CN102488149B - Combined processing method for processing crisp peas by using dry peas - Google Patents

Combined processing method for processing crisp peas by using dry peas Download PDF

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CN102488149B
CN102488149B CN2011104134514A CN201110413451A CN102488149B CN 102488149 B CN102488149 B CN 102488149B CN 2011104134514 A CN2011104134514 A CN 2011104134514A CN 201110413451 A CN201110413451 A CN 201110413451A CN 102488149 B CN102488149 B CN 102488149B
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pea
fried
vacuum
peas
processing
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CN102488149A (en
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张慜
祝银银
徐聚
黄卫宁
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江南大学
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Abstract

The invention discloses a combined processing method for processing crisp peas by using dry peas, and belongs to the technical field of fruit and vegetable food processing. The dry peas are taken as raw materials and the leisure crisp peas are prepared by the following steps of: cleaning, soaking and selecting peas; blanching, protecting color, steeping, draining, freezing, performing negative-pressure microwave spouted drying, frying in vacuum, removing oil in vacuum, seasoning, cooling and packaging, and storing finished products. The dry peas are puffed at low temperature, the processing range is wide, the crispness of the products is improved by a pre-freezing method, and the vacuum frying technology has the characteristics that the original color and shape and nutrients of the peas are maintained, the oil content is low, the frying time is short, the fried fat is not easy to oxidize, the shelf life of the products is long and the like. The products are crispy, delicious, aromatic, not greasy, convenient and sanitary, and are a leisure food suitable for young and old.

Description

A kind of combined processing method that utilizes dried pea to process crisp pea

Technical field

A kind of combined processing method that utilizes dried pea to process crisp pea the invention belongs to the garden stuff processing technical field, relates to fruits and vegetables ' dehydration, fried food processing.

Background technology

The Pisum legume, origin western part of Asia, Mediterranean Region and Ethiopia, western part, Asia Minor, because its adaptability is very strong, very wide in global geographical distribution.Pea is at the cultivation history in existing more than 2,000 year of China, and all there is cultivation various places now, and the major production areas is more than ten provinces and regions such as Sichuan, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Qinghai.

Pea is different with general vegetables, and contained end wooden fork acid, gibberellin and plant coagulate the materials such as element, have anti-inflammation, strengthen metabolic function; Wherein contain the dietary fiber than horn of plenty, can promote intestinal peristalsis, can prevent constipation, the gut purge effect is arranged; Be rich in the various nutriments of needed by human body in the pea, especially contain good protein, can improve antibacterial ability and the rehabilitation ability of body, be rich in carrotene in the pea, can prevent the synthetic of human carcinogen's material after edible, thereby reduce the formation of cancer cell, reduce the incidence of disease of human body cancer.Pea also has beautification function: put down in writing in the Compendium of Material Medica, pea has the effect of " dispel facial blackspot, order is facial glossy ", now research is found, pea contains abundant provitamin A, and provitamin A can be converted into vitamin A in vivo, has the effect of moist skin.The pea flavor is sweet, property flat, returns spleen, stomach warp; Have gas in the benefit, antidiarrheal dysentery, transfer that battalion defends, the effect of diuresis, subduing inflammation, solution mammary calculus poison; Cure mainly that beriberi, carbuncle are swollen, alactation, taste discomfort, hiccup vomiting, trusted subordinate's distending pain, the thirsty illness such as dysentery of letting out.

The nutritive value of pea is very high, every 100g pea contains: energy 105kJ(27 kilocalorie), protein 7.4g, fat 0.3g, carbohydrate 21.2g, folic acid 82.6 μ g, dietary fiber 3g, vitamin A 37 μ g, carrotene 220 μ g, thiamine 0.45mg, riboflavin 0.09mg, nicotinic acid 2.3mg, vitamin C 14mg, vitamin E 1.21mg, calcium 21mg, phosphorus 127mg, potassium 332mg, sodium 1.2mg.

Fried food is subjected to the people of other countries' favor deeply with its distinctive taste, development along with the epoch, the transformation of people's consumption idea, popularizing of nutrient knowledge, the fried mode of open container high temperature that adopts is over the past thousands of years challenged, this mode defective of bringing of processing food is more and more obvious: frying at normal atmospheric pressure carries out under higher oil temperature (160-220 ℃), and therefore the nutriments such as the vitamin in the raw-food material are subject to heavy damage and loss; High-temperature hot oil is exposed in the air, and composition polymerization reaction take place in the oil increases rapidly so that get peroxide value in the oil, greatly reduces the service time of oil; Too high temperature makes food be charred easily, produces peculiar smell, even produces benzene castor class harmful substance etc., makes domestic and international food expert, nutritionist turn pale at the mention of the tiger, and carries out many scientific experiments for this reason; Frying at normal atmospheric pressure food oil content is very high, not that the special populations such as a hypertension, high fat of blood are edible, and its range of work is restricted, be only suitable for the higher food of producing starch class or starch-containing class amount etc., and the fried duration and degree of heating is wayward, the proposition of series of problems and discovery so that the lower temperature vacuum frying technology is shown one's talent, receive numerous scientific research personnel's concern.

Vacuum frying is that fried drying and two technology of vacuum drying combine; when pressure is low; can reduce the steam partial pressure in the gas phase; the boiling temperature of material reduces; thereby material is under the low-temperature condition dewater; moisture diffusion speed is accelerated, and can be protected preferably the composition of material.Vacuum frying is carried out food processing under lower temperature (80-120 ℃) and higher vacuum (0.07-0.098MPa), this process can alleviate even avoid the oxidation of food in high temperature process, therefore the color and luster, local flavor and the nutrition that keep existing product are fit to the processing of leisure food.Vacuum system is to be in negative pressure state for atmospheric pressure, and its absolute pressure is lower than atmospheric pressure.Under the state of this relatively hypoxia, carry out food processing, the harm that can alleviate even avoid oxidation to bring, such as fat rancidity, enzymatic browning or other oxidation deterioration etc.The bad change that high-temperature process brings to frying oils and the problem that produces the harmful substances such as acrylamide can be effectively avoided in operation under vacuum state.

Be in the vacuum system of 700mmHg post in vacuum, namely absolute pressure is 60mmHg, and the boiling point of water can be calculated with Clausius-C1apeyron equation, is approximately 40 ℃.Under negative pressure state, as heat catalysis, the moisture of food inside (Free water and part are in conjunction with water) can sharply evaporate and spray, and makes tissue form loose porous structure with oil.Expanding volume during the higher free water gasification of fried initial stage vacuum is larger, the more large easier fruits and vegetables tissue fibers of breaking of gas volume, and the oily vapour passage of formation is just more, more unobstructed, and the goods expansion effect is better.

The spouted drying of negative-pressure microwave is to realize spouted, the rotation, mobile of material under condition of negative pressure, by adjusting vacuum, the spouted effect of speed of exhaust adjustment material, realize simultaneously the drying of material under the different temperatures, dry run is finished continuously, the moisture evaporation rate is higher than atmospheric pressure state in the negative pressure state material in addition, and materials quality is higher than the spouted drying of normal pressure.

The people such as Fan Liuping test as raw material carries out vacuum frying take the large white silkworm beans that Cixi was produced, dipping, freezing and heated-air drying have been studied to the impact of vacuum frying crisp broad bean quality, the result shows moisture and the oil content that these three kinds of methods can the appreciable impact broad bean, wherein dipping and heated-air drying preconditioning technique can significantly reduce the oil content of product, do not affect its brittleness, but heated-air drying temperature (105 ℃) is higher, and is very large for the color and luster impact of pea.

Zhang Yan, the people such as Wu Jijun take texture characteristics such as organoleptic attribute and fragility as index, study the vacuum frying technique of banana chips take fresh banana as raw material.Because the difference of raw material, the use of color stabilizer also is different, banana is easy to occur brown stain, so the color stabilizer that uses is 0.10% ascorbic acid, 0.2% citric acid, 20% syrup, and the variation of pea color and luster mainly is chlorophyllous decomposition among the present invention, chlorophyll is more stable under alkali condition, so that use is NaHCO 3As color stabilizer.

Local " the Emma's potato " produced carries out vacuum frying potato French fries technical study as raw material in the Lhasa of height above sea level 3650m take Tibet for Lin Changbin, the people such as Li Shunkai, and research lays particular emphasis on determining of technological parameter.

The people such as Song Xianju, a Min are the potato crispy chip that obtains low oil content and have satisfactory quality, adopt vacuum microwave-vacuum frying-three stage of vacuum microwave dewatering process, and three stage combined dehydration techniques are optimized, obtain the best transition point of three stage combined dehydration techniques.

Min, Sun Jincai, Xiao Gongnian, Du Weihua, Luo Zhenjiang disclose the fruit and vegetable crisp chip manufacture method (patent No.: 200310112745.9) of a kind of normal pressure heated drying and vacuum frying combined dehydration, the in advance technique of normal pressure heated drying and vacuum frying combined dehydration has been adopted in this invention, although increased the predrainage in early stage, heated drying is larger on the color and luster impact of raw material.

Min, Fan Liuping, Xiao Gongnian disclose definite method (patent No.: 200510039033.8) that a kind of fruit-vegetable dried product or fried chip reach the glassy state holding conditions, mainly lay particular emphasis on the definite method that given reserve temperature is issued to the critical moisture content activity of glass storage condition that is provided at, be the new method of the storage-stable of prediction fruit-vegetable dried product or fried chip, can judge, predict storage-stable and the shelf life of fruit-vegetable dried product or fried chip.

Min, Cai Jinlong, Ruan Hongwei, Zhou Xiang, Zhu Cheng training disclose a kind of vacuum frying processing method for low salt content sea water vegetable (patent No.: 200710134748.0), adopt the simultaneously preliminary treatment of freezing and vacuum infiltration to come the new technology of desalination, reduce the salt content in the raw material, adopted the puffed degree of the method raising product of precooling.This invention does not use the method for dipping to reduce the initial aqueous rate of raw material, and oil content is higher.

Min, Wang Yuchuan disclose a kind of negative-pressure microwave uniform spraying drying device and application (number of patent application: 201010572843.0), lay particular emphasis on the design of spouted drying device, less to the parametric description of its application, less to the characteristics of product.

Zhu Cheng training; a Min, Wang Lingyu, Shao Zhenglin discloses the spouted method of the negative-pressure microwave (number of patent application: 201110252707.8) of a kind of salt tolerance vegetables and marine fish recombined leisure crisp particles, take freezing ocean fish and fresh-water fishes and selected salt tolerance vegetables as raw material, with fish through thawing, clean, three go (to decaptitate, internal organ, fish scale), clean, meat is adopted in the peeling deburring, except raw meat, sky is cut, spice is cut and is mixed, salt is cut, again salt tolerance vegetables is selected, clean, protect look, desalination, draining, chopping, mix in proportion again and carry out, carry out first the spouted drying of vacuum microwave and then negative-pressure microwave, because expanded excessive, tourism is carried and is not very convenient although product is crisp.

The shortcomings such as leisure pea product in the market exists that pigment content exceeds standard, mouthfeel is greasy, and is crisp not, and shelf life is short are so adopt the spouted drying of negative-pressure microwave and vacuum frying technology to address the above problem.

Summary of the invention

The purpose of this invention is to provide a kind of combined processing method that utilizes dried pea to process crisp pea, relate to dehydrated fruits and vegetables, fried food processing, so that fried pea reaches a new level from the nutrition angle.

Technical scheme of the present invention:

A kind of combined processing method that utilizes dried pea to process crisp pea, take dried pea as raw material, after the pea cleaning and dipping selected, carry out blanching, protect look, flood, drain, freezing, the spouted drying of negative-pressure microwave, vacuum frying, vacuum de-oiling, seasoning, cooling packing, finished product preservation:

(1) cleaning and dipping is selected: with the Impurity removal in the pea, and clean up, soak until after the pea particle fully absorbed water, full seed was picked out in classification with clear water, the size homogeneous is without the pea of mildewy, nothing breakage, free from insect pests, disease, spot, rust staining, Calusena lansium, old beans, flat beans.Along with the difference in season, soak time is also different: spring and autumn generally soaks 10-16h, generally soaks 6-10h summer, generally soaks 18-24h winter.Then pea being placed on mass concentration is 2% Na 2CO 3In the solution, its water material mass ratio is 4:1, soaks 30min.

(2) blanching: the pea after will soaking is put into 90-100 ℃ of hot water blanching 4-6min, then cools off with circulating water rapidly.

(3) protect look: at normal temperatures the pea after the blanching is immersed in mass concentration and is 5% NaHCO 3In the solution 2 hours.

(4) dipping: pea is flooded 3h in concentration is 15% maltodextrin, takes out again the maltodextrin that cleans the pea surface, drain the moisture on surface.

(5) freezing: the pea after will draining places under-20 ℃ and carries out fully charge.

(6) the spouted drying of negative-pressure microwave: freezing later pea is gone in the loader of the spouted device of negative-pressure microwave, control vacuum is at 0.02-0.03MPa, microwave power is the spouted 5-8min of 4-6W/g, until the pea volume is expanded and moisture content drops to below 40%.

(7) vacuum frying: fried condition is vacuum 0.08-0.09Mpa, fried kettle temperature is 105-115 ℃, fried beginning in the fry basket of the pea of packing into the immersion palm oil, fried time and raw material, what were relevant, the general fried time is 25-35min, fried terminal point can be judged by the peephole of observing Fryer, be fried terminal point when bubble outwards overflows when no longer including in the grease.

(8) vacuum de-oiling: the primer fluid pressure device, fry basket is broken away from pasta, under vacuum condition, carry out centrifugation de-oiling, rotating speed is 350-400rpm, and centrifugation time 5-10min opens the atmosphere controlled valve after de-oiling finishes, recover atmospheric pressure, then open deep fryer, take out fried product.

(9) seasoning:

A, toppings are white sugar, edible salt, I+G and garlic face powder, are incorporated as weight 0.5% white sugar, 1.5% edible salt, 0.06% I+G and the 3%-4% garlic face powder of fried rear pea, mix thoroughly, namely get the fragrant green soya bean of garlic;

Or B, toppings be white sugar, edible salt, I+G and mustard meal, and addition is respectively 0.5% white sugar, 1.5% edible salt, 0.06% I+G and the 1.5%-2% mustard meal of the pea weight after fried, mixes thoroughly, namely gets the mustard green soya bean.

(10) cooling, packing, preservation: be cooled to room temperature, pack again, adopt the high density polyethylene (HDPE) bag to rush the nitrogen packing; Lucifuge preservation under the normal temperature.

Beneficial effect of the present invention:

With traditional direct fried comparing, use dipping method and the spouted drying means of negative-pressure microwave, reduce the pea initial water content, thereby can reduce the oil content of vacuum frying pea and improve crispness.Simultaneously, use the pre-freeze method, can further improve puffed degree and the crisp degree of product.The vacuum frying technology effectively keeps pea pea green originally, and color and luster is substantially even, has the due beany flavour of pea, and mouthfeel is crisp, particle integrity, non-greasy.

Comprehensive and opinion, the pea goods fat content that the present invention produces is low, and shape of product is mellow and full complete, and is fluffy crisp, and color is pea green, the pure fragrance of smell, process time is short, has long storage period, does not add any pigment, the leisure health health.

The specific embodiment

Embodiment 1: the production and processing method of the fragrant green soya bean of vacuum frying pea-garlic

With the Impurity removal in the 20Kg pea, and clean up, soak until the pea particle fully absorbs water rear (moisture content is between 51%-60%) with clear water, then being placed on mass concentration is 2% Na 2CO 3In the solution, its water material mass ratio is 4:1, soaks 30min, puts into hot water blanching 4-6min, then rapidly with the circulating water cooling, pea is immersed in mass concentration again and is 5% NaHCO 3In the solution 2 hours.Then the pea of pulling out is placed on concentration and is in 15% the maltodextrin and flood 3h, take out again the maltodextrin that cleans the pea surface, drain the moisture on surface.Pea after draining placed under-20 ℃ carry out fully charge, freezing later pea is gone in the loader of the spouted device of negative-pressure microwave, control vacuum is at 0.03MPa, and microwave power is the spouted 5min of 6W/g, until the pea volume is expanded and moisture content drops to below 40%.Then carry out vacuum frying, fried condition is vacuum 0.08-0.09Mpa, fried kettle temperature is 105-115 ℃, fried beginning in the fry basket of the pea of packing into the immersion palm oil, the fried time is 25-35min, fried terminal point can be judged by the peephole of observing Fryer, be fried terminal point when bubble outwards overflows when no longer including in the grease.After the fried end, the primer fluid pressure device breaks away from pasta with fry basket, carries out centrifugation de-oiling under vacuum condition, rotating speed is 350-400rpm, and centrifugation time 5-10min after de-oiling finishes, opens the atmosphere controlled valve, recover atmospheric pressure, then open deep fryer, take out fried product.Pack with all size high density polyethylene (HDPE) bag as required after filling nitrogen (99.99% purity) after the seasoning (0.5% white sugar, 1.5% edible salt, 0.06% I+G and 3-4% garlic face powder are mixed thoroughly, namely get the fragrant green soya bean of garlic).

Embodiment 2: the production and processing method of vacuum frying pea-mustard green soya bean

With the Impurity removal in the 20Kg pea, and clean up, soak until the pea particle fully absorbs water rear (moisture content is between 51%-60%) with clear water, then being placed on mass concentration is 2% Na 2CO 3In the solution, its water material mass ratio is 4:1, soaks 30min, puts into hot water blanching 4-6min, then rapidly with the circulating water cooling, pea is immersed in mass concentration again and is 5% NaHCO 3In the solution 2 hours.Then the pea of pulling out is placed on concentration and is in 15% the maltodextrin and flood 3h, take out again the maltodextrin that cleans the pea surface, drain the moisture on surface.Pea after draining placed under-20 ℃ carry out fully charge, freezing later pea is gone in the loader of the spouted device of negative-pressure microwave, control vacuum is at 0.02MPa, and microwave power is the spouted 8min of 4W/g, until the pea volume is expanded and moisture content drops to below 40%.Then carry out vacuum frying, fried condition is vacuum 0.08-0.09Mpa, fried kettle temperature is 105-115 ℃, fried beginning in the fry basket of the pea of packing into the immersion palm oil, the fried time is 25-35min, fried terminal point can be judged by the peephole of observing Fryer, be fried terminal point when bubble outwards overflows when no longer including in the grease.After the fried end, the primer fluid pressure device breaks away from pasta with fry basket, carries out centrifugation de-oiling under vacuum condition, rotating speed is 350-400rpm, and centrifugation time 5-10min after de-oiling finishes, opens the atmosphere controlled valve, recover atmospheric pressure, then open deep fryer, take out fried product.Pack with all size high density polyethylene (HDPE) bag as required after filling nitrogen (99.99% purity) after the seasoning (0.5% white sugar, 1.5% edible salt, 0.06% I+G and 1.5-2% mustard meal are mixed thoroughly, namely get the mustard green soya bean).

Claims (1)

1. combined processing method that utilizes dried pea to process crisp pea, it is characterized in that take dried pea as raw material, after the pea cleaning and dipping selected, carry out blanching, protect look, flood, drain, freezing, the spouted drying of negative-pressure microwave, vacuum frying, vacuum de-oiling, seasoning, cooling packing, finished product preservation:
(1) cleaning and dipping is selected: with the Impurity removal in the pea, and clean up, soak until after the pea particle fully absorbed water, full seed was picked out in classification with clear water, the size homogeneous is without the pea of mildewy, nothing breakage, free from insect pests, disease, spot, rust staining, Calusena lansium, old beans, flat beans; Along with the difference in season, soak time is also different: spring and autumn soaks 10-16h, soaks 6-10h summer, soaks 18-24h winter; Then pea being placed on mass concentration is 2% Na 2CO 3In the solution, its water material mass ratio is 4:1, soaks 30min;
(2) blanching: the pea after will soaking is put into 90-100 ℃ of hot water blanching 4-6min, then cools off with circulating water rapidly;
(3) protect look: at normal temperatures the pea after the blanching is immersed in mass concentration and is 5% NaHCO 3In the solution 2 hours;
(4) dipping: pea is flooded 3h in mass concentration is 15% maltodextrin, takes out again the maltodextrin that cleans the pea surface, drain the moisture on surface;
(5) freezing: the pea after will draining places under-20 ℃ and carries out fully charge;
(6) the spouted drying of negative-pressure microwave: freezing later pea is gone in the loader of the spouted device of negative-pressure microwave, control vacuum is at 0.02-0.03MPa, microwave power is the spouted 5-8min of 4-6W/g, until the pea volume is expanded and moisture content drops to below 40%;
(7) vacuum frying: fried condition is vacuum 0.08-0.09Mpa, fried kettle temperature is 105-115 ℃, fried beginning in the fry basket of the pea of packing into the immersion palm oil, fried time and raw material, what were relevant, the fried time is 25-35min, fried terminal point is judged by the peephole of observing Fryer, is fried terminal point when bubble outwards overflows when no longer including in the grease;
(8) vacuum de-oiling: the primer fluid pressure device, fry basket is broken away from pasta, under vacuum condition, carry out centrifugation de-oiling, rotating speed is 350-400rpm, and centrifugation time 5-10min opens the atmosphere controlled valve after de-oiling finishes, recover atmospheric pressure, then open deep fryer, take out fried product;
(9) seasoning:
A, toppings are white sugar, edible salt, I+G and garlic face powder, are incorporated as weight 0.5% white sugar, 1.5% edible salt, 0.06% I+G and the 3%-4% garlic face powder of fried rear pea, mix thoroughly, namely get the garlic sweet pea;
Or B, toppings be white sugar, edible salt, I+G and mustard meal, and addition is respectively 0.5% white sugar, 1.5% edible salt, 0.06% I+G and the 1.5%-2% mustard meal of the pea weight after fried, mixes thoroughly, namely gets the mustard pea;
(10) cooling, packing, preservation: be cooled to room temperature, pack again, adopt the high density polyethylene (HDPE) bag to rush the nitrogen packing; Lucifuge preservation under the normal temperature.
CN2011104134514A 2011-12-13 2011-12-13 Combined processing method for processing crisp peas by using dry peas CN102488149B (en)

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