CN102517054B - Device and method for continuous pyrolysis of agricultural and forestry biomass and fractional collection and purification of product - Google Patents

Device and method for continuous pyrolysis of agricultural and forestry biomass and fractional collection and purification of product Download PDF

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CN102517054B
CN102517054B CN2011103881765A CN201110388176A CN102517054B CN 102517054 B CN102517054 B CN 102517054B CN 2011103881765 A CN2011103881765 A CN 2011103881765A CN 201110388176 A CN201110388176 A CN 201110388176A CN 102517054 B CN102517054 B CN 102517054B
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pyrolysis
hopper
thermal decomposition
decomposition tube
gas
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CN102517054A (en
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蒋恩臣
王明峰
熊磊明
许细微
赵创
陈亮广
杜衍红
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South China Agricultural University
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South China Agricultural University
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E50/00Technologies for the production of fuel of non-fossil origin
    • Y02E50/10Biofuels, e.g. bio-diesel

Abstract

The invention discloses a device and a method for continuous pyrolysis of agricultural and forestry biomass and fractional collection and purification of a product. The device comprises a hoister, a hopper, a discharger, a work bin, a driving motor, a pyrolysis pipe, a spiral feeder, a spring conveyer, a combustion furnace, a charcoal box, a primary condensate collector, a secondary condensate collector, a spray purifier, a partition water remover, a filler purifier and the like. The method comprises the following process flows of: feeding the biomass into the pyrolysis pipe through the hopper, performing delivery and pyrolytic charring reaction in the pyrolysis pipe, collecting pyrolytic semi-coke by using the charcoal box, performing two-stage condensation on the pyrolytic volatile substance to obtain tar and wood vinegar, and pumping out the purified un-condensed gas product by a Roots blower, wherein a part of gas product enters the combustion furnace and is burnt to provide a heat source for the pyrolysis reaction, the generated high-temperature flue gas is used as a drying medium for the biomass raw material, and the rest gas product is collected. The device and the method can realize continuous and stable pyrolysis of the biomass; and the pyrolytic volatile substance is treated by two-stage condensation devices, so that primary separation of the wood vinegar and the tar is realized for use.

Description

A kind of agricultural-forestry biomass continuous pyrolysis and product Fractional Collections refining plant and method
Technical field
The present invention relates to the agricultural-forestry biomass field, particularly a kind of agricultural-forestry biomass continuous pyrolysis and product Fractional Collections refining plant and method.
Background technology
The agricultural-forestry biomass resource reserve is abundant, has advantages of renewable low with pollutant emission.The biomass pyrolytic technology is a kind of technology type of realizing that biomass efficient utilizes, can be semicoke, combustible gas and product liquid with Wood Adhesives from Biomass.According to heating rate and reaction times, the biomass pyrolytic technology is divided into slow pyrolysis and fast pyrogenation.The heat transfer reaction of fast pyrogenation is fast, can increase " pyrolysis oil " productive rate of liquid product, but fast pyrogenation is had relatively high expectations to raw material granularity.The reaction conditions of slow pyrolysis is gentle, and be easy to realize and control, less demanding to raw materials size, pyrolysis product is semicoke, bio oil and pyrolysis gas, and distribution can be regulated according to reaction conditions, and pyrolysis char can be used as fuel, fertilizer or is processed as gac, pyrolysis gas is middle calorific value gas, can be used for civilian or generating, bio oil contains the materials such as multiple acid, alcohol, phenol, can be used as industrial chemicals.The slow pyrolysis technology mainly contains the several types such as fixed bed, moving-bed and rotary kiln at present.The fixed-bed pyrolysis technology belongs to intermittently (in batches) formula production, raw material will experience intensification, charing insulation, cooling, several stages of discharging and complete a production cycle in reactor, it is gentle cooling repeatedly to carry out adding of stove during operation, and because each position temperature in stove is uneven, the product homogeneity is also poor.The technical characterstic of moving bed pyrolysis stove is from low to high along the certain space position distribution in the reaction in furnace temperature, material constantly moves and completes pyrolysis from the cold zone to the high-temperature zone, its product homogeneity is high, the mode of production is continuous, this key problem in technology is mainly the continuous moving problem that solves material in stove, domestic the most frequently used solution is to rely on gravity to realize that material moves down continuously,, because biomass density is lower, be prone to " bridge formation " and occur stop up or the part problem such as overdo in reactor.Rotary kiln pyrogenation technique and apparatus structure are more complicated, and space reactor is larger, and the pyrolysis gas residence time is longer, and are difficult to realize good stopping property.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is to overcome the shortcoming that exists in prior art, provide that a kind of reaction conditions is gentle, the reaction times is short, constant product quality, can carry out quantity-produced agricultural-forestry biomass continuous pyrolysis and product Fractional Collections refining plant.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a kind of agricultural-forestry biomass continuous pyrolysis and product Fractional Collections purifying method that adopts above-mentioned refining plant.
Purpose of the present invention is achieved through the following technical solutions:
A kind of agricultural-forestry biomass continuous pyrolysis and product Fractional Collections refining plant, comprise hopper 2, thermal decomposition tube 9, charcoal case 17, one-level condensing collector 16 and B-grade condensation collector 15; The discharge port of lift 1 is placed in the top of hopper 2, and the below of hopper 2 is provided with dumper 3, and the below of dumper 3 is provided with hopper 4; The below of hopper 4 is provided with thermal decomposition tube 9, there are feeding screw 6 and spring handling machinery 7 in the inside of thermal decomposition tube 9, feeding screw 6 is positioned at the below of hopper 4, one end of feeding screw 6 is connected with the drive-motor 5 that is positioned at thermal decomposition tube 9 outsides, the other end of feeding screw 6 is connected with an end of spring handling machinery 7, and the other end of spring handling machinery 7 is free end; Thermal decomposition tube 9 passes roasting kiln 8 and is connected with charcoal case 17, the top of charcoal case 17 is provided with pyrolysis gas outlet, and from pyrolysis gas outlet, starts to be connected with one-level condensing collector 16, B-grade condensation collector 15, spray eliminator 14, dividing plate water eliminator 13, filler cleaner 12 and roots blower 11 in turn by pipeline; The outlet of roots blower 11 is connected with roasting kiln 8, gas trap 10 by two-port valve; The top of roasting kiln 8 is provided with smoke outlet and with moisture eliminator 18, is connected.
Thermal decomposition tube 9 is 0~10 ° and is in tilted layout, and the feeding side of thermal decomposition tube 9 is higher than exit side.
A kind of agricultural-forestry biomass continuous pyrolysis and product Fractional Collections purifying method, comprise the steps:
(1) biomass material is transported in hopper by lift, enters hopper under the dumper effect, then carries in thermal decomposition tube by feeding screw and spring handling machinery successively, and complete pyrolysis and charing in the continuous moving process, obtains pyrolysis product;
(2) pyrolysis product enters the charcoal case by thermal decomposition tube, pyrolysis char in pyrolysis product is deposited on charcoal case bottom, pyrolysis devolatilization thing in pyrolysis product is being discharged by the pyrolysis gas outlet above the charcoal case under the effect of roots blower, and pass through successively one-level condensing collector and B-grade condensation collector, collect the tar and the wood vinegar product that obtain separating; Uncooled gaseous product obtains clean pyrolysis gas through spray eliminator, dividing plate water eliminator, filler cleaner after processing again, pyrolysis gas is extracted out by roots blower, the pyrolysis gas of a part enters in roasting kiln and flashes back for pyrolytic reaction provides thermal source, and remaining pyrolysis gas is collected; The gas that roasting kiln is discharged enters moisture eliminator by the smoke outlet of roasting kiln top.
Described one-level condensing collector is tubular(surface)condenser, and working temperature is 105 ℃-200 ℃, is used for collecting tar; Described secondary condenser is tubular(surface)condenser, and working temperature, lower than 50 ℃, is used for collecting wood vinegar.
The gas that described roasting kiln is discharged can be used as drying medium biomass material is dry after entering moisture eliminator by the smoke outlet above roasting kiln, and dried raw material is sent into lift.
The present invention compared with prior art has following advantage and effect:
(1) the present invention can realize that biomass are continuous, stablize pyrolysis, and the pyrolysis devolatilization thing is processed through the condensed in two stages device, has realized the initial gross separation of wood vinegar and tar, is convenient to utilize.
(2) pyrolysis reactor of the present invention is to be in tilted layout and is conducive to mass transport, and in reactor, material is first carried by feeding screw, then by the spring handling machinery, is carried, and completes pyrolysis and charing in the continuous moving process.
(3) pyrolysis gas of the present invention flashes back and keeps the operation of pyrolysis stable reaction, and the high-temperature flue gas that produces in roasting kiln is used for the drying of biomass as drying medium, and dried biomass are carried out pyrolysis.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the structural representation of biomass continuous pyrolysis of the present invention and product Fractional Collections refining plant;
Wherein, 1, lift; 2, hopper; 3, dumper; 4, hopper; 5, drive-motor; 6, feeding screw; 7, spring handling machinery; 8, roasting kiln; 9, thermal decomposition tube; 10, gas trap; 11, roots blower; 12, filler cleaner; 13, dividing plate water eliminator; 14, spray eliminator; 15, B-grade condensation collector; 16, one-level condensing collector; 17, charcoal case; 18, moisture eliminator.
Fig. 2 is the process flow sheet of biomass continuous pyrolysis of the present invention and product Fractional Collections purifying method.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with embodiment, the present invention is done further detailed description, but embodiments of the present invention are not limited to this.
Embodiment 1
Agricultural-forestry biomass continuous pyrolysis and product Fractional Collections refining plant, comprise hopper 2, thermal decomposition tube 9, charcoal case 17, one-level condensing collector 16 and B-grade condensation collector 15.Lift 1 can be according to actual field ground situation layout, and the discharge port of lift 1 is placed in the top of hopper 2, and the below of hopper 2 is provided with dumper 3, and the below of dumper 3 is provided with hopper 4.Dumper is star-like dumper, by flange, with hopper, with hopper, is connected, and can prevent that air from entering pyrolysis reactor, guarantees that system sealing is good.
The below of hopper 4 is provided with thermal decomposition tube 9, and thermal decomposition tube 9 is 0~10 ° and is in tilted layout, and the feeding side of thermal decomposition tube 9 is higher than exit side.There are feeding screw 6 and spring handling machinery 7 in the inside of thermal decomposition tube 9, feeding screw 6 is positioned at the below of hopper 4, one end of feeding screw 6 is connected with the drive-motor 5 that is positioned at thermal decomposition tube 9 outsides, the other end of feeding screw 6 is connected with an end of spring handling machinery 7, the other end of spring handling machinery 7 is free end, spring handling machinery 7 is flexible structure, has avoided the rigid interference of transfer mechanism and thermal decomposition tube.
Thermal decomposition tube 9 passes roasting kiln 8 and is connected with charcoal case 17, the top of charcoal case 17 is provided with pyrolysis gas outlet, and from pyrolysis gas outlet, starts to be connected with one-level condensing collector 16, B-grade condensation collector 15, spray eliminator 14, dividing plate water eliminator 13, filler cleaner 12 and roots blower 11 in turn by pipeline; The outlet of roots blower 11 is connected with Fuel Furnace 8 by two-port valve, also with gas trap 10, is connected simultaneously; The top of roasting kiln 8 is provided with smoke outlet and with moisture eliminator 18, is connected.
Agricultural-forestry biomass continuous pyrolysis and product Fractional Collections purifying method, comprise the steps: that biomass material is transported in hopper by lift, enter the sealing hopper under the dumper effect, then carry in thermal decomposition tube by feeding screw and spring handling machinery successively, and complete pyrolysis and charing in the continuous moving process, obtain pyrolysis product; Pyrolysis product enters the charcoal case by thermal decomposition tube, pyrolysis char in pyrolysis product is deposited on charcoal case bottom, pyrolysis devolatilization thing in pyrolysis product is being discharged by the pyrolysis gas outlet above the charcoal case under the effect of roots blower, and receive extend protection device and B-grade condensation collector through the one-level condensation successively, the tar that collection obtains separating and wood vinegar product, wherein the one-level condensing collector is tubular(surface)condenser, and working temperature is 105 ℃-200 ℃, is used for collecting tar; Described secondary condenser is tubular(surface)condenser, and working temperature, lower than 50 ℃, is used for collecting wood vinegar.Uncooled gaseous product obtains clean pyrolysis gas through spray eliminator, dividing plate water eliminator, filler cleaner after processing again, pyrolysis gas is extracted out by roots blower, the pyrolysis gas of a part enters in roasting kiln and flashes back for pyrolytic reaction provides thermal source, and remaining pyrolysis gas is collected; The flue gas that roasting kiln is discharged enters moisture eliminator by the smoke outlet of roasting kiln top, and as drying medium, that biomass material is dry, and dried raw material is sent into lift, then according to above-mentioned technique, carries out pyrolysis processing.Keeping the amount of the required pyrolysis gas that flashes back of pyrolysis stable reaction operation can regulate according to temperature distribution in roasting kiln, the high-temperature flue gas that produces can be used as the drying medium of roller dryer, pneumatic drier or other relevant drying plants, is used for the drying of biomass material.

Claims (3)

1. an agricultural-forestry biomass continuous pyrolysis and product Fractional Collections refining plant, is characterized in that: comprise hopper, thermal decomposition tube, charcoal case, one-level condensing collector and B-grade condensation collector; The discharge port of lift is placed in the top of hopper, and the below of hopper is provided with dumper, and the below of dumper is provided with hopper; The below of hopper is provided with thermal decomposition tube, there are feeding screw and spring handling machinery in the inside of thermal decomposition tube, feeding screw is positioned at the below of hopper, one end of feeding screw is connected with the drive-motor that is positioned at the thermal decomposition tube outside, the other end of feeding screw is connected with an end of spring handling machinery, and the other end of spring handling machinery is free end; Thermal decomposition tube passes roasting kiln and is connected with the charcoal case, the top of charcoal case is provided with pyrolysis gas outlet, and from pyrolysis gas outlet, starts to be connected with one-level condensing collector, B-grade condensation collector, spray eliminator, dividing plate water eliminator, filler cleaner and roots blower in turn by pipeline; The outlet of roots blower is connected with roasting kiln, gas trap by two-port valve; The top of roasting kiln is provided with smoke outlet and with moisture eliminator, is connected; Described one-level condensing collector is tubular(surface)condenser, and working temperature is 105 ℃-200 ℃, is used for collecting tar; Described secondary condenser is tubular(surface)condenser, and working temperature, lower than 50 ℃, is used for collecting wood vinegar.
2. agricultural-forestry biomass continuous pyrolysis according to claim 1 and product Fractional Collections refining plant, it is characterized in that: described thermal decomposition tube is 0~10 ° and is in tilted layout, and the feeding side of thermal decomposition tube is higher than exit side.
3. an agricultural-forestry biomass continuous pyrolysis and product Fractional Collections purifying method, it has utilized the described refining plant of claim 1 or 2, it is characterized in that comprising the steps:
(1) biomass material is transported in hopper by lift, enters hopper under the dumper effect, then carries in thermal decomposition tube by feeding screw and spring handling machinery successively, and complete pyrolysis and charing in the continuous moving process, obtains pyrolysis product;
(2) pyrolysis product enters the charcoal case by thermal decomposition tube, pyrolysis char in pyrolysis product is deposited on charcoal case bottom, pyrolysis devolatilization thing in pyrolysis product is being discharged by the pyrolysis gas outlet above the charcoal case under the effect of roots blower, and pass through successively one-level condensing collector and B-grade condensation collector, collect the tar and the wood vinegar product that obtain separating; Uncooled gaseous product obtains clean pyrolysis gas through spray eliminator, dividing plate water eliminator, filler cleaner after processing again, pyrolysis gas is extracted out by roots blower, the pyrolysis gas of a part enters in roasting kiln and flashes back for pyrolytic reaction provides thermal source, and remaining pyrolysis gas is collected; The gas that roasting kiln is discharged enters moisture eliminator by the smoke outlet of roasting kiln top.
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CN103115486B (en) * 2012-12-28 2015-06-17 中国神华能源股份有限公司 Rotary kiln material feeding device and rotary kiln material feeding method
CN103992805A (en) * 2014-04-29 2014-08-20 图们市龙泉农工贸有限公司 Production equipment and production method for charcoal, tar, wood vinegar and charcoal gas
CN104830356B (en) * 2014-12-03 2017-11-17 农业部规划设计研究院 A kind of inside and outside composition heating type biomass pyrolytic carbon makeup is put
CN106247376B (en) * 2016-08-29 2018-10-23 安徽金骏机械制造有限公司 Biomass fuel boiler bidirectional rotation apparatus for feeding
CN107805511A (en) * 2017-11-10 2018-03-16 葛永昌 Organic solid waste continuous carbonization pyrolysis charring method for innocent treatment
CN108758638B (en) * 2018-03-27 2020-04-17 清华大学 Air-classified regulation and control pyrolysis and combustion integrated furnace
CN109161563B (en) * 2018-07-11 2021-02-09 清华大学 Technical method for treating and utilizing antibiotic fungi residues
CN109181734A (en) * 2018-09-27 2019-01-11 中南林业科技大学 A kind of bamboo vinegar fractional condensaion collection method
CN109609158B (en) * 2019-02-12 2020-06-09 西北民族大学 Process for biomass catalytic pyrolysis reaction
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