CN102491522B - A kind of method of Water ecoenvironment based on aquatic plant harvesting - Google Patents

A kind of method of Water ecoenvironment based on aquatic plant harvesting Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102491522B
CN102491522B CN201110376425.9A CN201110376425A CN102491522B CN 102491522 B CN102491522 B CN 102491522B CN 201110376425 A CN201110376425 A CN 201110376425A CN 102491522 B CN102491522 B CN 102491522B
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water
plant
harvesting
aquatic
trophophase
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CN102491522A (en
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陈灏
姜义帅
姜鲁
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BEIJING HAIDIAN DISTRICT YUANMINGYUAN ADMINISTRATION
Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences of CAS
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BEIJING HAIDIAN DISTRICT YUANMINGYUAN ADMINISTRATION
Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences of CAS
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W10/00Technologies for wastewater treatment
    • Y02W10/10Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage

Abstract

nullA kind of method of Water ecoenvironment based on aquatic plant harvesting,The present invention relates to a kind of Water ecoenvironment method,It is characterized in that in water body, cultivating water plant or utilizing the water plant of clear-cutting forestland,Utilize aquatic plants growth absorbed nitrogen phosphorus recycling,Or use weed cutting equipment artificial in trophophase gathers in water plant,Promote water plant regrowth,Multi-harvest,And terminate in trophophase、After water plant bears seed or nutrition propagule,Gather in for the last time,With the form of water plant residual branch, nitrogen and phosphorous nutrient is extracted from water,Its objective is to make water plant full trophophase accumulation Biomass maximize,Or effects of purification quality is optimal,Remove water body and deposit Middle nutrition salt simultaneously、Slow down body eutrophication process、Prevent the rotten polluted-water again of water plant,It is applicable to shallow lake、City appearance water body、Unhurried current river course、Small reservoir、Wetland、The daily ecological maintenance in pond.

Description

A kind of method of Water ecoenvironment based on aquatic plant harvesting
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of Water ecoenvironment method, specifically one and utilize artificial or weed cutting equipment Remove lake Middle nutrition salt in trophophase harvesting water plant, keep lake view, the ecological maintenance method of water stabilization, be suitable for In shallow lake, city appearance water body, unhurried current river course, small reservoir, wetland, the daily ecological maintenance in pond.
Background technology
In recent years, eutrophication has become one of the most serious problem of lake ecosystem, needed for biology The inorganic nutrient substance such as nitrogen, phosphorus inputs lake in a large number, causes algae and other planktons to breed rapidly, under Dissolved Oxygen in Water amount Fall, water quality deterioration, even causes Fish and other biological mortality.
China is many lakes country, the total 1km in the whole nation22759, above lake, the most about 1/3rd is shallow water Lake, owing to over nearly 20 years, rapid development of economy and unsuitable lake resource develop, these lakes experiencing by agriculture The process of the acceleration eutrophication that track and field stream, industrial wastewater and municipal sewage cause, majority eutrophication or rich battalion In fosterization.The eutrophication of city appearance water body can not be ignored equally.Due to the aggravation in short supply of freshwater resources, recycled water becomes One of important moisturizing water source of city appearance water body, but according to " urban sewage reutilization water for scenic environment use water quality (GB/T 18921-2002) ", finding municipal sewage plant's recycled water is used for landscape water body, the pollutant background values of recycled water is relative Higher, especially total phosphorus and total nitrogen content is high, and the dilution self-cleansing ability relatively natural water body of water body is poor, exacerbates city appearance water body rich The generation of nutrient laden.And the river course that flows slowly, small reservoir, wetland, pond are likewise subjected to industrial or agricultural point, pollution of area source, eutrophy Change degree allows of no optimist.
For body eutrophication, every country and area use different physics, chemistry, biological method to control it System and reparation.Physical treatment method primarily now has Sediment Dredging, diversion flushing etc.;Chemical method has dosing coagulant and removes Algae agent etc..The improvement in lake is had certain effect by these physics, chemical method, but with serious pollution lake is carried out bed mud Dredging, the deposit being easily caused bottom occurs to suspend and diffusion, promotes the gold of the nitrogen in deposit, phosphorus recycling and absorption thereof Belong to the release of ion, so that water body environment faces by the heavy metal ion discharged in deposit and nitrogen and phosphorous nutrient secondary pollution Risk;Add chemical agent, although water body can be made to a certain extent transparent, and water quality is improved, but life-time service The aging of lake may be accelerated, cause new ecological problem.Comparatively speaking, physics and chemical treatment method cost are high, and And thorough to the improvement of eutrophication, can only in a short time effect obvious, be unsuitable for life-time service.Water plant is utilized to repair Eutrophic water body because of its low cost, be easy to use, development potentiality is big, environmental benefit good and is used widely.
Water plant is as one of the important component part of aquatic ecosystem and main primary producer, to Aquatic Ecosystem 2 System material circulation and energy have transmitted regulating and controlling effect.Water plant has the effect purifying eutrophic water body, including plant itself (blade and stem etc.) is allowed to absorption and encloses aufwuch on blade and absorbed and assimilate the capture of particulate matter in water body;Or Person is to make sedimentation of suspension to lakebed (eliminating particulate form nutritive salt) not settling flux;Or the adsorption of root system of plant. Fact proved, with the presence of in the plant-type lake ecosystem of submerged plant, the release of substrate sludge nutritive salt can effectively be controlled System, water quality can be effectively improved, and reason is the power resuspension procedure that water plant can contain deposit, can inhale simultaneously Receive water body and the nutritive salt in deposit, reduce nutritive salt load, the generation of containment blue-green alga bloom.
However, it should be noted that in eutrophication water, the easy raised growth of water plant under suitable condition, spreads whole The individual water surface, makes transmission light in water reduce, and dissolved oxygen reduces.And between water plant kind, intraspecific competition, cause plant dead, rotten Rotten, make water quality deterioration.Additionally, after trophophase terminates, water plant also can mortality, by the nutritive salt of trophophase absorption and assimilation Again it is released back in water body, causes and again pollute, exacerbate water body eutrophication degree.
Summary of the invention
It is an object of the invention to for China's shallow water type lake, city appearance water body, unhurried current river course, small reservoir, wetland, The eutrophication pollution environment in pond, it is provided that a kind of can effectively remove and utilize the life of phosphorus and nitrogen in eutrophication water State maintenance scheme.
For reaching above-mentioned purpose, the technical scheme is that cultivation water plant or clear-cutting forestland are aquatic in water body Plant, utilizes aquatic plants growth absorption and sorption nitrogen and phosphorous nutrient, or use weed cutting equipment harvesting water artificial in trophophase Raw plant, promote water plant regrowth, multi-harvest, and terminate in trophophase, water plant bears seed or nutrition is numerous After growing body, gather in for the last time, with the form of water plant residual branch, nitrogen and phosphorous nutrient is extracted from water, make aquatic planting Thing full trophophase accumulation Biomass maximizes, or effects of purification quality is optimal, remove simultaneously water body and deposit Middle nutrition salt, Slow down body eutrophication process, prevent the rotten polluted-water again of water plant.
Described water body includes the lake of mean depth 1-2m, city appearance water body, unhurried current river course and small reservoir.Described Water plant include submerged plant, emergent aquactic plant, floatingleaved plant and fluitante;Common submerged plant includes: Malaysia eye Sub-dish, watermifoil, water caltrop, hydrilla verticillata, hornwort, Herba vallisneriae Spiralis, waterweed;Common emergent aquactic plant includes: Flos Nelumbinis, phragmites communis, perfume (or spice) Pu, typha minima, Rhizoma Acori Graminei;Common floatingleaved plant includes: Flos nymphaeae (Nymphaea teragona Georgi), Fu Ye Herba potamogetonis distincti, Pedicellus et Pericarpium Trapae, Semen Euryales;Common fluitante includes: Water peanut, Herba Eichhorniae.The described submerged plant harvesting degree of depth is on the light compensation point of underwater, can not injure submerged plant root Portion, the harvesting height of emergent aquactic plant is that 0-50cm on the water surface, floatingleaved plant and fluitante are gathered in by certain area ratio, it is ensured that Water plant can continue to growth after harvesting.
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows:
1. ecological benefits.Submerged plant seasonality alternately, has pioneer's kind, trophophase multi-harvest per season, it is possible to really Protect pioneer's kind smooth growth in per season;Submerged plant, emergent aquactic plant, floatingleaved plant and fluitante Community Facies combine, and constitute Stable aquatic vegetation, it is possible to stably maintain shallow water type lake, city appearance water body, unhurried current river course, small reservoir good View situation, prevent the generation of water plant overpreading and wawter bloom.
2. environmental benefit.Water plant has purifying water body, absorption and assimilation nitrogen and phosphorous nutrient, promotes that sedimentation of suspension is to lake The end, improve bed mud physicochemical property, increase dissolved oxygen effect;Harvesting water plant can recover rapidly trophophase, and promotes water The generation of raw plant stolon, expands Biomass, above-mentioned for water plant effect is magnified, and then keeps shallow water type lake, city City's landscape water body, unhurried current river course, the water quality of small reservoir are well stablized, and prevent interspecies competition and life cycle in excessive kind Terminate to cause water plant death to rot to produce secondary pollution.
3. economic benefit.Water plant the most easily lives, it is not necessary to the growth that extra maintenance also can be luxuriant, reduces shallow water type Lake, city appearance water body, unhurried current river course, small reservoir maintenance cost.Trophophase multi-harvest water plant, harvesting aquatic The residual branch of plant can be turned waste into wealth through the further recycling of row.
Detailed description of the invention
Below in conjunction with specific embodiment, the present invention is described in further details.
Embodiment one Reed is tested
In Yuanmingyuan Park, Beijing beautiful exquisite waters (N 40 ° 00 ' 31 ", E 116 ° 18 ' 34 " sets up a 2m × 3m near) Sample prescription carries out the harvesting experiment of emergent aquactic plant phragmites communis, is designated as N1, N2, N3, S1, S2, S3.Carry out first on May 14th, 2011 Harvesting, N1, N2, N3 harvesting height is 40cm on the water surface, gathers at S1, S2, the S3 water surface, and harvesting situation is as shown in table 1.
Table 1 phragmites communis gathers in situation first
Gathering in two weeks after, owing to N1, N2, N3 harvesting height is higher, each sample prescription all has newly to sprout and occurs from stipes, every strain 2-3 is had newly to sprout;The every strain of S1, S2, S3 has 1-2 newly to sprout.
It is spaced February, on July 18th, 1 sample prescription S3, N3 are carried out aftercrop, harvesting height and harvesting for the first time Shi Xiangtong, comparison sample prescription 1 is phragmites communis around experiment sample prescription, does not the most gather in, and growing environment is identical with experiment sample prescription.Harvesting Situation is as shown in table 2.
Table 2 S3, N3 aftercrop situation
From table 1, table 2 it can be seen that combine twice harvesting situation, S3 harvesting height is relatively low, causes part phragmites communis dead, receives Cut strain number and be reduced to 115 by 170 strains, and gather in weight and fallen sharply to 0.85kg by primary 2.73kg, continued growth is described Phragmites communis ratio relatively fine, but always harvesting weight is 2.73kg+0.85kg=3.58kg, still above the harvesting of comparison sample prescription 1 Weight 3.02kg;N3 harvesting height is suitable, although harvesting weight has and slightly reduces, but owing to harvesting makes the top sky that phragmites communis grow Between increase, provide growing space for newborn phragmites communis, harvesting strain number is risen to 200 strains by 160 strains, and total harvesting weight is 1.52kg + 1.28kg=2.80kg, although low compared with harvesting weight 3.02kg of comparison sample prescription 1, it is contemplated that harvesting height, due to N3 relatively Comparison sample prescription gathers in 35cm less, learns with gathering in equal height according to aftercrop weight, and every centimetre of weight is about 0.01kg, few receipts The 35cm phragmites communis weight cut is 0.35kg, counts this moiety by weight in, and it is 3.15kg that N3 always gathers in weight, has exceeded comparison sample prescription 1 Harvesting weight 3.02kg.
Away from three first quarter moons of harvesting, on JIUYUE 1st, 1 for the first time, N1 is carried out aftercrop, harvesting height and first During secondary harvesting identical, comparison sample prescription 2 is phragmites communis around experiment sample prescription, does not the most gather in, growing environment with test sample prescription phase With.Harvesting situation is as shown in table 3.
Table 3 N1 aftercrop
From the point of view of table 3 result, through the growth of three first quarter moons, the harvesting weight of N1 aftercrop is slightly above control sample Side 2 harvesting weight, illustrates can be increased the Biomass of phragmites communis by harvesting for the first time, and in conjunction with table 1, the result of table 3, explanation is passed through Harvesting, the Biomass of the phragmites communis in N1 sample prescription is greatly increased.
In sum, by using the present invention, trophophase harvesting phragmites communis, the Biomass of phragmites communis can be increased, due to phragmites communis Growth needs nitrogen and phosphorus element, shows that trophophase harvesting phragmites communis can improve phragmites communis absorption and assimilation nitrogen phosphorus from water body and bed mud The ability of nutritive salt.
The harvesting experiment of embodiment two submerged plant
In Yuanmingyuan Park, Beijing, beautiful exquisite waters and Its Adjacent Waters carry out submerged plant harvesting experiment, and water quality is carried out with Track is monitored.When beautiful exquisite waters submerged plant growth covers the water surface, it is gathered in, set up sampled point, monitor water quality situation;? The water inlet in beautiful exquisite waters sets up sampled point, and the submerged plant in this part waters is not gathered in;Attached in beautiful exquisite waters Control point is set up in nearly waters, and this part waters is almost without submerged plant growth.Every two weeks gathers water sample, monitoring index bag Include: temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), COD (COD), total phosphorus (TP), phosphate, total nitrogen (TN), nitrate nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen.Choosing Take each monitoring point annual COD, TP, TN, DO content as shown in table 4.
Table 4 monitoring point annual COD, TP, TN, DO content
From table 4, it can be seen that the water quality situation in beautiful exquisite waters is better than the water quality of water inlet and control point generally, COD, TP, TN are less than water inlet and control point, and DO is higher than water inlet and control point, is likely to be due to submerged plant and carries out light cooperation With, discharge a large amount of oxygen, make water body reach dissolved oxygen hypersaturated state.And the COD of water inlet is inclined higher than control point and dissolved oxygen Low, but TP, TN value is less than control point, and absorbed nitrogen phosphorus recycling during submerged plant growth is described, but due to the most in time Harvesting, causes submerged plant raised growth, causes serious Intraspecific and Interspecific competition, makes part submerged plant death rot, causes COD raises, and dissolved oxygen reduces.
It can thus be seen that gather in submerged plant by trophophase, submerged plant is possible not only to continued growth, and permissible Maintain beautiful exquisite water area water-quality index normal, and stable keep, and can prevent that interspecies competition in submerged plant kind from causing heavy Water Plant death, the situation of water degradation occur.

Claims (4)

1. the method for a Water ecoenvironment based on aquatic plant harvesting, it is characterised in that: cultivate aquatic in water body Plant or utilize the water plant of clear-cutting forestland, utilizes aquatic plants growth absorbed nitrogen phosphorus recycling, artificial in trophophase or Use weed cutting equipment harvesting water plant, promote water plant regrowth, multi-harvest, and terminate in trophophase, aquatic After plant bears seed or nutrition propagule, gather in for the last time, with the form of the residual branch of water plant by nitrogen and phosphorus Salt extracts from water, its objective is to make water plant full trophophase accumulation Biomass maximize, or effects of purification quality is Good, simultaneously remove water body and deposit Middle nutrition salt, slow down body eutrophication process, prevent water plant rot again pollute Water body, described water body includes the shallow water type lake of mean depth 1-2m, city appearance water body, unhurried current river course, small reservoir, wet Ground and pond.
2. according to the method for the Water ecoenvironment based on aquatic plant harvesting described in claim 1, it is characterised in that: institute The water plant stated includes submerged plant, emergent aquactic plant, floatingleaved plant and fluitante, and submerged plant includes: p.malaianus, Watermifoil, water caltrop, hydrilla verticillata, hornwort, Herba vallisneriae Spiralis and waterweed;Emergent aquactic plant includes: Flos Nelumbinis, phragmites communis, Herba Typhae, typha minima and Rhizoma Acori Graminei;Floatingleaved plant includes: Flos nymphaeae (Nymphaea teragona Georgi), Fu Ye Herba potamogetonis distincti, Pedicellus et Pericarpium Trapae and Semen Euryales;Fluitante includes: water peanut and Herba Eichhorniae.
3. according to the method for the Water ecoenvironment based on aquatic plant harvesting described in claim 2, it is characterised in that: The aquatic plants growth phase, the submerged plant harvesting degree of depth is on the light compensation point of underwater, can not injure submerged plant root, very water The harvesting height of plant is 0-50cm on the water surface, floatingleaved plant and fluitante to be gathered in by certain area ratio, it is ensured that aquatic plant Thing can continue to growth after harvesting;After the aquatic plants growth phase terminates, to submerged plant, emergent aquactic plant and floatingleaved plant Root all of the above is gathered in, and all gathers in fluitante.
4. according to the method for the Water ecoenvironment based on aquatic plant harvesting described in claim 1, it is characterised in that: depend on According to aquatic plant species, growing state and view requirement, carry out once or multi-harvest at its trophophase.
CN201110376425.9A 2011-11-24 2011-11-24 A kind of method of Water ecoenvironment based on aquatic plant harvesting Expired - Fee Related CN102491522B (en)

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