高含水植物原料中有用成分的萃取方法技术领域 本发明涉及利用具备一定吸水性的有机溶剂，对高含水植物原料的有用成分进行萃取的方法，部分地脱除原料中的水分，使萃取后的物料呈现干燥状态，有利于工艺中排出植物渣的存放和再利用。 TECHNICAL FIELD The aqueous was extracted plant material highly useful components  The present invention relates to a method of using a certain water-absorbing organic solvent useful high water content of the plant material is extracted, partially remove water in the raw material, so that after extraction the material exhibits a dry state, the process is conducive to the discharge of the stored plant residue and reused. 背景技术 植物的根、茎、叶中含有各种对人类有用的成分，为了提取这些成分，一般都要将其晒干、晾干或人工烘干，去除其中大部分水分后再进行萃取。  roots, stems, leaves contain a variety of ingredients useful for humans, in order to extract these components, generally have to be dried, drying or artificial drying, and then removing most of the water for extraction. 这种传统的方法不但工序长、费工费时、部分原料因霉烂而损失，而且在干燥的过程中植物中的有用成分会有一定比例的损失，尤其是许多植物成分是热敏性或光敏性的，极易被分解破坏。 This conventional method is not only a long process, labor intensive, part of the feed is lost because of mildew, and the drying process plant will lose a certain percentage of useful components, especially many plant ingredients are heat sensitive or photosensitive, It can easily be decomposed destroyed. 本发明方法旨在对鲜的和湿的植物原料进行溶剂萃取，得到其中的有用成分。 The method of the present invention is intended to wet and fresh plant material to solvent extraction to give a useful ingredient therein. 具有一定吸水性的溶剂很多，如高浓度乙醇、低含水甘油、液态甲醚、液氨等。 Many of a hygroscopic solvent, such as high ethanol concentration, low water content in glycerol, liquid ether, ammonia and the like. 发明内容 本发明的目的在于提供一种高含水植物原料中有用成分的萃取方法。 SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION  The object of the present invention is to provide a highly aqueous extraction process plant material useful components.  高含水植物原料中有用成分的萃取方法，将高含水分的被萃取物置入密闭萃取容器中，对容器抽真空，注入萃取溶剂淹没被萃取物，进行逆流萃取，萃取压力为对应萃取温度下萃取溶剂的饱和蒸气压，萃取结束后，将被萃取的固相与萃取出的液相分离，液相中的萃取物与萃取溶剂分离，并脱除萃取物中残余的溶剂成分，得到粗的萃取物；脱除固相中残余的溶剂成分，得到植物残渣；将所有分离和脱除的溶剂回收循环使用；其中对萃取容器抽真空，控制容器内压力为一0. 02Mpa〜一0. 09Mpa，优选一0. 08Mpa，萃取溶剂为液态甲醚、液氨等，萃取次数为4〜8次，萃取温度为一20°C〜50°C，优选20〜35°C ；总萃取时间为60〜240分钟，优选90〜200分钟；萃取压力为0. 2 Mpa〜1. 2Mpa,优选0. 6Mpa〜 0.9Mpa。  The extraction process of high aqueous plant material useful components, the high moisture content of the extract placed in a closed extraction vessel, a vessel was evacuated, injecting the extraction solvent flooding the extract, countercurrent extraction, the extraction pressure corresponding extraction saturated vapor pressure at a temperature of the extraction solvent, after extraction, the extracted solid phase extraction separation of a liquid phase, extract the liquid phase separated from the solvent extraction of the residue and removal of the solvent component of the extract, to give the crude extract; removing the residual solvent component solid phase to obtain plant residues; separation and removal of all the solvent recovery recycling; wherein the extraction vessel was evacuated, the control pressure within the container 10 a 0. 02Mpa~ . 09Mpa, preferably a 0. 08Mpa, ether extraction solvent is liquid, liquid ammonia, extraction times of 4 to 8 times, an extraction temperature of 20 ° C~50 ° C, preferably 20~35 ° C; total extraction time is 60~240 minutes, preferably 90~200 minutes; extraction pressure 0. 2 Mpa~1 2Mpa, preferably 0. 6Mpa~ 0.9Mpa..  使用本发明的方法可用来萃取鲜的和湿的高含水分植物原料中的植物色素、生物碱、植物总甙等各种物质成分，萃取及脱溶全过程可以在常温下或低温下进行，被萃取物料不需经过高温过程，热敏性成分得以保质的分离。  using the method of the invention can be used to extract fresh water and wet plant material with high plant pigments, alkaloids, glycosides and other plants of the total composition of matter, the whole process of extraction and solvent removal at ambient or low temperatures may be under carried material to be extracted without going through the high temperature process, the shelf life of heat sensitive components can be separated. 具体实施方式 下面具体说明实现本发明的方法步骤和实现方式：将高含水的植物原料进行预处理：清洗、去除无用部分、切碎或磨碎。 DETAILED DESCRIPTION  DETAILED DESCRIPTION implementations of method steps and implementing the present invention: the high water pretreated plant material: cleaning, removing unnecessary portions, shredded or grated. 其目的是使植物的微结构破坏，有利于溶剂萃取的进行，预处理后的原料呈现出丝状、末状或浆状；待用。 The aim is to destroy the microstructure of the plant, is conducive to solvent extraction, the raw material exhibits a filamentous after pretreatment, or paste-like end; stand. (一）方法步骤：1、装料：将待萃取的物料送入压力容器结构的萃取容器中，装料量不大于萃取器容积的60%，对容器抽真空，抽出其中的空气，通常容器内压力应降至一0. 02Mpa〜一0. 09Mpa, 最佳压力为一0. 08Mpa。  (a) Method: 1, loading: extraction vessel material to be extracted into the structure of the pressure vessel, the charging amount of not more than 60% of the volume of the extractor, vacuum container, wherein air is drawn , generally within the pressure vessel should be reduced to a 0. 02Mpa~ a 0. 09Mpa, the optimal pressure is a 0. 08Mpa.  2、萃取：向萃取容器中注入液化甲醚萃取溶剂淹没被萃取物，进行逆流萃取。  2, and extracted: injecting a liquefied DME extraction solvent to the extraction vessel to be submerged in the extract, countercurrent extraction. 溶剂用量以浸没物料为宜，在浸泡过程中还可以用机械的方法、器底鼓气的方法或超声的方法使物料与溶剂发生相对位移，以提高萃取效率，萃取过程为行业中公知的逆流方法，萃取次数为4〜8次。 The solvent used in an amount to submerge the material is appropriate, in the soaking process may also be by mechanical, underflow method of the bubbling, or ultrasonic methods the material with a solvent relative displacement, in order to improve extraction efficiency, the extraction process for the industry known in countercurrent method, the number of extraction is 4 to 8 times. 根据物料中需萃取成分的含量和其在物料中的存在状态不同，总萃取时间为60〜240分钟，优选90〜200分钟。 The content of the material for an extract component material in its present state and different total extraction time of 60~240 minutes, preferably 90~200 minutes. 萃取温度范围为一20°C〜50°C，优选20〜 35°C。 An extraction temperature in the range of 20 ° C~50 ° C, preferably 20~ 35 ° C. 萃取压力为对应萃取温度下液化甲醚的饱和蒸气压，当萃取器中有残余空气等非甲醚气体时，萃取压力会略高于萃取温度下溶剂的饱和蒸气压，从安全上考虑，萃取压力以不高于液化甲醚饱和蒸气压的1. 1倍为宜，实际的萃取容器压力一般在0. 5Mpa〜1. 2Mpa，优选0. 6Mpa 〜0. 9Mpa。 Ether extraction pressure liquefied corresponding saturated vapor pressure at extraction temperature, when there is a non-ether extraction of residual air and other gases, it will be slightly higher extraction pressure saturated vapor pressure of the solvent at the extraction temperature, from the viewpoint of safety, and extracted pressure not higher than 1.1 times the saturated vapor pressure of the liquefied ether preferably, the actual extraction vessel pressure is generally 0. 5Mpa~1. 2Mpa, preferably 0. 6Mpa ~0. 9Mpa.  3、物料脱溶：达到设定的萃取率工艺要求时，抽出萃取器中的液体溶剂后，打开萃取器的排气阀，使物料中吸附的残余溶剂气化与物料分离，排出萃取器，在此脱溶过程中， 为了提高脱溶的效率，要向容器中补充热量以维持溶剂的快速蒸发。  3, desolvation Material: achieve the extraction rate demand setting process when, after the extraction of the liquid solvent extraction vessel, opening the exhaust valve of the extractor, and the residual solvent is vaporized in the adsorption material separated material is discharged extractor, in this desolvation process, in order to improve the efficiency of solvent removal, would like to add heat to maintain the vessel rapid evaporation of the solvent. 脱溶完成后，被萃取后的物料即可排出萃取器，萃取器可进入下一生产循环。 After solvent removal is completed, the material can be discharged after being extracted extractor, the extraction may proceed to the next production cycle. 脱溶时物料温度可以在甲醚沸点一至50°C之间变化，为了提高效率，脱溶过程中要向容器中补充热量，维持物料温度不低于0°C时溶剂脱除效果较好；随着溶剂的脱出和温度的下降，萃取器压力在1. 2Mpa〜一0. OSMpa之间不断降低，为了尽可能多地回收物料中的溶剂，脱溶结束时萃取器的压力以一0. 08Mpa以下为宜。 When the batch temperature desolventized boiling ether may vary between one and 50 ° C, in order to improve efficiency, to add heat during the desolvation To the vessel, maintaining the batch temperature below 0 ° C when the solvent removal is better; with the decrease of the temperature of extrusion and solvent, the extraction pressure decreases continuously between a 1. 2Mpa~ 0. OSMpa, to recover as much material in a solvent, removing solvent at the end of the pressure in extractor 10. 08Mpa or less.  4、萃取液蒸发：对物料进行逆流萃取所得的萃取液，进入蒸发系统，经过连续的或罐式间歇的蒸发，使溶剂与萃取物分离，即得到萃取物产品；萃取液蒸发温度控制在0°c〜 50°C范围内，蒸发压力控制在0. 5 Mpa〜1. 2Mpa,大部分溶剂蒸发出来后，再进行真空蒸发以尽量回收萃取物中的溶剂，真空蒸发温度控制在0°C〜50°C范围内，压力控制在一0. 08Mpa 以下。  4, extracts were evaporated: the material was obtained was extracted countercurrent extraction, evaporation into the system, passing through the evaporator tank intermittent or continuous, and the extract was separated from the solvent, to obtain the extract product; extract evaporation temperature controlled within a 0 ° c~ 50 ° C range, the evaporation pressure was controlled at 0. 5 Mpa~1. 2Mpa, after most of the solvent evaporated, then evaporated in vacuo to try to recover the solvent in the extract, evaporated in vacuo and the temperature control within the range of 0 ° C~50 ° C, a pressure control in the following 0. 08Mpa.  5、溶剂回收：从物料中和萃取液中蒸发出的溶剂气体，经过压缩机压缩液化，液态的溶剂流回溶剂循环罐，循环使用。  5, solvent recovery: the material from the extract and evaporating the solvent gas, liquefied compressed through the compressor, the solvent back into a liquid solvent circulation tank, recycling. 从物料中和萃取液中蒸发出的溶剂气体，使用压缩机压缩液化，压缩压力为0. 5Mpa〜1. 2Mpa之间，液化温度为10°C〜40°C之间。 And extract the material evaporated from the solvent gas, liquefied compressed using a compressor, a compression pressure of 0. 5Mpa~1. 2Mpa between, liquefaction temperature is between 10 ° C~40 ° C.  (二)、实现方式下面用一些具体实施例进一步说明本发明的方法：实施例1 ：鲜辣椒色素的提取：鲜辣椒经去籽和磨碎后，取3000 kg，送入压力容器结构的萃取器中，关闭进料通道后，抽出空气后使器内压力降至一0. 08Mpa，打入液化甲醚萃取溶剂进行8次逆流萃取，萃取时间为150〜200分钟，萃取温度为20°C〜35°C，萃取压力0. 6 Mpa〜0. 9Mpa ；萃取过程中不断地进行机械搅拌以提高萃取效率。  (b), with the following specific implementation examples further illustrate the process of the invention: Example 1: Pigment fresh pepper extract: After seeded fresh pepper and ground, take 3000 kg, into a pressure vessel extractor structure, after closing the feed channel, so that after extracting air pressure was lowered to a 0. 08Mpa, and extracted into ether solvent liquefaction countercurrent extraction 8 times, 150~200 minutes extraction time, the extraction temperature . 20 ° C~35 ° C, the extraction pressure 0. 6 Mpa~0 9Mpa; extraction mechanically agitated constantly to improve extraction efficiency. 萃取所得的萃取液， 进入蒸发系统，使溶剂气化与萃取物分离，即得到以辣椒红色素和辣椒碱为有用成分的多水的植物萃取粗产品。 The resulting extract was extracted into the evaporation system, the solvent is vaporized and separated from the extract, to obtain more water capsanthin capsaicin and botanical extracts useful component crude product. 萃取完成后，抽净萃取器中萃取液，打开萃取器的出气阀，使萃取器中物料中吸附的溶剂气化与物料分离，排出萃取器。 After completion of the extraction, the net pumping extractor extracts were open outlet valve of the extractor, so that the material in the extractor solvent is vaporized and adsorbed material separation, discharge extractor. 在物料脱溶过程中要向料中补充热量以维持溶剂的快速蒸发。 Desolvation process in the material feed To add heat to maintain the rapid evaporation of the solvent. 脱溶完成后，被萃取后的辣椒残渣可排出萃取器，萃取器可进入下一生产循环。 After solvent removal is completed, pepper residue after extraction can be discharged extractor, the extraction may proceed to the next production cycle. 从物料中和萃取液中蒸发出的溶剂气体，经过压缩机压缩液化，液态的溶剂流回溶剂循环罐，循环使用。 Material evaporated from the extract and the solvent gas, liquefied compressed through the compressor, the solvent back into a liquid solvent circulation tank, recycling.  实施例2 ：万寿菊叶黄素的提取：经破壁处理的万寿菊花，浙干表面水分后粉碎， 取3000 kg，送入压力容器结构的萃取器中，关闭进料通道后，抽出空气后使器内压力降至一0. OSMpa0打入液化甲醚萃取溶剂进行6次逆流萃取，萃取时间为120〜160分钟，萃取温度20°C〜35°C，萃取压力0. 6Mpa〜0. 9Mpa。  Example 2: Extraction marigold xanthophylls: broken by processing marigold flowers, Zhejiang pulverized dry surface moisture, to take 3000 kg, fed to an extraction vessel of a pressure, the feed channel closed, after sucking the air pressure was lowered to make into a liquefied 0. OSMpa0 ether extraction solvent countercurrent extraction 6 times, 120~160 minutes extraction time, the extraction temperature is 20 ° C~35 ° C, the extraction pressure 0. 6Mpa~ 0. 9Mpa. 萃取所得的萃取液，进入蒸发系统，使溶剂气化与萃取物分离，即得到以万寿菊叶黄素为有用成分的多水的植物萃取物产品。 The resulting extract was extracted into the evaporation system, the solvent is vaporized and separated from the extract, to obtain more water lutein marigold plant extract ingredients useful products. 萃取完成后，按实施例1中的条件脱除物料中的溶剂，从萃取器中排出万寿菊残渣，回收溶剂循环使用。 After completion of the extraction, under the conditions in Example 1, the material in the solvent was removed, the residue is discharged from the extractor marigold, recycling the solvent recovered.  实施例3 ：植物生物碱的提取：采摘后的新鲜烟叶经粉碎后，取3000 kg，送入压力容器结构的萃取器中，关闭进料通道后，抽出空气后使器内压力降至一0. OSMpa0打入液化甲醚萃取溶剂进行4次逆流萃取，萃取时间为100〜150分钟，萃取温度20°C〜35°C，萃取压力0. 6Mpa〜0. 9Mpa。  Example 3: Isolation of Plant alkaloids: After picking fresh comminuted tobacco, take 3000 kg, fed to an extraction vessel pressure in the structure, after closing the feed channel, after extracting the inner air pressure drop 0. OSMpa0 to a liquefaction into ether and extracted four times countercurrent extraction solvent, 100~150 minutes extraction time, the extraction temperature is 20 ° C~35 ° C, the extraction pressure 0. 6Mpa~0. 9Mpa. 萃取所得的萃取液，进入蒸发系统，使溶剂气化与萃取物分离，即得到以烟碱尼古丁为主要成分的多水的植物生物碱粗产品。 The resulting extract was extracted into the evaporation system, the solvent is vaporized and separated from the extract, to obtain more water as a main component of nicotine Nicotine plant alkaloids crude product. 萃取完成后，按实施例1中的条件脱除物料中的溶剂，从萃取器中取出烟叶，回收溶剂循环使用。 After completion of the extraction, under the conditions in Example 1. Removal of the solvent in the material, removed from the tobacco in the extractor, the solvent recovery recycling.  实施例4 ：植物总甙的提取：取鲜人参1000坧，洗去泥土后粉碎，送入压力容器结构的萃取器中，关闭进料通道后，抽出空气后使器内压力降至一O.OSMpa。  Example 4: The total glycosides of plant extract: the fresh ginseng Zhi 1000, after the wash pulverized soil, fed to an extraction vessel pressure in the structure, after closing the feed channel, after extracting the inner air pressure was lowered a O.OSMpa. 打入液化甲醚萃取溶剂进行5次逆流萃取，萃取时间为150分钟，萃取温度20°C〜35°C，萃取压力0. 8 Mpa〜1.2Mpa。 Liquefaction solvent extraction into ether five times countercurrent extraction, the extraction time is 150 minutes, the extraction temperature is 20 ° C~35 ° C, the extraction pressure 0. 8 Mpa~1.2Mpa. 萃取所得的萃取液，进入蒸发系统，使溶剂气化与萃取物分离，即得到富含人参甙的多水的植物总甙粗产品。 The resulting extract was extracted into the evaporation system, the solvent is vaporized and separated from the extract, to obtain more water rich plant ginseng saponin glycosides total crude product. 萃取完成后，按实施例1中的条件脱除物料中的溶剂，从萃取器中取出人参，回收溶剂循环使用。 After completion of the extraction, under the conditions in Example 1. Removal of the solvent in the material, removed from the extractor ginseng, recycling the solvent recovered.  以上列举的仅是实现本发明的几个具体实施例。  listed above are merely a few specific embodiments of the present invention to achieve embodiments. 显然，本发明不限于以上实施例， 还可以有许多变形。 Obviously, the present invention is not limited to the above embodiments, it can also have many variations. 本领域的普通技术人员能从本发明公开的内容直接导出或联想到的所有变形，均应认为是本发明的保护范围。 All variations of ordinary skill in the art derived directly from or to think of this disclosure, shall be considered to be the scope of the invention.