre-splitting joint cutting method of roadway roof
CN105971648A (en) * 2015-09-30 2016-09-28 北京中矿创新联盟能源环境科学研究院 End support and equipment system for roadway-free and coal-pillar-free self entry retaining mining method
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CN107725052A (en) * 2017-10-31 2018-02-23 中国中煤能源集团有限公司 One kind, which is adopted, stays integration exploitation gob side entry top plate constant-resistance anchor body beam method for protecting support
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CN109973126A (en) * 2019-03-26 2019-07-05 中国矿业大学(北京) The double release constant resistance supporting surrounding rock stability control methods of fender gob side entry driving
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CN111022050A (en) * 2019-12-16 2020-04-17 山东省邱集煤矿有限公司 Fully-closed blasting pressure relief and self-retained roadway method for grouting reconstruction of composite roof
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CN113073978A (en) * 2021-04-08 2021-07-06 中国矿业大学(北京) Thick coal seam confined concrete pillar roof-cutting roadway coal-pillar-free mining method
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CN103233740A (en) * 2013-04-22 2013-08-07 中国矿业大学(北京) Top-cutting roadway coal-pillar-free mining method of close-range thin coal seam
CN103195426B (en) * 2013-04-22 2015-09-16 中国矿业大学(北京) A kind of large-inclination-angle coal bed long-wall working face coal pillar-free mining method
CN103195426A (en) * 2013-04-22 2013-07-10 中国矿业大学(北京) Steep-coal-seam long wall face non-pillar coal mining method
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