A kind of artificial culture siganus guttatus parent scale natural propagation method
The invention belongs to artificial culture fish technical field, particularly relate to a kind of artificial culture siganus guttatus parent scale natural propagation method.
Siganus guttatus (Siganus guttatus, be commonly called as golden tiger spot) be under the jurisdiction of Perciformes, siganidae, siganus, its delicious meat, protein content is high, be rich in the n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid, be of high nutritive value, liked by consumers in general, larger at the Southeast Asian countries sales volume, in Fujian of China, the market such as Guangdong, Hong Kong is in great demand.
Siganus guttatus is rare ominivore-fish in Perciformes, it is also rare ominivore-fish in the mariculture kind (mariculture is wide in variety is predacious fish), the notable feature that has is: 1. omnivorousness, the source of raising easily solves the tangleweeds such as siganus guttatus happiness food Enteromorpha, do not waste resource, be conducive to enhancement of environment, can reduce cultivation in breeding process drops into, for setting up " grain-saving type ", " environmentally friendly " healthy aquaculture pattern, the health, the sustainable development that guarantee fishery have far reaching significance, and development potentiality is huge.2. eurysalinity, cultivation waters and the wide siganus guttatus of spatial dimension both can maricultures, also adapt to brackish culture, desalination cultivation technology by the exploitation siganus guttatus, can further widen cultivation waters and the space of siganus guttatus, market prospects are wide, and development trend is better, will bring huge economic interests and Social Ecology effect, have wide industrialization prospect.3. eurythermic China coast and middle part can cultivate, and the siganus guttatus environment-adapting ability is strong, and growth is fast, can develop multiple efficient and healthful ecologic breeding pattern, can control by the habit of siganus guttatus the outburst of pond macro, cleaning etting etc.The expert actively recommends siganus guttatus as a kind of new cultivation object both at home and abroad.At present, this suggestion is accepted by many countries and regions, particularly the countries such as Southeast Asia, the Middle East and Fiji.In recent years, the different breeding model study of siganus guttatus has been actively developed in the south China area, has formed gradually certain cultivation scale.
Realize the development of siganus guttatus aquaculture industry, must realize the large batch of seed breeding production of siganus guttatus total man work.Because the siganus guttatus stress reaction is strong, the male and female sexual maturity is asynchronous; need carry out accelerating the ripening and hastening parturition (this is also the method that the artificial propagation of many sea water and fresh water fishes is adopted) of medicine; siganus guttatus dorsal fin, abdomeinal fin, pectoral fin length have sharp sour jujube; and sour jujube is toxic, does not slightly note just stabbing hand in operating process, the difficult load of pain; inconvenient operation; produce for the scale seed and bring impact, easily cause parent population injured simultaneously, affect surviving of parent population in postpartum.
For siganus guttatus stress reaction strong (actuating is just dead), the problems such as early stage prelarva survival rate is low, carried out series of studies, reduced the problem of siganus guttatus parent population processing ease death by anesthesia, by best oxytocic drug (LHRH-A25.0 μ g+HCG500IU+DOM1.0mg/kg), the spawning rate of wild parent population is that 60-80%, fertilization rate are that 83.2-90.5%, incubation rate are 71.2-76.8%.The survival rate 16.1% of prelarva.But through the parent population of hastening parturition, still have postpartum the 30-40% parent population dead.Due to the effect of accelerating the ripening and hasten parturition of adopting exogenous hormone, there are the quality problems of sperm and ovum, directly have influence on the survival rate of after fertilization seedling, up to the present this be also, by one of artificial repening, the low key factor of most of fish juvenile fish survival rate of hastening parturition.
Summary of the invention
Technical problem to be solved by this invention is to provide a kind of artificial culture siganus guttatus parent scale natural propagation method, and under the artificial culture condition, the juvenile fish of 1.5-3cm becomes the natural propagation after parent population.By the artificial regulatory technology, without the accelerating the ripening of outer source technology, hastening parturition reaches scale natural propagation, for the development of siganus guttatus aquaculture industry provides large batch of high-quality seed, improves simultaneously the survival rate of artificial culture parent population survival rate in postpartum and juvenile fish.
The technical solution adopted for the present invention to solve the technical problems is: a kind of method of artificial culture siganus guttatus parent scale natural propagation comprises the following steps:
(1) at the parent fish selection that carries out siganus guttatus mid-February in every year, select without injured, body surface smooth, body weight at the 500-600g individuality as the parent;
(2) antenatal 2 months, pick out the female parent population of siganus guttatus, by increasing temperature and the measure of prolonging light time, promote the gonad development of female parent population, reach with male and synchronize;
(3) antenatal 1 month, increase fresh food in the artificial mixed feed of described parent population;
(4) antenatal two weeks, in the breeding environment of described parent population, discharge is adjusted to 0.8m/s, keeps intensity of illumination and water temperature, impels sexual gland to reach ripe;
(5) in antenatal 2 to 3 days, clean and cultivate the pond, and stop the bait of throwing something and feeding, regulate current 1-1.5m/s, strengthen quantity of exchanged water, and want change water every day 100%;
(6) postpartum, the lay eggs certain thorough disinfection in pond of rear parent population of placement, add the 2mg/L terramycin to protect from infection in water body, the initial stages of restoration of parent population reduces throwing something and feeding of bait in postpartum, replenish vegetal bait, after parent population ingests normally, can carry out parent population according to antenatal feeding method and cultivate postpartum.
Described step (2) is described by increasing temperature and the measure of prolonging light time, and referring to day does not increase by 1 ℃ of water temperature until water temperature is increased to 25 ℃ according to, and the prolonging light time to 20 is hour by 21 hours.
Described step (3) fresh food is oyster, fish or crab, and the injected volume of described fresh food is 3 to 5% of parent population body weight.
The antenatal two weeks of described step (4) keeps intensity of illumination and water temperature, refers to that intensity of illumination remains on 5000-8000lx, water temperature remains on 27-29 ℃.
the siganus guttatus that the present invention picks out, cultivation by above-mentioned raun, the reinforced cultivating of male and female parent population, eco-environmental control and the front preparation of laying eggs, the siganus guttatus parent population of artificial culture reaches sexual maturity fully, do not needing accelerating the ripening through exogenous hormone, under the effect of hastening parturition, reached scale natural propagation, produced with natural endowment under effect same, changed the situation that the breeding of artificial culture siganus guttatus need just can be laid eggs under the effect of exogenous hormone, ripe parent population reaches 100% and lays eggs, the fertilization rate reached of natural propagation is to (78-90%), incubation rate reaches (80-88%), more than the juvenile fish survival rate reaches (30%), the injury of having avoided simultaneously artificial induced spawning to cause, postpartum, the parent population survival rate reached 100%, reduce the parent population loss.
Below in conjunction with specific embodiment, further set forth the present invention.Should be understood that these embodiment only to be used for explanation the present invention and be not used in and limit the scope of the invention.Should be understood that in addition those skilled in the art can make various changes or modifications the present invention after the content of having read the present invention's instruction, these equivalent form of values fall within the application's appended claims limited range equally.
Concrete enforcement is divided into 6 steps:
1, annual mid-February, select 500-600g body surface smooth, undamaged parent population from the artificial culture pond;
2, carrying out male and female differentiates, the female parent population that identifies is put into separately cultivate the pond and cultivate, the water temperature of cultivating is raised to 25 ℃ from water temperature (18-20 ℃) at that time with 1 ℃/day, and simultaneously the prolonging light time, every afternoon, illuminating lamp was opened before not deceiving in the sky, last till and turn off the light eight thirty of evening, turn off the light and will turn off the light one by one, Close All, can frighten parent population suddenly, cultivate with this understanding the time of 2 months, the gonad development of female parent population is reached with male synchronize;
3, siganus guttatus male and female parent population is antenatal 1 month, increases part fresh food (making rotten shape as oyster, fish and crab adds in artificial feed) and carry out reinforced cultivating in artifical compound feed, guarantees parent population sexual gland quality.Feeding rate is 3～5% of fish body weight;
4, lay eggs first half of the month, open into discharge outlet, every two days draining positions are from 100cm to 30cm water level, strengthen quantity of exchanged water, and making the flow velocity in the pond arrive the 0.8m/s left and right by regulating current, capable of regulating illumination intensity is at 5000-8000lx, water temperature 27-29 ℃, salinity remains on more than 28, and the sexual gland by flowing water and light stimulus parent population reaches physical maturity;
5, lay eggs and clean to cultivate the pond in front 2,3 days, and stop the bait of throwing something and feeding, regulate current 1-1.5m/s, strengthen quantity of exchanged water, and want change water every day 100%;
6, parent population is managed postpartum, places the certain thorough disinfection in pond of the rear parent population that lays eggs, can add the 2mg/L terramycin to protect from infection in water body.The initial stages of restoration of parent population suitably reduces throwing something and feeding of bait in postpartum, and suitable some the vegetal bait (Enteromorpha, fragrant plant mentioned in ancient texts etc.) that replenish have and induce preferably the effect of ingesting.After parent population ingests normally, can carry out parent population according to antenatal feeding method and cultivate postpartum.
The siganus guttatus of picking out; by the cultivation of raun, reinforced cultivating, the eco-environmental control of male and female parent population and the front preparation of laying eggs; the siganus guttatus parent population of artificial culture is not needing under the effect of accelerating the ripening, hasten parturition of exogenous hormone; reached scale natural propagation; produced with natural endowment under effect same; changed the situation that the breeding of artificial culture siganus guttatus need just can be laid eggs under the effect of exogenous hormone, the injury of having avoided simultaneously artificial induced spawning to cause.By the management of parent population in postpartum, postpartum, parent population occured without death condition.