CN102460034A - Solar receiver utilizing carbon nanotube infused coatings - Google Patents

Solar receiver utilizing carbon nanotube infused coatings Download PDF

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CN102460034A
CN102460034A CN 201080025341 CN201080025341A CN102460034A CN 102460034 A CN102460034 A CN 102460034A CN 201080025341 CN201080025341 CN 201080025341 CN 201080025341 A CN201080025341 A CN 201080025341A CN 102460034 A CN102460034 A CN 102460034A
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coating
cnt
solar receiver
heat
carbon
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CN 201080025341
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Chinese (zh)
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D·J·阿德科克
H·C·马莱茨基
K·海克
T·K·沙阿
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应用纳米结构方案公司
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    • C23C28/00Coating for obtaining at least two superposed coatings either by methods not provided for in a single one of groups C23C2/00 - C23C26/00 or by combinations of methods provided for in subclasses C23C and C25C or C25D
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    • C23C28/00Coating for obtaining at least two superposed coatings either by methods not provided for in a single one of groups C23C2/00 - C23C26/00 or by combinations of methods provided for in subclasses C23C and C25C or C25D
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    • C23C28/00Coating for obtaining at least two superposed coatings either by methods not provided for in a single one of groups C23C2/00 - C23C26/00 or by combinations of methods provided for in subclasses C23C and C25C or C25D
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    • C23C28/00Coating for obtaining at least two superposed coatings either by methods not provided for in a single one of groups C23C2/00 - C23C26/00 or by combinations of methods provided for in subclasses C23C and C25C or C25D
    • C23C28/30Coatings combining at least one metallic layer and at least one inorganic non-metallic layer
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    • C23C28/00Coating for obtaining at least two superposed coatings either by methods not provided for in a single one of groups C23C2/00 - C23C26/00 or by combinations of methods provided for in subclasses C23C and C25C or C25D
    • C23C28/30Coatings combining at least one metallic layer and at least one inorganic non-metallic layer
    • C23C28/34Coatings combining at least one metallic layer and at least one inorganic non-metallic layer including at least one inorganic non-metallic material layer, e.g. metal carbide, nitride, boride, silicide layer and their mixtures, enamels, phosphates and sulphates
    • C23C28/345Coatings combining at least one metallic layer and at least one inorganic non-metallic layer including at least one inorganic non-metallic material layer, e.g. metal carbide, nitride, boride, silicide layer and their mixtures, enamels, phosphates and sulphates with at least one oxide layer
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    • C23C28/00Coating for obtaining at least two superposed coatings either by methods not provided for in a single one of groups C23C2/00 - C23C26/00 or by combinations of methods provided for in subclasses C23C and C25C or C25D
    • C23C28/30Coatings combining at least one metallic layer and at least one inorganic non-metallic layer
    • C23C28/34Coatings combining at least one metallic layer and at least one inorganic non-metallic layer including at least one inorganic non-metallic material layer, e.g. metal carbide, nitride, boride, silicide layer and their mixtures, enamels, phosphates and sulphates
    • C23C28/345Coatings combining at least one metallic layer and at least one inorganic non-metallic layer including at least one inorganic non-metallic material layer, e.g. metal carbide, nitride, boride, silicide layer and their mixtures, enamels, phosphates and sulphates with at least one oxide layer
    • C23C28/3455Coatings combining at least one metallic layer and at least one inorganic non-metallic layer including at least one inorganic non-metallic material layer, e.g. metal carbide, nitride, boride, silicide layer and their mixtures, enamels, phosphates and sulphates with at least one oxide layer with a refractory ceramic layer, e.g. refractory metal oxide, ZrO2, rare earth oxides or a thermal barrier system comprising at least one refractory oxide layer
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    • C23C30/00Coating with metallic material characterised only by the composition of the metallic material, i.e. not characterised by the coating process
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24SSOLAR HEAT COLLECTORS; SOLAR HEAT SYSTEMS
    • F24S10/00Solar heat collectors using working fluids
    • F24S10/90Solar heat collectors using working fluids using internal thermosiphonic circulation
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24SSOLAR HEAT COLLECTORS; SOLAR HEAT SYSTEMS
    • F24S20/00Solar heat collectors specially adapted for particular uses or environments
    • F24S20/20Solar heat collectors for receiving concentrated solar energy, e.g. receivers for solar power plants
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24SSOLAR HEAT COLLECTORS; SOLAR HEAT SYSTEMS
    • F24S70/00Details of absorbing elements
    • F24S70/20Details of absorbing elements characterised by absorbing coatings; characterised by surface treatment for increasing absorption
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24SSOLAR HEAT COLLECTORS; SOLAR HEAT SYSTEMS
    • F24S70/00Details of absorbing elements
    • F24S70/30Auxiliary coatings, e.g. anti-reflective coatings
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/40Solar thermal energy
    • Y02E10/41Tower concentrators
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/40Solar thermal energy
    • Y02E10/44Heat exchange systems
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T50/00Aeronautics or air transport
    • Y02T50/60Efficient propulsion technologies
    • Y02T50/67Relevant aircraft propulsion technologies

Abstract

A solar receiver includes a heat absorbing element having an outer surface and an inner surface opposite the outer surface and a first coating including a carbon nanotube-infused fiber material in surface engagement with and at least partially covering the outer surface of the heat absorbing element. Solar radiation incident onto the first coating is received, absorbed, and converted to heat energy, and the heat energy is transferred from the first coating to the heat absorbing element. A multilayer coating for a solar receiver device includes a first coating that includes a CNT-infused fiber material and an environmental coating disposed on the first coating.

Description

使用并入碳纳米管的涂层的太阳能接收器 Use of the carbon nanotube coating layer incorporated solar receiver

[0001] 相关申请的声明 Statement [0001] RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0002] 在35 USC119(e)下,本申请要求2009年4月7日提交的美国临时申请61/167,386的优先权。 [0002] In 35 USC119 under (e), this application claims priority to US April 7, 2009, filed Provisional Application No. 61 / 167,386 in.

发明领域 Field of the Invention

[0003] 本发明一般地涉及接收、吸收、容纳电磁辐射并且将接收的电磁辐射转化为热能的太阳能接收器设备。 [0003] The present invention generally relates to receiving, absorbing, receiving electromagnetic radiation and the electromagnetic radiation into thermal energy received solar receiver apparatus.

[0004] 发明背景 [0004] Background of the Invention

[0005] 已发展太阳热收集器以利用来自太阳辐射的能量用于各种工业过程、发电和加热水应用。 [0005] has developed solar thermal collectors to harness energy from the sun's radiation used in various industrial processes, power generation and heating-water applications. 入射在地球表面上的太阳辐射具有大约lkW/m2的估计能量密度,并且波长范围从紫外线(UV)辐射的大约200纳米(nm)至红外线(IR)辐射的大约2500nm。 The incident solar radiation on the earth's surface has estimated an energy density of approximately lkW / m2, and the range of wavelengths from the ultraviolet radiation (UV) is about 200 nanometers (nm) to infrared (IR) radiation is about 2500nm. 太阳热收集器通常包括反射器以将太阳辐射聚焦至热接收器上。 Solar heat collector generally comprises a reflector to focus solar radiation onto a heat sink. 热接收器将太阳辐射的光能转化为传热流体的热能。 Heat receiver of the solar radiation energy into thermal energy of the heat transfer fluid. 热接收器通常包括热吸收器,其为短波太阳辐射的良好吸收器,例如在UV和可见光范围中。 Heat receiver typically includes a heat absorber, short-wave solar radiation is absorbed well, for example in the UV and visible range. 但是,至少一些热吸收体在红外线范围也是良好的长波热辐射体,当被短波太阳辐射的吸收充分激发时,通过顶辐射发出热。 However, at least some of the heat absorption body in the long-wave infrared range are good heat radiating body, when sufficiently short-wave solar radiation absorbing excitation, emit heat radiation through the top. 尽管最初可吸收高百分比的入射太阳辐射,但是热吸收器可发出高百分比的辐射热,从而降低太阳能的有效收集。 Although initially absorb a high percentage of incident solar radiation, but the heat absorber may issue a high percentage of radiant heat, thereby reducing the effective collection of solar energy.

[0006] 已发展几种类型的太阳能收集器,包括但不限于平板太阳能收集器和包含在抽空的玻璃管框架(housing)中的吸收器管。 [0006] have been developed several types of solar collector, including but not limited to flat plate solar collector comprising an absorber and an evacuated glass tube frame (Housing) in a tube. 吸收器表面可以包括裸露的金属或者用选择性吸收器涂层涂覆的金属,用于吸收在太阳辐射光谱内(即,大约200nm至2500nm)的辐射。 Absorber bare metal surface may comprise a metal or a selective absorber coating application, for absorbing the solar radiation spectrum (i.e., from about 200nm to 2500nm) radiation. 这种太阳能选择性吸收器涂层(具有例如在0. 92至0. 96的范围的吸收率,和例如在0. 07至0. 11的范围的发射率)实际吸收所有的入射辐射,但是在红外线波长处通常不发热。 Such selective solar absorber coating (e.g. having absorbance in the range of 0.92 to 0.96, the emissivity in the range of, for example, and 0.07 to 0.11 of the) actual absorb all incident radiation, but usually not at a wavelength of infrared heat. 这种太阳能选择性吸收器涂层的实例包括高度反射的金属基底上的非常薄的黑色金属氧化物涂层(例如,大约0.5至1.0微米级别),和电镀施加的(galvanically applied)选择性涂层诸如黑铬、黑镍、和带有镍的氧化铝。 Very thin black metal oxide coating (e.g., about 0.5 to 1.0 micron level) on the metal substrate an example of such a solar selective absorbing coating comprises a highly reflective, and (galvanically applied) coated selective plating is applied layer, such as chromium, and nickel, with nickel and aluminum oxide. 用太阳能选择性涂层涂覆的吸收器管通常被封装入玻璃管或者抽空的玻璃管中以最小化对流至环境空气的热损失。 Into the glass tube typically packaged with a solar selective coating to the absorber or evacuated glass tube to minimize convective heat loss to the ambient air. 但是,通常与一些这类涂层结合使用的抽空的玻璃管制造起来是昂贵的,并且使用时易于损坏。 However, such coatings generally used in conjunction with a number of evacuated glass tubes are expensive to manufacture, and prone to damage during use. 经常利用另外的组件诸如覆盖物以保护真空密封不受直接热辐射,直接热辐射导致大约2%的效率损失。 Often use additional components, such as a vacuum-tight covering to protect from direct heat radiation, the heat radiation directly resulted in approximately a 2% efficiency loss. 因此,具有良好的吸收率和低的发射率特性的可选的太阳能接收器是期望的。 Thus, with good absorptivity and low emissivity feature optional solar receiver is desirable. 本发明满足该需求并且也提供相关优势。 The present invention satisfies this need and provides related advantages.

[0007] 发明概述 [0007] Summary of the Invention

[0008] 在一些方面,本文公开的实施方式涉及太阳能接收器,其包括吸热元件,该吸热元件具有外表面和相对于外表面的内表面;以及第一涂层,该涂层包括并入碳纳米管的纤维材料,并入碳纳米管的纤维材料表面接合吸热元件的外表面、且至少部分地覆盖吸热元件的外表面。 [0008] In some aspects, embodiments disclosed herein relate to a solar receiver comprising a heat absorbing member, the absorbing member having an outer surface and an inner surface of the outer surface; and a first coating, and the coating comprising fibrous material into carbon nanotubes, carbon nanotubes incorporated into the surface of the fiber material engaging the outer surface of the heat absorbing member, and at least partially covers the outer surface of the heat absorbing member. 入射至第一涂层上的太阳辐射被接收、吸收、并且转化为热能,而热能从第一涂层传递至吸热元件。 Solar radiation incident on the first coating layer is received, it absorbed and converted into thermal energy, and the transfer of thermal energy from the heat absorbing element to the first coating layer.

[0009] 在一些方面,本文公开的实施方式涉及太阳能接收器装置的多层涂层,其包括具有并入CNT的纤维材料的第一涂层和置于第一涂层上的环境涂层。 [0009] In some aspects, embodiments disclosed herein relate to multilayer coatings solar receiver apparatus, comprising a first fibrous material having a coating of the CNT-infused and environmental coating disposed on the first coating layer.

[0010] 附图简述 [0010] BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0011] 图1是在吸热元件的外表面上具有并入CNT的涂层的示例性太阳能接收器的剖面图。 [0011] Figure 1 is a cross-sectional view of an exemplary solar receiver incorporated CNT coating on the outer surface of the heat absorbing member.

[0012] 图2是如图1中所示的太阳能接收器的剖面,还包括热吸收器元件(吸热元件, heat absorber element)的夕卜表面上的凹槽。 [0012] FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view of the solar receiver illustrated in FIG 1, further comprising a groove on the surface of the heat sink Bu Xi element (heat absorbing element, heat absorber element) of.

[0013] 图3是如图1中所示的太阳能接收器的剖面图,还包括并入CNT的涂层上的环境涂层。 [0013] FIG. 3 is a sectional view of a solar receiver shown in Figure 1, further comprising a coating on the coating environment CNT-infused.

[0014] 图4是根据本发明的第四个实施方式的如图3中所示的太阳能接收器的剖面图, 其还包括热吸收器元件的外表面上的凹槽; [0014] FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view of a solar receiver shown in FIG fourth embodiment of the present invention, the embodiment 3, further comprising a groove on the outer surface of the heat absorbing element;

[0015] 图5是根据本发明的一个实施方式、被整合至并入CNT的涂层中并且被施加至太阳能接收器的热吸收器元件的外表面的陶瓷低发射率环境涂层的横截面图; [0015] FIG. 5 is according to one embodiment of the present invention, is incorporated into a cross-section of the ceramic integrated low emissivity coating environment and the CNT coating is applied to the outer surface of the solar receiver heat absorption element Figure;

[0016] 图6是根据本发明的一个实施方式的图5的陶瓷低发射率环境整合涂层的横截面图,还包括抗反射涂层; [0016] FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional view of the integrated ceramic coating of low emissivity environmental view of one embodiment of the present invention 5, further comprising an antireflective coating;

[0017] 图7是根据本发明的一个实施方式、施加在并入CNT的涂层上的金属低发射率环境涂层的横截面图; [0017] FIG. 7 is an embodiment of the present invention, applying a metal coating on the CNT-infused cross-sectional view of a low-emissivity coating environment;

[0018] 图8是根据本发明的一个实施方式、施加在如图7中所示的金属低发射率环境整合涂层上的抗反射涂层的横截面图; [0018] FIG. 8 is according to one embodiment of the present invention, it is applied to the metal having a low emissivity environment shown in FIG. 7 integrin coating cross-sectional view of the anti-reflective coating;

[0019] 图9是根据本发明的一个实施方式、施加在如图5中所示的整合涂层上的分层的金属陶瓷低发射率环境整合涂层的横截面图; [0019] FIG. 9 is according to one embodiment of the present invention, a cross-sectional view of the integrated layered coating as shown in FIG. 5 cermet low emissivity coating is applied to the integration environment;

[0020] 图10是根据本发明的一个实施方式的如图9中所示的分层的金属陶瓷低发射率环境整合涂层的横截面图,还包括抗反射涂层; [0020] FIG. 10 is a cross-sectional view of the integrated coating layered cermet according to an embodiment shown in FIG. 9 of the present invention, the low emissivity environment, further comprising an antireflective coating;

[0021] 图11是根据本发明的一个实施方式、施加在太阳能接收器的热吸收器元件的外表面上的整合的、金属陶瓷的、低发射率的、环境的、并入CNT的涂层的横截面图; [0021] FIG. 11 is according to one embodiment of the present invention is applied, the low emissivity outer surface of the integrated heat absorbing solar receiver element cermet, environment, CNT-infused coating cross-sectional view;

[0022] 图12是根据本发明的一个实施方式的如图11中所示的整合的、金属陶瓷的、低发射率的、环境的、并入CNT的涂层的横截面图,还包括抗反射涂层; [0022] FIG. 12 is, environmental, cross-sectional view according incorporated CNT coating, a low emissivity cermet integrated embodiment shown in FIG an embodiment of the present invention 11, further comprising an anti- a reflective coating;

[0023] 图13是根据本发明的一个实施方式的具有环形套筒的太阳能接收器的横截面图; [0023] FIG. 13 is a cross-sectional view of a solar receiver having an annular sleeve according to one embodiment of the present invention;

[0024] 图14是根据本发明的一个实施方式的如图13中所示的太阳能接收器的横截面图,还包括如图2中所示的第二个实施方式中所述的凹槽。 [0024] FIG. 14 is a cross-sectional view of the solar receiver illustrated in FIG embodiment of the present invention, an embodiment 13, further comprising a recess in a second embodiment shown in FIG. 2 in the.

[0025] 图15表示根据本发明的例证性实施方式生产并入CNT的碳纤维材料的过程。 [0025] FIG. 15 illustrates the process of carbon fiber material incorporated CNT according to an embodiment of the present invention are exemplary production.

[0026] 图16表示包括并入CNT的纤维材料的涂层的反射率数据。 [0026] FIG. 16 shows reflectance data comprising fiber material coated CNT-infused.

[0027] 图17表示用于太阳能接收器中涂层中的并入至纤维材料的CNT的扫描电子显微镜(SEM)图像。 [0027] FIG. 17 shows a solar receiver CNT coating to the fiber material is incorporated in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) images.

[0028] 图18表示示例性的太阳能接收器。 [0028] FIG. 18 shows an example of the solar receiver.

[0029] 发明详述 [0029] DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0030] 本发明部分地涉及并入吸热元件的太阳能接收器,该吸热元件具有包括并入碳纳米管(CNT)的纤维材料的第一涂层,该并入碳纳米管(CNT)的纤维材料作用为吸收在从大约200nm的紫外线(UV)到大约2500nm的红外线(IR)的宽的光谱范围内的电磁辐射。 [0030] The present invention relates in part incorporated solar receiver heat absorbing element, the heat absorbing element having a first coating comprising incorporating nanotubes (CNT) of fiber material, which is incorporated nanotubes (CNT) effect material fibers absorb electromagnetic radiation in a wide spectral range from approximately 200nm ultraviolet (UV) to the infrared rays of about 2500nm (IR) of. 并入CNT的纤维材料中的CNT是良好的热导体并且作为富集光能并将光能转化为热的导管。 The fibrous material is incorporated in the CNT CNT is a good thermal conductor and, as energy-rich light and conversion to heat pipe. 对于任何已知的材料,CNT具有一定的最高的热导率,其中一些指出高达大约6,BOOffm^r1 (Berber 等人· Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 (20) :4613-4616, (2000))。 For any known material, CNT has some of the highest thermal conductivity, some pointed out that up to about 6, BOOffm ^ r1 (Berber et al · Phys Rev. Lett 84 (20):.. 4613-4616, (2000) ).

[0031] 而且,第一涂层的纤维材料本身提供骨架(scaffold)以组织并入的CNT的排列具有预定的排列以优化CNT定向。 [0031] Further, the fiber material of the first coating layer itself provides the backbone (the scaffold) arranged to organize incorporated CNT having a predetermined arrangement to optimize aligned CNT. 可以在纤维材料基底上以可控制对齐的构造、可规模化的量制造CNT以提供获得大的表面面积太阳能接收器板。 May be configured to control the alignment, the amount of the scalable fabricating CNT material on the fibrous substrate to obtain a large surface area to provide a solar receiver plate. 用“松散的”CNT复合材料难于达到的CNT定向的控制可以增强光至热的转化。 With "loose" CNT CNT composite directional control may be difficult to achieve enhance light-to-heat conversion. 与其高的热导率结合的CNT排列的控制允许热有效地并且定向地沿着CNT长度被传导至吸热元件,并从加热元件传导至传热流体以用于多种应用,包括发电。 CNT alignment control their high thermal conductivity allows heat to be effectively bonded to and is oriented along the conductive element to the heat absorbing CNT length, and conductive heat transfer from the heating element to the fluid for a variety of applications, including power generation.

[0032] 本发明的太阳能接收器可被用于许多常规的太阳能加热收集器构造中。 [0032] The solar receiver of the present invention may be used in many conventional solar heat collector configuration. 例如,太阳能接收器可以在相对低的温度下操作,诸如那些可被用于低端加热应用的,诸如在游泳池加热系统或者农业应用诸如作物干燥中。 For example, the solar receiver may be operated at a relatively low temperature, such as those which may be used for heating the low-end applications, such as in a pool heating or agricultural applications such as crop drying. 本发明的太阳能接收器也可被用于利用高温的应用中,例如,包括用于发电诸如蒸汽发电的温度。 The solar receiver of the present invention may also be used for high temperature applications, for example, comprise a temperature such as steam power generation. 本发明的太阳能接收器可被配置为平板设计以及抛物线设计。 The solar receiver of the present invention may be configured as a flat plate design and a parabolic design.

[0033] 用于本发明的太阳能接收器上的涂层可具有例如在范围从大于0. 92至大约0. 99 之间的吸收率。 [0033] The coating on the solar receiver for the present invention may have, for example in the range from greater than the absorption rate of between 0.92 to about 0.99. 而且,本发明的太阳能接收器的发射率可在范围从大约0.01至大约0. 11 之间。 Further, the emissivity solar receiver according to the present invention may range from between about 0.01 to about 0.11. 用于本发明的太阳能接收器的涂层可以吸收从UV至顶的光谱带中的几乎所有的入射辐射,同时传递至加热元件,随后传递至传热流体,防止热红外发射。 Coating for a solar receiver of the present invention may absorb nearly all of the incident radiation in the spectral bands from the top to the UV, passing to the heating element, and then transferred to the heat transfer fluid, to prevent the thermal infrared emission. 已指出,用适当的纳米管密度,垂直对齐的单壁CNT的排列可以表现为几乎完美的黑体吸收器(Mizimo等人, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 106 :6044-6047 (2009))。 Already indicated, with the appropriate density of nanotubes, aligned vertically aligned single-walled CNT may be expressed as almost perfect blackbody absorber (Mizimo et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci 106:.... 6044-6047 (2009)). 产生黑体吸收器的一种方法是抑制光反射, 当物体的折射率接近空气的折射率时,可以实现该方法。 A method for generating a blackbody absorber is to suppress reflection of light, when the refractive index close to the refractive index of air of an object, the method may be implemented. 由菲涅尔定律,使反射率最小化的该解决方案是明显的: Fresnel's law, the reflectivity minimizes the solution is obvious:

[0034] R= (nn。)2/(n+n。)2 [0034] R = (nn.) 2 / (n + n.) 2

[0035] 其中R是反射率,η是物体的折射率,η。 [0035] where R is the reflectance, η is the refractive index of the object, η. 是空气的折射率。 It is the refractive index of air. 可以用本文下面叙述的连续的方法调节纤维材料上的CNT密度。 CNT density can be adjusted with a continuous fiber material described below the methods described herein. 通过调节CNT密度,可以调整并入CNT的纤维材料以表现出近似于空气折射率%的折射率η。 By adjusting the density of the CNT, CNT-infused fiber material may be adjusted to approximate the refractive index of air to exhibit a refractive index% η.

[0036] 在一些实施方式中,具有并入CNT的纤维材料的用于本发明的太阳能接收器的涂层可表现为类似黑体的物体并且可以以黑体辐射的形式表现高的热发射率。 [0036] In some embodiments, the coating having a solar receiver according to the present invention incorporated CNT fiber material can exhibit high performance in the form of a thermal emissivity of the object and the like may be bold black body radiation. 在一些实施方式中,通过从CNT至吸热元件来引导热能可以减少或者防止该能量损失。 In some embodiments, may be reduced or prevented by the energy loss from the CNT to the heat absorbing element is guided. 例如在发电中,吸热元件又加热可被使用的传热流体。 For example, in power generation, the heat absorbing element and a heating heat transfer fluid may be used. 通过本领域已知的方法,包括例如在加热元件周围利用真空玻璃室或者利用更多的涂层材料诸如抗反射涂层或者类似物,也可实现减小系统的发射率。 By methods known in the art, for example, by including a heating element around the vacuum chamber or with more glass coating material such as an antireflection coating or the like, may also be implemented to reduce the emission of the system.

[0037] 在一些实施方式中,具有并入CNT的纤维材料的用于本发明的太阳能接收器的涂层可表现为吸收几乎所有入射光的固有太阳能选择性材料,同时具有非常低的发射率,消除了对更多涂层的需要,而是有效地传递热能至吸热元件并且从吸热元件至传热流体以用于各种应用中。 Coating [0037] In some embodiments, the fibrous material having a CNT-infused for a solar receiver of the present invention can exhibit the intrinsic absorption of the solar selective material almost all the incident light, while having a very low emittance , eliminating the need for additional coatings, but is efficiently transferred to the heat absorbing member and absorbs heat from the fluid to the heat transfer element for use in a variety of applications.

[0038] 在一些实施方式中,太阳能接收器包括具有外表面和相对于外表面的内表面的吸热元件。 [0038] In some embodiments, the solar receiver comprises an outer surface and having a heat absorbing member with respect to the inner surface of the outer surface. 接收器还包括与吸热元件的外表面表面接合并且至少部分地覆盖其的第一涂层中的并入碳纳米管的(“并入CNT的”)材料。 The receiver further comprises a surface engaging the outer surface of the heat absorbing member and at least partially covering the first coating a carbon nanotube incorporated in its ( "CNT-infused") material. 第一涂层的并入CNT的纤维材料包括但不限于并入CNT的纤维材料,以及在形成复合材料的基体中的并入CNT的纤维材料。 CNT-infused fiber material of the first coating layer include, but are not limited to CNT-infused fiber materials, and fibrous material in the matrix forming the composite material of the CNT-infused. 入射在第一涂层的并入CNT的纤维材料上的太阳辐射被吸收、容纳并且转化为热能。 Sun incident on the fiber material incorporated CNT first coating of the radiation is absorbed and converted into heat energy received. 转化的热能被从吸热元件的外表面上的第一涂层的并入CNT的纤维材料传递至吸热元件的内表面,并且然后从内表面传递至物质诸如传热流体。 Converting thermal energy is transferred from the fiber material incorporated CNT first coating the outer surface of the heat absorbing member to the inner surface of the heat absorbing member, and then transferred to the heat transfer fluid from the inner surface of materials such as.

[0039] 在一些实施方式中,太阳能接收器包括在吸热元件的表面上具有多个凹槽的吸热元件。 [0039] In some embodiments, the solar receiver comprises a heat absorbing element having a plurality of grooves on the surface of the heat absorbing member. 在一个实施方式中,凹槽大小和深度在微米(Pm)量级。 In one embodiment, the groove size and depth in microns (Pm) of the order. 凹槽可被安排为沿着吸热元件周围的螺旋构造以形成单一的凹槽,该凹槽从吸热元件的一个末端延伸至外表面上的另一末端。 Groove may be arranged along a spiral configuration around the heat absorbing element to form a single recess, the recess extending from one end to the other end of the heat absorbing element outer surface. 这种凹槽可以容纳例如并入CNT的纤维丝束,并且可以在并入CNT的纤维材料和吸热元件之间提供增强的表面接触面积。 Such a groove may accommodate, for example, CNT-infused fiber tows, and may provide enhanced surface contact area between the CNT-infused fiber material and the heat absorbing element. 不被理论束缚,该增加的表面面积接触可以提供更加有效的传热至吸热元件的外表面。 Not being bound by theory, the increased contact surface area can provide a more efficient heat transfer to the outer surface of the heat absorbing member. 以类似的方式,可以在吸热元件的内表面上提供增加的表面面积以增加传热至传热流体的效率。 In a similar manner, can provide increased surface area on the inner surface of the heat sink member to increase the efficiency of heat transfer to the heat transfer fluid.

[0040] 在一些实施方式中,太阳能接收器包括低发射率环境涂层,其覆盖或者整合至具有并入CNT的纤维材料的第一涂层中。 [0040] In some embodiments, the solar receiver comprises a low-emissivity coating environment, integrated into the covering or coating layer having a first fiber material incorporated into the CNT. 当被整合至第一涂层中时,其可作为基体材料以提供为复合材料结构的第一涂层。 When incorporated into the first coating, which can be used as a base material for the first coating to provide a composite structure. 环境涂层允许入射在环境涂层的外表面上的电磁辐射(至少在紫外线至可见光范围)转输至第一涂层的并入CNT的纤维材料上,用于吸收和转化为热能。 CNT-infused fiber material coating allows incident electromagnetic radiation environment on the outer surface of the coating environment (at least in the ultraviolet to visible range) transfused to the first coating for absorption and conversion to heat. 环境涂层具有低发射率特性,以便于通过背向外部环境的并入CNT的涂层有效地减少热能的发出。 Environmental coating having a low emissivity properties, so as to effectively reduce the heat emitted by the CNT-infused back coating the external environment. 环境涂层可具有低的发射率,尤其在红外光谱中,对应于在系统操作温度下第一涂层的并入CNT的纤维材料发出热能的光谱。 Environmental coatings can have a low emissivity, particularly in the infrared spectrum, the spectrum corresponding to the thermal energy emitted at the operating temperature of the system CNT-infused fiber material of the first coating layer.

[0041] 在一些实施方式中,太阳能接收器包括围绕吸热元件的环形套筒,所述吸热元件至少部分地被具有并入CNT的纤维材料的第一涂层覆盖。 [0041] In some embodiments, the solar receiver comprises an annular sleeve element surrounding the heat sink, the heat absorbing element is at least partially covered with a coating having a first CNT-infused fiber material. 在一种构造中,从并入CNT的涂层放射状地隔开环形套筒。 In one configuration, the annular sleeve is spaced from the CNT coating incorporated radially. 在示例性的实施方式中,环形套筒可以包括置于环形套筒和并入CNT的涂层之间的气穴或者空气间隙。 In an exemplary embodiment, an annular sleeve may include an annular sleeve disposed and incorporated air pockets or air gap between the CNT coating. 在另一实施方式中,环形套筒可被抽空并且在真空下保持间隙。 In another embodiment, the sleeve may be an annular gap is evacuated and held under vacuum. 环形套筒可以在其外表面和内表面之一或者二者上涂覆抗反射涂层和低发射率涂层的一种或者多种。 The annular sleeve may be a coated antireflective coating and the low-emissivity coating on one or more of an inner surface and an outer surface, or both. 环形套筒可进一步具有施加至其面对并入CNT的涂层的内表面的红外反射涂层。 Annular sleeve further having an infrared reflective coating applied to its inner surface facing the coating layer of CNT-infused.

[0042] 如在本文使用,术语“纤维材料”指的是具有纤维作为其基本结构成分的任何材料。 [0042] As used herein, any material, the term "fibrous material" refers to a fiber having as its basic structural component. 术语包含纤维、丝、线、丝束、丝束、带材、织造的和非织造的织物、板片、垫、以及类似物。 The term comprising fibers, filaments, threads, strands, tows, tapes, woven and nonwoven fabrics, sheets, pads, and the like. 而且,纤维材料的组合物可以是任何类型的,包括但不限于玻璃、碳、金属、陶瓷、有机物或者类似物。 Further, the composition of the fibrous material may be of any type, including but not limited to, glass, carbon, metal, ceramic, organic matter or the like.

[0043] 如在本文使用,术语“可缠绕维度”指的是纤维材料具有至少一个长度不被限制的维度,允许材料储存在卷轴或者心轴上。 [0043] As used herein, the term "wound dimension" refers to a fibrous material having at least one dimension of length is not limited, allowing the material stored on a spool or mandrel. “可缠绕维度”的纤维材料具有至少一个这样的维度,该维度指示使用分批或者连续处理进行CNT并入,如本文以下所示。 "Spoolable dimension" at least one fiber material having such a dimension that indicates batch or continuous process using a CNT is incorporated, as shown herein below. 通过具有800的特(tex)数值(1 特=lg/1, 000m)或者620 码/Ib 的AS4 12k 碳纤维丝束(Grafil,Inc., Sacramento,CA)举例说明可缠绕维度的碳纤维材料的一个示例性纤维材料是商业可得的, 特别地,例如,可以以5、10、20、50和IOOlb (对具有高的重量的卷轴,通常是3k/ll丝束) 卷轴获得商业的碳纤维丝束,尽管更大的卷轴可需要专门订购。 A via having a Patent (TEX) value of 800 (1 tex = lg / 1, 000m) or AS4 12k description can be wound dimensions carbon fiber carbon fiber tow (Grafil, Inc., Sacramento, CA) Example 620 yards / Ib of exemplary fiber materials are commercially available, in particular, for example, and may 5,10,20,50 IOOlb (having a high weight of the reel, usually 3k / ll tow) carbon fiber tow reel obtained commercially , although larger spools may require special order. 本发明的方法容易以5至201b的卷轴操作,尽管更大的卷轴是可用的。 The method of the present invention is easy to operate spool 201b to 5, although larger spools are available. 而且,预处理操作可被结合,其将非常大的可缠绕长度——例如IOOlb或者更大——分割成为易于处理的尺寸,诸如两个501b卷轴。 Further, preprocessing operation can be combined, which can be wrapped around a very large length - e.g. IOOlb or more - Segmentation size becomes easy to handle, such as the two reels 501b.

[0044] 如在本文使用,术语“碳纳米管”(CNT,复数是CNTs)指的是许多富勒烯族碳的圆柱形同素异形体的任一种,包括单壁碳纳米管(SWNT)、双壁碳纳米管(DWNT)、多壁碳纳米管(MWNT)。 [0044] As used herein, the term "carbon nanotube" (the CNT, is plural CNTs) it refers to any of a number of cylindrical allotrope of carbon in the fullerene family, including single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT ), double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNT), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT). CNT可以被富勒烯类似结构封端或者是开口的。 CNT can be terminated or a fullerene-like structure is open. CNT包括包封其他材料的那些。 CNT include those that encapsulate other materials.

[0045] 如在本文使用,“长度一致”指的是在反应器中生长的CNT的长度。 [0045] As used herein, "uniform length" means the length of the CNT is grown in a reactor. “一致的长度” 意味着CNT具有这样的长度,其公差是总的CNT长度的正负大约20%或者更少,因为CNT长度从大约1微米至大约500微米之间变化。 "Uniform length" means that CNT has a length, which is the total tolerance of plus or minus about 20% CNT length or less, because the length of the CNT varies from about 1 micron to about 500 microns. 在非常短的长度,诸如1-4微米,该误差可在范围从在总CNT长度的大约正负20%直到大约正负1微米之间,即,稍微多于总CNT长度的大约20%。 In a very short length, such as 1-4 microns, this error can be between about plus or minus 1 micron in the range of from about plus or minus 20% of the total length of the CNT up, i.e., somewhat more than about 20% of the total length of the CNT.

[0046] 如在本文使用,“分布一致”指的是纤维材料上CNT的密度的一致性。 [0046] As used herein, "uniform distribution" refers to the density of the CNT-fiber material consistency. “一致的分布”意味着在纤维材料上CNT具有这样的密度,其公差大约是正负10%覆盖率,覆盖率被定义为被CNT覆盖的纤维的表面积的百分率。 "Uniform distribution" means that the CNT have a density on the fiber material, which is a tolerance of about plus or minus 10% coverage, coverage is defined as the percentage of surface area covered by the CNT fibers. 对具有5层壁的Snm直径CNT,这相当于士1500CNT/ym2。 CNT having a diameter of 5 Snm wall layer, which corresponds to persons 1500CNT / ym2. 这样的数据假设CNT内部的空间是可填充的。 Such data CNT is assumed that the space inside the fillable.

[0047] 如在本文使用,术语“并入的”意思是结合的和“并入”意思是结合的过程。 [0047] As used herein, the term "incorporated" means binding and the "infusion" means the process of bonding. 这种结合可以包括直接共价结合、离子结合、nn和/或范德华力-介导的(mediated)物理吸附。 Such binding can include direct covalent bonding, ionic bonding, NN, and / or van der Waals force - mediated (mediated) physisorption. 例如,在一些实施方式中,CNT可被直接结合至纤维材料。 For example, in some embodiments, the CNT may be directly bonded to the fiber material. 结合可以是间接的,诸如通过隔离涂层和/或置于CNT和纤维材料之间的层间过渡金属纳米颗粒,CNT并入至纤维材料。 Binding can be indirect, such as by a barrier coating and / or metallic nanoparticles disposed between the CNT and interlayer transition fibrous material, CNT is incorporated to the fiber material. 在本文公开的并入CNT的纤维材料中,碳纳米管可被直接地或者间接地“并入”至纤维材料,如上所述。 Fiber material disclosed herein is incorporated in the CNT, carbon nanotubes can be directly or indirectly "incorporated" to the fiber material, as described above. CNT被“并入”至碳纤维材料的具体方式被称作“结合基序(bonding motif)”。 CNT is "incorporated" into the carbon fiber material DETAILED DESCRIPTION referred to as "binding motif (bonding motif)".

[0048] 如在本文使用,术语“过渡金属”指的是周期表的d-块中的元素的任何元素或者合金。 [0048] As used herein, the term refers to the "transition metal" is any element or an alloy d- block elements of the periodic table. 术语“过渡金属”也包括基本过渡金属元素的盐形式,诸如氧化物、碳化物、氮化物以及类似物。 The term "transition metal" also includes a salt form of a substantially transition metal element, such as oxides, carbides, nitrides, and the like.

[0049] 如在本文使用,术语“纳米颗粒”或者NP (复数是NPs)或者其语法等价物指的是尺寸在当量球形直径大约0. 1至大约100纳米之间的颗粒,尽管NPs形状不必是球形的。 [0049] As used herein, the term "nanoparticle" or the NP (plural is NPs) or grammatical equivalents thereof refers to particles between about 0.1 to about 100 nanometers in size equivalent spherical diameter, although the shape is not necessarily NPs ball shaped. 具体地,过渡金属NPs用作纤维材料上CNT生长的催化剂。 In particular, the transition metal NPs on the fiber material used as a catalyst for CNT growth.

[0050] 如在本文使用,术语“基体材料”指的是体相材料,其可用于在特定的方向包括随机方向上组织并入CNT的纤维材料。 [0050] As used herein, the term "matrix material" refers to a bulk material, which can be used in a specific direction includes a random direction CNT-infused fiber tissue material. 通过向基体材料给予并入CNT的纤维材料的一些方面的物理和/或化学性质,基体材料可以受益于并入CNT的碳纤维材料的存在。 Some physical aspects of the CNT-infused fiber material to give the base material and / or chemical properties, the matrix material may benefit from the presence of carbon fiber material CNT-infused. 在一些实施方式中,基体材料可以作为环境涂层,其帮助保持通过CNT吸收太阳辐射而产生的热量。 In some embodiments, the matrix material may be used as a coating environment, which helps to maintain the heat generated by absorption of solar radiation by the CNT. 在一些实施方式中,基体材料是陶瓷。 In some embodiments, the matrix material is a ceramic. 在一些实施方式中,基体材料反射红外线辐射返回至CNT, 防止热损失至环境。 In some embodiments, the base material to reflect infrared radiation back to the CNT, to prevent heat loss to ambient.

[0051] 如在本文使用,术语“材料停留时间(residence time) ”指的是时间的量,在本文叙述的CNT并入过程期间沿可缠绕维度的纤维材料被暴露于CNT生长条件的不连续的点。 [0051] As "material residence time (residence time)" as used herein, the term refers to the amount of time during the process CNT are incorporated herein described may be wound along the dimension of the fibrous material is exposed to a discontinuous CNT growth conditions point. 该定义包括当使用多个CNT生长室时的停留时间。 The residence time is defined as comprising a plurality of CNT growth chambers.

[0052] 如在本文使用,术语“线速度”指的是可缠绕维度的纤维材料可通过在本文叙述的CNT并入方法被供给的速度,其中线速度是CNT室(一个或多个)长度除以材料停留时间所确定的速度。 [0052] As used herein, the term "line speed" refers to the dimension of the fibrous material may be wrapped by the speed CNT is incorporated herein described method is supplied, wherein the linear velocity CNT chamber (s) length time the determined velocity divided by the material residence.

[0053] 在一些实施方式中,本发明提供太阳能接收器,其包括具有外表面和相对于外表面的内表面的吸热元件;和第一涂层,其包括并入碳纳米管的纤维材料,该并入碳纳米管的纤维材料与吸热元件的外表面表面接合并且至少部分地覆盖吸热元件的外表面,藉此入射至第一涂层上的太阳辐射被接收、吸收、和转化为热能,并且从第一涂层传递热能至所述吸热元件。 [0053] In certain embodiments, the present invention provides a solar receiver having an outer surface and comprising a heat absorbing member with respect to the inner surface of the outer surface; and a first coating layer which comprises a fibrous material incorporating a carbon nanotube the carbon nanotubes incorporated into the outer surface of the fiber material and the heat-absorbing surface of the engaging member and covering the outer surface of the heat absorbing element is at least partially, whereby the solar radiation incident on the first coating layer is received, absorption, conversion, and heat, and transfer thermal energy from the heat absorbing element to the first coating.

[0054] 如本领域已知,本发明的太阳能接收器可于低、中和高温应用中进行操作。 [0054] As known in the art, the solar receiver according to the present invention may be low, and when operating in high temperature applications. 高温接收器被用于许多发电应用中,例如在用蒸汽推动涡轮中。 High temperature receiver is used in many power generation applications, for example in a turbine driven by steam. 高温应用可以是使用高于大约400°C的温度的任何应用。 It can be used for high temperature applications than any application temperatures of about 400 ° C. 低温应用包括例如水池加热或者农作物干燥。 Cryogenic applications including, for example, pool heating or drying crops. 这种温度可以是高于环境温度的大约10-100°c。 This temperature may be above the ambient temperature of approximately 10-100 ° c. 使用在大约100°c和400°C之间的温度的任何应用被认为是中等温度应用。 Any application of between about 100 ° c and a temperature of 400 ° C is considered to be moderate temperature applications. 示例性的中等温度应用可以包括例如抛物面槽或者聚光太阳能发电厂。 Exemplary moderate temperature applications may include, for example, parabolic trough power plant or a solar concentrator.

[0055] 太阳能接收器设备具有吸热元件,该吸热元件具有第一末端和第二末端,以及在所述第一末端进入吸热元件并且在第二末端离开吸热元件的传热流体。 [0055] The solar receiver device having a heat absorbing member, the absorbing member having a first end and a second end, and a heat transfer fluid into the heat absorbing element in the first end and the second end away from the heat absorbing element. 吸热元件在内表面和/或外表面上可具有凹槽以提供与吸热元件的外部的第一涂层和/或与内部的传热流体的更大的表面面积接触。 Coating a first outer surface and the inner member endothermic / or outer surface may have a recess to provide a heat-absorbing element and / or the greater surface area in contact with the interior of the heat transfer fluid. 加热元件的第一和第二末端可被用于将传热流体运输至接收器和从接收器运输传热流体。 First and second ends of the heating element may be used to transport the heat transfer fluid to transport the heat transfer fluid and the receiver from the receiver. 接收器本身被配置为整合至现有的系统中,并且可被整合在抛物面接收器和平板类型的接收器中。 The receiver itself is configured to be integrated into existing systems, and can be integrated in the receiver and the receiver plate parabolic type.

[0056] 吸热元件通常是由金属制成的加热管,尽管可以使用任何传导性的材料。 [0056] The heat pipe heat sink element is typically made of metal, although any conductive material. 而且,吸热元件不必是类似管状的圆柱形。 Further, the heat absorbing tube-like element need not necessarily be cylindrical. 吸热元件可以是任何形状,并且可由于内和外表面上的增加的表面面积而被选择。 Absorbing element may be any shape, and may be due to the increased outer surface and the inner surface area is selected. 例如,在一些实施方式中,太阳能接收器吸热元件可具有凹槽, 其大小适于容纳并入CNT的纤维材料。 For example, in some embodiments, the solar receiver heat absorbing member may have a recess sized to receive the fibrous material is incorporated CNT. 当并入CNT的纤维材料是并入CNT的纤维丝束时,凹槽可被螺旋状地置于加热元件的外表面上,并且并入CNT的纤维丝束被包围在凹槽内部, 并且其与凹槽的舱(well)接触。 When CNT-infused fiber materials are incorporated into the CNT-fiber tow, a spiral groove may be placed on the outer surface of the heating element, and CNT-infused fiber tow is enclosed inside the groove, and which (Well) in contact with the capsule recess. 在一些实施方式中,当使用并入CNT的纤维丝束时,该丝束也可被展开在加热元件上。 In some embodiments, when the CNT-infused fiber tows, the tows may also be deployed on the heating element.

[0057] 在一些实施方式中,本发明的太阳能接收器具有并入CNT的纤维材料,其包括并入碳纳米管的纤维丝束,该纤维丝束包括选自碳、金属、玻璃、陶瓷以及类似物的材料。 [0057] In some embodiments, the solar receiver according to the present invention has a fibrous material incorporated into the CNT, which includes a carbon nanotube-infused fiber tows, fiber tow which comprises selected from carbon, metal, glass, ceramics, and materials like.

[0058] 在一些实施方式中,本发明的太阳能接收器可进一步包括环境涂层,其被整合在所述第一涂层内以形成复合材料。 [0058] In some embodiments, the solar receiver according to the present invention may further comprise a coating environment, which is integrated in the first coating to form a composite. 形成环境涂层的这种材料包括但不限于陶瓷基体材料。 Such materials include, but form an environmental coating on the ceramic base material is not limited. 在一些实施方式中,用基体材料形成的复合材料可进一步包括金属颗粒。 In some embodiments, the composite material with a matrix material may further include metal particles. 金属颗粒可被用于进一步增加传导路径以分散通过并入CNT的材料收集的热。 Metal particles may be used to further increase the thermal conductive path by incorporating dispersed CNT material collected. 例如,其可作为相邻的CNTs 之间的热的传热导管,同时作为红外线反射体。 For example, it can be used as heat transfer conduit between adjacent of CNTs, while as an infrared reflector.

[0059] 在一些实施方式中,本发明的太阳能接收器可进一步包括置于第一涂层上的环境涂层,并且该环境涂层可以包括低发射率涂层。 [0059] In some embodiments, the solar receiver according to the present invention may further comprise environmental coating disposed on the first coating, and the coating environment may comprise a low emissivity coating. 在这种实施方式中,环境涂层也可包括整合至并入CNT的纤维材料内的基体类型环境涂层。 In this embodiment, the environmental coating may also comprise a matrix type integrated environmental coating within the fiber material to a CNT-infused. 在一些实施方式中,环境涂层包括金属诸如铜。 In some embodiments, the environmental coating comprises a metal such as copper.

[0060] 本发明的太阳能接收器可以表现出非常低的发射率。 [0060] The solar receiver of the present invention may exhibit very low emissivity. 任何环境涂层可用于该目的。 Any environmental coating may be used for this purpose. 另外,在一些实施方式中,本发明的太阳能接收器还包括环境涂层,该环境涂层包括抗反射材料。 Further, in some embodiments, the solar receiver according to the present invention further comprises a coating environment, the environment comprising an antireflective coating material. 这可被用于反射从CNT或者吸热元件辐射的红外热朝向CNT和加热元件返回以防止热损失至环境。 This is reflected back may be used to prevent heat loss to ambient heat from the infrared absorbing element or CNT CNT and radiated toward the heating element.

[0061] 在仍进一步实施方式中,本发明的太阳能接收器还包括围绕第一涂层和吸热元件的环形套筒,产生间隙。 [0061] In yet a further embodiment, the solar receiver according to the present invention further comprises a coating layer surrounding the first annular sleeve and the heat sink element, a gap. 该间隙可以包括空气或者间隙可被充分地抽空。 The gap may comprise an air gap or may be sufficiently evacuated.

[0062] 可以配置本发明的太阳能接收器以与发电系统整合。 [0062] The solar receiver may be configured according to the present invention is to integrate the power generating system. 在这方面,接收器的总设计可以与本领域已知的那些名义上相同。 In this regard, the overall design nominally the same as those of the receiver may be known in the art. [0063] 在一些实施方式中,本发明也提供太阳能接收器装置的多层涂层,其包括具有并入CNT的纤维材料的第一涂层;和置于第一涂层上的环境涂层。 [0063] In certain embodiments, the present invention also provides a solar receiver multilayer coating apparatus, which comprises a first coating layer having a CNT-infused fiber material; and a coating disposed on the first coating environment . 如上所述和如本文下面所述,第一涂层进一步可以包括陶瓷基体,并且第一涂层可进一步包括金属颗粒。 As described above and as described herein below, the first coating layer may further comprise a ceramic matrix, and the first coating layer may further include metal particles.

[0064] 如上所述和如下进一步叙述,本发明的多层涂层可以包括环境涂层,其包括金属膜、抗反射涂层、和/或低发射率涂层。 [0064] As described above and further described below, the multilayer coating of the present invention may comprise a coating environment, comprising a metal film, antireflective coating, and / or low emissivity coatings.

[0065] 可以理解,本发明的图和叙述已被简化以阐明相关的元件,以清楚地理解本发明, 同时为清楚起见,消除在典型的太阳能接收器和收集器中可以看到的许多其他元件。 [0065] It will be appreciated, the present invention is described and FIG have been simplified to illustrate elements that are relevant to a clear understanding of the invention, but for clarity, elimination can be seen in a typical solar collector receivers and many other element. 但是, 因为这些元件在本领域是已知的,并且因为其并不有利于对本发明的更好理解,在本文不提供这些元件的讨论。 However, because such elements are well known in the art, and because it does not facilitate a better understanding of the present invention, these elements are not discussed herein. 本文的公开涉及本领域技术人员已知的所有这种变型和改进。 The disclosure herein relates to the art known to the art and all such variations and modifications.

[0066] 参考图1,图解的是根据本发明的第一个实施方式的太阳能接收器100的剖面图。 [0066] Referring to FIG 1, illustrated is a sectional view of a solar receiver 100 according to a first embodiment of the present invention. 太阳能接收器100包括吸热元件110和施加至吸热元件110的外表面115的至少一部分的并入CNT的涂层120。 Coating at least a portion of the CNT-infused solar receiver 100 includes an outer surface 115 and the heat-absorbing member 110 is applied to the heat absorbing element 110 to 120.

[0067] 在一种构造中,吸热元件110是中空的元件,适合于接收传热物质,例如其间的传热流体。 [0067] In one configuration, the heat-absorbing member 110 is a hollow member adapted to receive a heat transfer material, for example a heat transfer fluid therebetween. 仅通过非限制性的实例的方式,传热流体可以包括水、防冻溶液(例如,水和乙二醇)、空气、各种气体、油、和其他高温(高热容)流体。 Only by way of non-limiting example, the heat transfer fluid may comprise water, antifreeze solution (e.g., water and ethylene glycol), air, gases, oils, and other high temperature (heat capacity) of fluid. 在示例性的实施方式中,吸热元件110是具有第一末端112和第二末端114的金属的或者合金吸收器管。 In an exemplary embodiment, heat-absorbing element 110 is a metal having a first end 112 and second end 114 of the absorber tube or an alloy. 吸热元件110具有外表面115和相对于外表面115的内表面117。 Heat-absorbing element 110 has an outer surface 115 and an inner surface with respect to the outer surface 115 of the 117. 仅通过非限制性的实例的方式,吸热元件110可由不锈钢、碳钢、或者铝制成。 Only by way of non-limiting example, heat-absorbing element 110 may be made of stainless steel, carbon steel, or aluminum. 本领域技术人员理解也可使用其他金属和合金。 Those skilled in the art understand also other metals and alloys may be used. 选择吸热元件110的厚度和吸热元件110的材料性质以有效地将热量从外表面115传递至内表面117,这加热存在于通常与内表面117表面接合的吸热元件110中的传热物质。 Select the endothermic heat absorbing element thickness and material properties of the 110 elements 110 to effectively heat transferred from the outer surface 115 to the inner surface 117, which is present in the heat absorbing element 110 typically engaged with the inner surface 117 of the heat transfer surface substance. 在示例性的构造中,吸收器管可具有大约3米(m)的长度、大约70毫米(mm)的直径、和大约2mm的壁厚度。 In the exemplary configuration, the absorber tube may have about 3 meters (m) in length, about 70 millimeters (mm) in diameter, and wall thickness of about 2mm. 尽管在此参考的热吸收器元件110采取管或者管状结构的形式,但是可以理解热吸收器元件110可被配置为各种几何形状形式,仅通过实例的方式包括圆柱的、圆锥的、多边形的或者其他形状和构造。 Although in this reference heat absorbing elements 110 take the form of a tube or tubular structure, it will be appreciated that the heat absorbing element 110 may be configured to form various geometrical shapes, solely by way of example comprises a cylindrical, conical, polygonal or other shapes and configurations.

[0068] 在一种构造中,吸热元件110是开放的系统,其中传热物质诸如传热流体以第一温度在第一末端112进入并且以高于第一温度的第二温度从第二末端114离开。 [0068] In one configuration, the heat-absorbing element 110 is an open system, wherein the heat transfer material such as a heat transfer fluid at a first temperature into the first end 112 and a second temperature higher than the first temperature from the second tip 114 exits. 在另一构造中,吸热元件110可以是封闭的系统,诸如热管道,其中传热流体被保留在吸热元件110 中。 In another configuration, the heat-absorbing element 110 may be a closed system, such as a heat pipe, wherein the heat transfer fluid is retained in the heat absorbing element 110. 在图解的实施方式中,吸热元件110具有外表面115,其通常是均勻的。 In the illustrated embodiment, the heat absorbing element 110 has an outer surface 115, which is generally uniform.

[0069] 仍参考图1,并入CNT的涂层120被置于吸热元件110的外表面115上。 [0069] Still referring to Figure 1, incorporating the CNT coating 120 is disposed on an outer surface 115 of the heat absorbing element 110. 因此,并入CNT的涂层120至少部分地覆盖吸热元件110的外表面115。 Thus, CNT-infused coating 120 at least partially covers the outer surface 115 of the heat absorbing element 110. 在张力下将并入CNT的涂层120缠绕在吸热元件110的外表面115上以建立并且保持与吸热元件110的外表面115 的有效表面接合或者接触,同时使其间的间隙最小化。 Incorporated under tension CNT coating 120 is wound around the outer surface 115 of the heat absorbing element 110 to establish and maintain engagement with the outer surface of the effective surface of the heat-absorbing member 110 or 115 in contact, while the gap between minimized. 并入CNT的涂层120接收入射的电磁辐射(典型地以太阳辐射的形式)并且转化接收的辐射成为热或者热能。 Electromagnetic radiation is incorporated CNT coating 120 receives incident (typically in the form of solar radiation) and conversion of the received radiation or thermal energy to become hot. 转化的热或者热能被传递至热吸收器元件110的外表面115。 Conversion of thermal energy or heat is transferred to the outer surface 115 of the heat absorbing element 110. 在示例性的实施方式中,吸热元件110的外表面115基本完全被并入CNT的涂层120覆盖。 In an exemplary embodiment, the outer surface 115 of the heat absorbing member 110 substantially completely incorporated in the CNT coating 120 covered. 在另一实施方式中,外表面115的一个或者多个预定的区域可不被并入CNT的涂层120覆盖。 In another embodiment, the outer surface of one or a plurality of predetermined region 115 may not be incorporated into the CNT coating 120 covered.

[0070] 在一种构造中,并入CNT的涂层120采取并入有碳纳米管的玻璃绳或者纤维的形式。 [0070] In one configuration, the CNT coating 120 is incorporated to take infused with carbon nanotubes or glass fibers in the form of cord. 并入CNT的涂层的其他实例包括并入碳纳米管的纤维和织物,诸如并入有碳纳米管的碳纤维、蒸气生长碳纤维、碳纳米纤维、和石墨烯(grapheme)。 Other examples of coatings include CNT-infused fibers and fabrics incorporating carbon nanotubes, such as carbon fibers infused with carbon nanotubes, vapor grown carbon fibers, carbon nanofibers, and graphene (grapheme). 在示例性的实施方式中,并入CNT的涂层120可具有在范围大约15微米(pm)至大约IOOOpm的厚度。 In an exemplary embodiment, incorporating the CNT coating 120 may have a range of about 15 microns (PM) to a thickness of about IOOOpm. 并入CNT的涂层120可以任选地包括掺杂有碳纳米管或者金属纳米颗粒的高温水泥、树脂或者环氧树脂基体,以为并入CNT的涂层120提供结构完整性。 CNT-infused coating 120 may optionally include carbon nanotubes doped with metal nanoparticles or a high temperature cement, or epoxy resin matrix, that is incorporated into the CNT coating 120 to provide structural integrity.

[0071] 在示例性的实施方式中,可以以玻璃纤维的形式使用原位碳纳米管生长技术制造并入CNT的涂层120。 [0071] In an exemplary embodiment, in-situ growth technique may be used for producing carbon nanotubes in the form of glass fiber coating 120 CNT-infused. 例如,玻璃纤维可被供给经过保持在大约5000至750°C的给定温度的生长室。 For example, glass fibers may be supplied via held at about 5000 to 750 ° C in a growth chamber at a given temperature. 然后将含碳原料气引入至生长室,其中,在催化剂纳米颗粒的存在下,碳自由基解离并且在玻璃纤维上引发碳纳米管的形成。 Carbon-containing feed gas is then introduced into the growth chamber, wherein, in the presence of a catalyst nanoparticles, carbon radical initiator and dissociation of carbon nanotubes formed on the glass fibers. 在2009年2月27日提交的题目为“使用气体预热方法的低温CNT 生长”(“Low Temperature CNT Growth Using A Gas-Pre-heat Method”)的共同拥有的临时美国申请号61/155,935中叙述一种这样的技术,该申请在此通过引用以其整体内容并入。 In the US provisional application No. 61/155 entitled February 27, 2009, entitled "Use of low-temperature gas preheating method CNT growth" ( "Low Temperature CNT Growth Using A Gas-Pre-heat Method") is jointly owned, 935 describes one such technique, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. 其他这种方法可被利用以获得并入CNT的涂层120,通过该方法产生复合材料覆盖层或者线或者绳层形式的并入碳纳米管的纤维。 Such other methods may be utilized to obtain a coating 120 CNT-infused fiber incorporated to produce a carbon nanotube coating layer or layers in the form of wire or cord composite material by this method.

[0072] 如在本领域中所已知的,碳纳米管基结构的电磁辐射吸收率部分地是碳纳米管长度以及该结构的纳米管体积填充分数的函数。 [0072] As is known in the art, the electromagnetic radiation absorbing structure of the carbon nanotube group is partially a function of the tube length and volume of the nanotube structure filling fraction. 纳米管体积填充分数表示纳米管占据结构的总体积的分数。 It represents the volume fraction of nanotubes filled nanotubes occupied fraction of the total volume of the structure. 在示例性的实施方式中,并入CNT的涂层120的纳米管体积填充分数在范围大约0. 5%至大约25%。 In an exemplary embodiment, the nanotubes CNT-infused volume filling fraction of the coating 120 in the range of about 0.5% to about 25%. 并入CNT的涂层120中的碳纳米管之间的平均间距在范围从大约2纳米(nm)至大约200nm。 The average spacing between the carbon nanotubes are incorporated in the coating CNT 120 is in a range from about 2 nanometers (nm) to about 200nm. 通过在其中选择性放置碳纳米管可以调整并入CNT的涂层120的纳米管体积填充以控制可被并入CNT的涂层120有效吸收的电磁辐射的范围。 By selective placement of carbon nanotubes which can be incorporated to adjust the volume of nanotubes CNT coating 120 is filled may be incorporated to control the CNT coating effective range of the electromagnetic radiation absorbed by 120. 并入CNT的涂层120中的纳米管之间的间隙可被用于选择性地捕获和吸收具有一个或者多个给定波长的辐射。 The gap between the CNT coating 120 incorporated nanotubes can be used to selectively capture and absorb having one or more given wavelength radiation.

[0073] 并入CNT的涂层中碳纳米管越长,电磁辐射(至少在可见光谱中)的吸收率越高。 [0073] CNT coating incorporated in the longer nanotubes, electromagnetic radiation (at least in the visible spectrum) the higher the absorption. 并入CNT的涂层120可以包括具有长度范围在大约十(10)微米至大约几百微米的碳纳米管。 CNT-infused coating layer 120 may comprise carbon nanotubes having a length in the range of about ten (10) microns to about several hundred micrometers.

[0074] 如在本领域中所已知的,碳纳米管的热导率取决于其结构构造。 [0074] As is known in the art, the thermal conductivity of carbon nanotubes depends on the structural configuration. 具体地,与垂直于其纵向轴的方向的热导率相比,碳纳米管在其纵向轴的方向具有更高的热导率。 Specifically, the thermal conductivity as compared with the vertical direction of the longitudinal axis thereof, carbon nanotubes have a higher thermal conductivity in the direction of its longitudinal axis. 因此,在一种构造中,并入CNT的涂层120可以包括大体垂直于外表面115排列的碳纳米管,大体平行于外表面115排列的碳纳米管,以及既不平行于也不垂直于外表面115排列的碳纳米管。 Thus, in one configuration, the CNT-infused coating layer 120 may comprise carbon nanotubes substantially arranged perpendicular to the outer surface 115 of the carbon nanotubes aligned substantially parallel to the outer surface 115, and neither parallel nor perpendicular to the an outer surface 115 aligned carbon nanotubes. 大体垂直于外表面115的那些碳纳米管有效地传导从入射辐射转化的热至外表面115。 Those carbon nanotubes substantially perpendicular to the outer surface 115 of effectively conduct the heat from the conversion of incident radiation to the outer surface 115. 大体不垂直于外表面115的那些碳纳米管不直接地传导任何显著的热至外表面115。 Those carbon nanotubes are not substantially perpendicular to the outer surface 115 is not directly conduct any significant heat to the outer surface 115. 但是,大体不垂直于外表面115的那些碳纳米管,在并入CNT的涂层120中形成至大体垂直的碳纳米管的热路径,从而增加从并入CNT的涂层120至外表面115的全部热传递。 However, those substantially not perpendicular to the outer surface 115 of the carbon nanotube, is formed substantially perpendicular to the thermal path incorporating carbon nanotubes CNT coating 120, the coating is incorporated to increase from 120 to the outer surface of CNT 115 all heat transfer. 因此,并入CNT 的涂层120中碳纳米管的排列可被调整以使并入CNT的涂层120至吸热元件110的热导率最大化。 Thus, CNT-infused coating arrangement of carbon nanotubes 120 can be adjusted so that the coating is incorporated to maximize the thermal conductivity of the CNT 120 to 110 of the heat absorbing element.

[0075] 现在参考图2,图解的是根据本发明的另一实施方式的太阳能接收器200。 [0075] Referring now to Figure 2, illustrated is a solar receiver according to another embodiment of the present invention 200. 太阳能接收器200通常类似于太阳能接收器100。 The solar receiver 200 is generally similar to the solar receiver 100. 但是,接收器200具有如此吸热元件110,其具有在外表面115上形成的凹槽215。 However, the receiver 200 having such a heat absorbing member 110 having a groove 215 formed on the outer surface 115. 在一种构造中,凹槽215采取沿着吸热元件110的长度沿伸的螺旋构造的形式。 In one configuration, the groove 215 in the form of Yan Shen along the length of the heat absorbing element 110 spiral configuration. 本领域技术人员容易理解加工螺旋凹槽是简单的并且是众所周知的方法。 Those skilled in the art readily appreciate that the helical groove machining is simple and well known methods. 在示例性的实施方式中,凹槽215可具有范围在从大约50pm至大约5000pm的尺寸。 In an exemplary embodiment, the groove 215 may have a size range of from about 50pm to about 5000pm of. 凹槽215有效地增加暴露于并入CNT的涂层120的吸热元件110外表面115的表面面积。 Grooves 215 effectively increase the surface area of ​​the outer surface 110 is exposed to the heat absorbing element incorporated CNT coating 120 115. 增加的表面面积又增加从并入CNT的涂层120传热至吸热元件110的外表面115的效率。 Increased surface area and increasing the efficiency of heat transfer from the coating 120 is incorporated to the outer surface of the CNT 110 115 heat absorbing element. 在示例性的实施方式中,当与由并入CNT的纤维丝束120组成的并入CNT的涂层结合时,凹槽215是尤其有效的。 In an exemplary embodiment, when combined with the coating incorporated by CNT CNT-infused fiber tows 120 composed of a groove 215 is particularly effective. 凹槽215的大小可适合于使凹槽215的内部表面和并入CNT 的涂层120的一个或者多个单独的纤维的外表面之间的接触面积最大化。 The groove 215 may be adapted to the size of the internal surface of the groove 215 and the CNT coating is incorporated to maximize the contact area between the outer surface of the individual fibers 120 of one or more. 在示例性的实施方式中,凹槽215的大小和深度可大约类似于并入CNT的涂层120的并入CNT的纤维,从而在凹槽215内以紧密的配合容纳并且固定并入CNT的涂层120的并入CNT的纤维,并且使凹槽215和并入CNT的涂层120之间的表面接触最大化。 In an exemplary embodiment, the groove size and depth 215 can be approximately similar to the coating CNT CNT-infused fiber 120 is incorporated so that the recess 215 to receive and fit closely fixed CNT-infused coating the CNT fibers 120 are incorporated, and the grooves 215 and the CNT coating is incorporated to maximize the contact between the surface 120. 在其他实施方式中,凹槽215可以容纳并入CNT的涂层120的多个并入CNT的纤维。 In other embodiments, the recess 215 can receive a plurality of coating 120 CNT CNT-infused fiber incorporated.

[0076] 在一种构造中,凹槽215可以采取被螺旋地限定在外表面115上并且沿着吸收元件110的整个长度连续地延伸的单一凹槽的形式。 [0076] In one configuration, the groove 215 may take the form of a single spiral groove is defined on an outer surface 115 and extends continuously along the entire length of the absorbent member 110. 在另一实施方式中,凹槽215可以包括限定在热吸收器元件110的外表面115上的一系列不连续的或者分割的凹槽。 In another embodiment, the recess 215 can be a series of discrete or divided grooves on the outer surface 115 of the heat absorbing element 110 comprises defined. 这种凹槽215可相对彼此纵向地排列,并且大小可以容纳围绕吸收器元件110缠绕的一种或多种并入CNT的纤维的至少一部分。 Such recesses 215 may be arranged longitudinally relative to one another, and sized to receive at least a portion of one 110 wound around the absorbent element incorporated or more CNT fibers.

[0077] 参考图3,图解的是根据本发明的另一实施方式的太阳能接收器300。 [0077] Referring to FIG 3, it is illustrated in accordance with another embodiment of the solar receiver embodiment 300 of the present invention. 太阳能接收器300大体类似于太阳能接收器100(图1的)。 The solar receiver 300 is generally similar to the solar receiver 100 (FIG. 1). 在一种构造中,可施加环境涂层310至并入CNT的涂层120的顶面以保护并入CNT的涂层120并且改进并入CNT的涂层120和环境涂层310的组合的反射和发射特性。 In one configuration, the coating 310 may be applied to the environment incorporated CNT coating 120 to the top surface of the protective coating 120 is incorporated and improved CNT CNT-infused combined reflective coating 120 and coating 310 of the environment and emission characteristics. 在图5-12中示意性地描述环境涂层310的几种实施方式,并且在此叙述。 5-12 schematically in FIG environmental coating 310 depicts several embodiments, and in this description.

[0078] 现在参考图4,图解的是根据本发明的另一实施方式的太阳能接收器400。 [0078] Referring now to Figure 4, illustrated is a solar receiver according to another embodiment of the present invention 400. 太阳能接收器400大体类似于太阳能接收器200 (图2的),还包括如在太阳能接收器300 (图3 的)的描述中所述的环境涂层310。 The solar receiver 400 is generally similar to the solar receiver 200 (FIG. 2), further comprising a coating environment 310 as in the description of the solar receiver 300 (FIG. 3) of.

[0079] 现在参考图5,在太阳能接收器500的一种构造中,表示的是与并入CNT的涂层120整合的陶瓷环境涂层510,用于保护并入CNT的涂层120不受环境影响并且用于减少热能从并入CNT的涂层120发出。 [0079] Referring now to Figure 5, in one configuration of the solar receiver 500, it is represented by the coating 120 CNT-infused ceramic integrated environmental coating 510, coating 120 is for protecting the CNT is not incorporated for reducing the environmental impact and thermal energy emitted from the CNT coating 120 is incorporated. 环境涂层510对至少太阳辐射是透明的以允许入射辐射到达并入CNT的涂层120。 Environmental coating at least 510 pairs of solar radiation transparent coating 120 is to allow incident radiation to reach the CNT-infused. 此外,环境涂层510反射热辐射,包括由并入CNT的涂层120发出的红外光辐射,从而反射热辐射返回至并入CNT的涂层120用于再吸收。 In addition, environmental coating 510 reflect heat radiation, including infrared radiation emitted from the CNT coating 120 is incorporated so as to reflect heat radiation back to the CNT coating 120 incorporated for resorption. 因此,环境涂层510具有低发射率特性。 Thus, environmental coating 510 having a low emissivity properties. 在示例性的实施方式中,环境涂层510可以包括作为液体施加并且经过高温固化周期转化为玻璃的陶瓷(介电)基材料。 In an exemplary embodiment, the environment 510 may include a coating applied as a liquid and high temperature cure cycle into the ceramic glass (dielectric) based material. 在另一实施方式中,可经过化学气相沉积方法或者经过等离子体溅射施加环境涂层510。 In another embodiment, the chemical vapor deposition process may be subjected to a plasma sputtering or via environmental coating 510 is applied. 因为这种涂层施加方法在本领域是已知的,为简洁起见不进一步对其详细叙述。 Because this method is known in the art, for brevity not be described further in detail the coating is applied. 在一种构造中,环境涂层510适合于经受并入CNT的涂层120和吸热元件110的高温,该高温可以达到高达400°C至500°C。 In one configuration, the environmental coating 510 is adapted to be subjected to the coating member 120 and the heat sink 110 CNT-infused high temperature, which can reach high temperatures of up to 400 ° C to 500 ° C. 在另一构造中,环境涂层510可适合于为疏水的以保护并入CNT的涂层120不受环境湿气影响。 In another configuration, the environmental coating 510 may be adapted to protect the hydrophobic moisture CNT coating 120 is incorporated from the environment. 在示例性的实施方式中,环境涂层510可具有在范围大约50nm至大约500nm的厚度。 In an exemplary embodiment, the environmental coating 510 may have a thickness in the range of about 50nm to about 500nm. 可被用于形成环境涂层510的材料的实例包括氧化铝、二氧化硅、二氧化铯、硫化锌、氮化铝、和氧化,告。 Examples of the material for the environmental coating 510 be formed include alumina, silica, cerium dioxide, zinc sulfide, aluminum nitride, and oxide, sue.

[0080] 现在参考图6,在太阳能接收器600的另一构造中,用抗反射涂层615进一步涂覆整合的陶瓷环境涂层510和并入CNT的涂层120。 [0080] Referring now to Figure 6, in another configuration of the solar receiver 600, further coated with an antireflective coating 615 ceramic integrated environmental coating 510 and coating 120 CNT-infused. 通过在其上布置抗反射涂层615可以减少由于整合的环境涂层510和并入CNT的涂层120的反射而损失的入射辐射的量。 Since the amount of reflection of incident radiation 510 and the integrated environmental coating incorporated CNT coating 120 may be reduced by the loss of the antireflective coating 615 disposed thereon. 因此, 抗反射涂层510有效地减少下面的整合的环境涂层510和并入CNT的涂层120的反射损失,并且增加被并入CNT的涂层120吸收的入射辐射的量。 Thus, anti-reflection coating 510 effective to reduce environmental coating 510 following the integration and incorporation of the CNT coating 120 reflection losses, and increase the amount of incident radiation absorbed by the incorporated 120 CNT coating. 这种抗反射涂层的实例包括氟化镁、含氟聚合物和硅石基的涂层。 Examples of such anti-reflective coating comprises a coating of magnesium fluoride, fluorinated polymer and a silica-based. 这种抗反射涂层的使用在本领域是已知的,因此不进一步详叙。 Such antireflective coatings are known in the art and therefore not further detailed classification.

[0081] 参考图7,在太阳能接收器700的一种构造中,金属的环境涂层710被施加在并入CNT的涂层120上。 [0081] Referring to Figure 7, in one configuration of the solar receiver 700, metallic environmental coating 710 is applied to the CNT coating 120 is incorporated. 在示例性的实施方式中,环境涂层710可以是金属薄膜,其对至少太阳辐射是透明的以允许入射辐射到达并入CNT的涂层120。 In an exemplary embodiment, the environment may be a thin metal film coating 710, at least 120 pairs of solar radiation which the coating is transparent to allow incident radiation to reach the CNT-infused. 此外,通过从并入CNT的涂层120将包括红外线辐射的热辐射反射回并入CNT的涂层120用于再吸收,环境涂层710具有低发射率特性。 Further, by incorporating the coating of the CNT coating 120 comprises a thermal radiation reflecting infrared radiation back to 120 for CNT-infused resorption, environmental coating 710 having a low emissivity properties. 在示例性的实施方式中,环境涂层710可以包括通过化学气相沉积方法或者通过等离子体溅射或者喷雾施加的金属薄膜材料。 In an exemplary embodiment, the environment 710 may include a coating layer by chemical vapor deposition or a metal thin film material is applied by plasma spraying or sputtering. 在一种构造中,环境涂层710适合于经受并入CNT的涂层120和吸热元件110的高温,该高温可以到达高达400°C至500°C。 In one configuration, the environmental coating 710 is adapted to be subjected to the coating member 120 and the heat sink 110 CNT-infused high temperature, which can reach high temperatures of up to 400 ° C to 500 ° C. 在另一构造中,环境涂层710可以适合于是疏水的。 In another configuration, the environmental coating 710 may be adapted so hydrophobic. 在示例性的实施方式中,环境涂层710可具有在范围大约Inm至大约250nm的厚度。 In an exemplary embodiment, the environmental coating 710 may have a thickness in the range of about 250nm to about Inm to. 可被用于形成环境涂层510的材料的实例包括但不限于钼(Mo)、银(Ag)、铜(Cu)、镍(Ni)、钛(Ti)、钼(Pt)、钨(W)、铬(Cr)、钴(Co)、金(Au)、 氧化铜(CuO)、氧化钴(Co3O4)、二氧化钼(MoO2)、氧化钨(WO)、氧化钛(TiO)、氮化钛(TiN)、 铁(Fe)和三氧化二铁(Fe2O3)。 Examples of the material for the environmental coating 510 be formed include, but are not limited to molybdenum (Mo), silver (Ag), copper (Cu), Nickel (Ni), titanium (Ti), molybdenum (Pt), tungsten (W ), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), gold (Au), copper oxide (CuO), cobalt oxide (of Co3O4), molybdenum dioxide (MoO2), tungsten oxide (WO), titanium oxide (Ti02), nitride titanium (TiN), iron (Fe) and iron oxide (Fe2O3).

[0082] 现在参考图8,在太阳能接收器800的另一构造中,用抗反射涂层615进一步涂覆金属的环境涂层710(图7的)。 [0082] Referring now to Figure 8, another configuration of the solar receiver 800, 615 with anti-reflection coating is further coated metallic environmental coating 710 (FIG. 7). 这种抗反射涂层的实例包括氟化镁、含氟聚合物和硅石基的涂层。 Examples of such anti-reflective coating comprises a coating of magnesium fluoride, fluorinated polymer and a silica-based.

[0083] 参考图9,在太阳能接收器900的另一构造中,用金属涂层710(图7的)进一步涂覆整合的陶瓷环境涂层510和并入CNT的涂层120(图5的),从而在吸热元件110上形成分层的金属陶瓷涂层。 [0083] Referring to Figure 9, in another configuration of the solar receiver 900, with a metal coating 710 (FIG. 7) coated with a ceramic coating further integration environment 510 incorporating and CNT coating 120 (FIG. 5 ), thereby forming a metal ceramic coating layered on the heat-absorbing element 110. 分层的金属陶瓷涂层包括叠加在整合的陶瓷涂层510和并入CNT的涂层120上的金属涂层710。 Layered cermet coating comprises a metal coating 710 is superimposed on the integrated ceramic coating 510 and coating 120 of the CNT-infused. 陶瓷层510和金属层710的组合有效地增加提供给并入CNT 的涂层120的环境保护,并且通过将热辐射反射回并入CNT的涂层120用于再吸收,有效地减少下面的并入CNT的涂层120的热辐射损失。 Combination of the ceramic layer 510 and the metal layer 710 effectively increases the environmental protection provided to the CNT coating 120 is incorporated, and is incorporated by CNT coating 120 for heat radiation back resorption, and effectively reduce the following the heat radiation loss CNT coating 120. 分层的金属陶瓷层为下面的整合的陶瓷涂层510和并入CNT的涂层120提供另外的结构完整性。 Layered cermet layer is a ceramic coating below 510 the integration and incorporation of the CNT coating 120 to provide additional structural integrity.

[0084] 现在参考图10,在太阳能接收器1000的另一构造中,用抗反射涂层615进一步涂覆图9的整合的金属陶瓷涂层。 [0084] Referring now to Figure 10, another configuration of the solar receiver 1000, with further integration of anti-reflection coating 615 coated cermet coating 9 of FIG. 这种抗反射涂层的实例包括氟化镁、含氟聚合物和硅石基的涂层。 Examples of such anti-reflective coating comprises a coating of magnesium fluoride, fluorinated polymer and a silica-based.

[0085] 现在参考图11,在太阳能接收器1100的另一构造中,用金属颗粒1110掺杂整合的陶瓷环境涂层510和并入CNT的涂层120 (图5的)。 [0085] Referring now to Figure 11, another configuration of the solar receiver 1100, 1110 doped with the metal particles integrated environmental coating 510 and a ceramic coating incorporating a CNT 120 (FIG. 5). 在一种构造中,颗粒1110可以包括描述用于涂层710的金属,并且可通过胶体分散或者选择性地等离子体溅射或者喷雾施加颗粒1110。 In one configuration, the particles 1110 may include a description of a metal coating 710, and may be a colloidal dispersion or alternatively by sputtering or plasma spray application 1110 particles. 颗粒尺寸可以在几微米至几纳米之间。 Particle size may be between a few micrometers to a few nanometers. 因此,该构造提供并入CNT的涂层120和掺杂有金属颗粒1110的整合陶瓷涂层510的整合层。 Thus, this configuration provides incorporated CNT coating 120 doped with metal particles and integrating the ceramic coating layer 510 of the 1110 integrated.

[0086] 参考图12,在另一构造1200中,用抗反射涂层615进一步涂覆图11的涂层的整合层。 [0086] Referring to FIG 12, in another configuration 1200, integrated with the antireflective coating layer 615 is further coated with a coating 11 of FIG. 这种抗反射涂层的实例包括氟化镁、含氟聚合物和硅石基的涂层。 Examples of such anti-reflective coating comprises a coating of magnesium fluoride, fluorinated polymer and a silica-based.

[0087] 现在参考图13,图解的是根据本发明的仍有另一实施方式的太阳能接收器1300。 [0087] Referring now to Figure 13, illustrated is a solar receiver according to still another embodiment of the present invention is 1300. 太阳能接收器1300大体类似于太阳能接收器300 (图3的)。 The solar receiver 1300 is generally similar to the solar receiver 300 (FIG. 3). 太阳能接收器1300另外地包括围绕涂覆有并入CNT的涂层120的吸热元件110的环形套筒1310。 The solar receiver 1300 additionally includes an annular sleeve surrounding the coated heat absorbing element 1310 incorporated in the CNT coating 120 110. 在示例性的实施方式中,环形套筒1310采取玻璃环形套筒的形式。 In an exemplary embodiment, an annular sleeve 1310 in the form of an annular sleeve of glass. 在其他实施方式中,环形套筒1310可由对入射的电磁辐射例如太阳辐射透明的其他材料制成,诸如石英或者其他掺杂的玻璃材料。 In other embodiments, the annular sleeve 1310 may be formed of other materials, for example, the incident electromagnetic radiation is made transparent to solar radiation, such as quartz or other glass material doped. 在一种构造中,可以在环形套筒1310的外表面、内表面或者内和外表面二者上用抗反射涂层涂覆环形套筒1310以使经过环形套筒1310传播的入射辐射的量最大化。 In one configuration, both may be on the outer surface of the annular sleeve 1310 and the inner surface or inner and outer surfaces coated with an antireflection coating to the annulus 1310 incident radiation propagating through the annular sleeve 1310 in an amount maximize. 在示例性的实施方式中,抗反射涂层可以包括多个薄膜结构,该结构具有折射率差别悬殊的交替层。 In an exemplary embodiment, the antireflective coating may include a plurality of thin film structures, the structure has a refractive index of discriminative alternating layers. 可以选择层厚度以在从界面反射的光束中产生相消干涉,和在相应的传播的光束中产生相长干涉。 The layer thickness may be selected to produce destructive interference of the light beam reflected from the interface, and to produce constructive interference in the respective beams propagated. 这种抗反射涂层的实例包括氟化镁、含氟聚合物和硅石基的涂层。 Examples of such anti-reflective coating comprises a coating of magnesium fluoride, fluorinated polymer and a silica-based.

[0088] 在另一构造中,可用低发射率涂层在外、内或者内和外表面二者上另外地或者任选地涂覆环形套筒1310以减少从环形套筒1310发出的辐射热损失。 [0088] In another configuration, the available low-emissivity coating of the outer, inner or both the inner and outer surfaces additionally or optionally coated annular sleeve 1310 in order to reduce radiative heat loss emitted from the annulus 1310 . 在示例性的实施方式中,低发射率涂层是置于环形套筒1310上的薄膜金属或者金属氧化物层。 In an exemplary embodiment, the low emissivity coating is a metal or metal oxide film disposed on the layer 1310 annulus. 这种低发射率涂层的非限制性实例包括具有范围在500-50nm之间的厚度的钼(Mo)、银(Ag)J^ (Cu)、和镍(Ni)。 Non-limiting examples of low emissivity coatings comprising molybdenum having a range of thickness between 500-50nm (Mo), silver (Ag) J ^ (Cu), and nickel (Ni). 在仍另一构造中,可用红外线反射涂层在其内、外或者内和外表面二者上另外地或者任选地涂覆环形套筒1310。 Additionally or optionally coated on both annular sleeve 1310 In yet another configuration, the infrared reflective coating can be used therein, an outer or inner and outer surfaces. 如本领域中已知的,热可以来自经过从涂覆有并入CNT的涂层120的吸热元件110的红外线辐射的损失。 As is known in the art, heat may pass from the coating from the infrared absorbing element incorporated CNT coating 120 110 loss of radiation. 用红外线反射涂层涂覆的环形套筒1310将并入CNT的涂层120发出的这种红外线辐射反射回吸热元件110,其中并入CNT的涂层120再吸收这种反射的顶辐射。 This infrared annulus 1310 with the infrared reflective coating is applied will be incorporated into the CNT coating 120 emits radiation back heat absorbing elements 110, 120 which is incorporated CNT coating resorbable top of this reflected radiation. 因此,通过发出的辐射的再吸收,减少来自红外线辐射的有效热损失。 Accordingly, by re-absorption of radiation emitted, reducing the effective heat loss from the infrared radiation. 这种红外线反射涂层的实例是锡酸镉薄膜。 Examples of such infrared reflective coating is a cadmium stannate film.

[0089] 在示例性的实施方式中,太阳能接收器1300可以包括环形套筒1310和至少部分地覆盖有并入CNT的涂层120的吸热元件110之间的空气间隙或者气穴。 [0089] In an exemplary embodiment, a solar receiver 1300 may include an annular sleeve 1310 and the heat absorbing elements are at least partially covered with a coating of the CNT incorporated air gap 120 or 110 between the air pockets. 在另一实施方式中,环形套筒1310可被抽空以减少由于存在于并入CNT的涂层120和环形套筒1310之间的空气中的对流产生的热损失。 In another embodiment, the annular sleeve 1310 may be evacuated to reduce the heat loss due to air present in the coating layer is incorporated between the CNT and the annular sleeve 120 1310 convection generated. 在仍另一示例性的实施方式中,太阳能接收器1300可进一步包括关于图5-12叙述的环境、低发射率涂层的一种或多种。 In yet another exemplary embodiment, the solar receiver 1300 may further include environmental described with respect to Figure 5-12, one or more low emissivity coating.

[0090] 现在参考图14,图解根据本发明的一个实施方式的太阳能接收器1400。 [0090] Referring now to Figure 14, illustrates a solar receiver according to an embodiment of the present invention is 1400. 太阳能接收器1400大体类似于太阳能接收器400。 1400 solar receiver 400 is generally similar to the solar receiver. 太阳能接收器400另外地包括环形套筒1310,其围绕至少部分地被并入CNT的涂层120覆盖的吸热元件110。 The solar receiver 400 additionally includes an annular sleeve 1310 which surrounds at least partially incorporated into the heat absorbing element is covered CNT coatings 120,110. 可用一个或多个抗反射涂层在其外、内或者外和内表面二者上涂覆环形套筒1310,在其外、内或者内和外表面上涂敷低发射率涂层,在其内、外或者内和外表面上涂敷红外线辐射反射涂层,如本文以上关于图13 的实施方式叙述的。 Using one or more anti-reflective coating on its outer, or on both the inner and outer surface coating annulus 1310, in outer, or inner and the outer surface of the low-emissivity coating is applied, in which inner, outer, or inner and outer surfaces of the infrared radiation reflecting coating is applied, as described above with respect to embodiments herein described in the embodiment 13 of FIG. 在仍另一示例性的实施方式中,太阳能接收器1400可进一步包括关于图5-12叙述的环境涂层、低发射率涂层的一种或多种。 In yet another exemplary embodiment, a solar receiver 1400 may further comprise a coating on the environment described in Figure 5-12, one or more low emissivity coating.

[0091] 下面是产生并入CNT的纤维材料的示例性的方法。 [0091] The following is an exemplary method CNT-infused fiber material produced. 以碳纤维材料作为例子说明该方法,但是,本领域技术人员也理解操作参数类似于其他材料类型,包括玻璃、陶瓷以及金属纤维材料。 Carbon fiber material is explained as an example of the method, those skilled in the art also appreciate that the operating parameters are similar to other types of materials, including glass, ceramics and metal fiber material.

[0092] 在一些实施方式中,本发明提供CNT并入的连续的方法,其包括(a)在可缠绕维度的纤维材料的表面上放置碳纳米管形成催化剂;和(b)在纤维材料上直接合成碳纳米管,从而形成并入碳纳米管的纤维材料。 [0092] In certain embodiments, the present invention provides a continuous process incorporated CNT, which comprises (a) a fibrous material placed on the surface of the carbon nanotubes may be winding dimensions forming catalyst; and (b) the fibrous material direct synthesis of carbon nanotubes, thereby forming a carbon nanotube incorporated in the fibrous material. 对于9英尺长的系统,该方法的线速度可以在大约1. 5ft/min至大约108ft/min之间的范围。 9 feet long for the system, the process linear velocity may be about 1. 5ft / min to a range of between about 108ft / min. 通过本文描述的方法达到的线速度允许用短的生产时间形成商业相关量的并入CNT的纤维材料。 Achieved by the methods described herein allow for the formation of the linear velocity of commercially relevant quantities with short production times CNT-infused fiber material. 例如,在36ft/min线速度,在设计来同时处理5个单独的丝束QOlb/丝束)的系统中,并入CNT的纤维的量(纤维上按重量计超过5%并入的CNT)可以每天生产超过100磅或者更多的材料。 For example systems, in / min line speed of 36ft, designed to concurrently process the individual tows 5 QOlb / tow), the amount of CNT-infused fiber (the fiber more than 5% by weight of incorporated CNT) We can produce more than 100 pounds or more of material per day. 系统可被制造通过重复生长区域以一次或者以更快的速度生产更多的丝束。 The system can be manufactured at a faster or more strands produced by repeating the growth zone. 而且,如在本领域已知,在CNT制作中的一些步骤具有极其慢的速度,防止了操作的连续方式。 Further, as is known, some of the steps in the production of CNT has a very slow speed in the art, a continuous mode of operation is prevented. 例如,在本领域已知的典型方法中,CNT形成催化剂还原步骤可以花费1-12小时完成。 For example, in a typical method known in the art, the CNT forming catalyst reduction step may take 1-12 hours to complete. CNT生长本身也可以是耗时的,例如需要几十分钟用于CNT生长,这排除在本发明中实现的快速线速度。 CNT growth itself may be time consuming, for example, several tens of minutes required for CNT growth, which exclude the fast linear velocity in the present invention. 本文描述的方法克服了这类速度限制步骤。 The method described herein overcomes the speed limitations of such steps.

[0093] 本发明的并入CNT的纤维材料形成方法可避免当试图将预形成的碳纳米管的悬浮液施加至纤维材料时发生的CNT成束。 [0093] CNT-infused fiber material of the present invention is a method for forming carbon nanotubes when trying to avoid pre-formed into a CNT suspension is applied to the fiber when the beam generating material. S卩,因为预形成的CNT未并入碳纤维材料,CNT 往往成束并且缠结。 S Jie, since CNT is not incorporated into the preformed carbon fiber material, and the CNT bundles often entangled. 结果是微弱地粘附于碳纤维材料的CNT差的均勻分布。 The result is weakly adhered to the uniform distribution of the difference between the CNT carbon fiber material. 但是,如果期望,在纤维材料的表面上通过减小生长密度,本发明的方法可以提供高度均勻的缠结的CNT 垫。 However, if desired, on the surface of the fibrous material by reducing the growth density, the method of the present invention can provide a highly uniform entangled CNT mat. 以低的密度生长的CNT首先被并入纤维材料中。 CNT grown at a low density of the first fibrous material is incorporated. 在这种实施方式中,纤维没有生长足够密集以引起垂直排列,结果是碳纤维材料表面上的缠结的垫。 In such embodiment, the fibers do not grow dense enough to cause homeotropic alignment, the result is entangled on the surface of the carbon fiber mat of material. 相比之下,预形成的CNT的手工施加不保证CNT垫在碳纤维材料上的均勻分布和密度。 In contrast, hand-CNT does not guarantee applying preformed CNT mat on the carbon fiber material and a uniform density distribution.

[0094] 图15描述根据本发明的例证性实施方式的用于生产并入CNT的碳纤维材料的方法1500的流程图。 The method described carbon fiber material for producing a CNT-infused according to an illustrative embodiment of the present invention [0094] 1500 FIG. 15 flowchart. 再次,碳纤维材料的使用仅是示例性的。 Again, the use of carbon fiber materials are merely exemplary.

[0095] 方法1500包括至少下列操作: [0095] Method 1500 includes at least the following operations:

[0096] 1501 :使碳纤维材料功能化。 [0096] 1501: functionalized carbon fiber material.

[0097] 1502 :施加隔离涂层和CNT形成催化剂至功能化的碳纤维材料。 [0097] 1502: applying a barrier coating material and carbon fiber CNT catalyst to form functionalized.

[0098] 1504 :加热碳纤维材料至对于碳纳米管合成足够的温度。 [0098] 1504: the carbon fiber material is heated to a sufficient temperature for carbon nanotube synthesis.

[0099] 1506 :在负载催化剂的碳纤维上促进CVD介导的CNT生长。 [0099] 1506: assisted CVD CNT growth mediated by the catalyst supported on the carbon fibers.

[0100] 在步骤1501,使碳纤维材料功能化以改进纤维的表面润湿性并且改进隔离涂层的粘附力。 [0100] In step 1501, the carbon fiber material is functionalized to improve the wettability of the fiber surface and improve adhesion of the barrier coating.

[0101] 为使碳纳米管并入至碳纤维材料,在与隔离涂层共形地(conformally)涂布的碳纤维材料上合成碳纳米管。 [0101] The carbon nanotubes incorporated into the carbon fiber material, with barrier coating conformally (conformally) synthesizing carbon nanotubes on the carbon fiber material is coated. 在一个实施方式中,按照每一操作1502,这通过首先用隔离涂层共形地涂布碳纤维材料,然后放置纳米管形成催化剂于隔离涂层上完成。 In one embodiment, in accordance with each operation 1502, which conformally coated carbon fiber material by first barrier coating, then left nanotubes on the catalyst to complete the barrier coating. 在一些实施方式中,在催化剂沉积之前可部分地固化隔离涂层。 In some embodiments, the catalyst prior to depositing partially cured barrier coating. 这可以提供这样的表面:其对于接收催化剂是容易接收的并且允许其嵌入隔离涂层中,包括允许在CNT形成催化剂和碳纤维材料之间的表面接触。 This may provide a surface: it is easy for receiving catalyst and allowing the received embedded in the barrier coating, including allowing the formation of surface contact between the catalyst and the carbon fiber material in the CNT. 在这种实施方式中,在嵌入催化剂之后可完全固化隔离涂层。 In this embodiment, the catalyst may be fully cured after embedding the barrier coating. 在一些实施方式中,与CNT形成催化剂的沉积同时地,隔离涂层被共形地涂布在碳纤维材料上。 In some embodiments, the catalyst is deposited is formed simultaneously with the CNT, the barrier coating is conformally coated on the carbon fiber material. 一旦CNT 形成催化剂和隔离涂层在适当的位置,隔离涂层可被完全地固化。 Once the CNT-forming catalyst and barrier coating in place, the barrier coating can be fully cured.

[0102] 在一些实施方式中,在催化剂沉积之前,隔离涂层可被完全固化。 [0102] In some embodiments, prior to deposition of the catalyst, the barrier coating can be fully cured. 在这种实施方式中,可以用等离子体处理完全固化的隔离涂布的碳纤维材料以制备接受催化剂的表面。 In this embodiment, the processing can be fully cured barrier coated carbon fiber material with a plasma to prepare the receiving surface of the catalyst. 例如,具有固化的隔离涂层的等离子体处理的碳纤维材料可以提供粗糙的表面,CNT形成催化剂可被沉积在该表面中。 For example, plasma treated carbon fiber material having a cured barrier coating may provide a rough surface, the CNT-forming catalyst may be deposited on the surface. 用于使隔离的表面“粗糙化”的等离子体方法因此促进催化剂沉积。 For isolating surface "roughened" plasma deposition methods thus promoting catalyst. 粗糙度典型地是在纳米级别。 Roughness typically in the nanometer level. 在等离子体处理方法中,形成纳米深度和纳米直径的凹坑(craters)或者凹陷(depressions)。 In the plasma processing method, a nano-nm diameter and depth of the pits (Craters) or depressions (depressions). 使用各种不同气体的任何一种或者多种的等离子体,包括但不限于氩气、氦气、氧气、氮气和氢气,可实现这种表面改性。 Using a variety of any one or more of a gas plasma, including but not limited to, argon, helium, oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen, such surface modification can be achieved. 在一些实施方式中, 在碳纤维材料本身中也可直接完成等离子体粗糙化。 In some embodiments, the carbon fiber material itself may also be accomplished directly in a plasma roughened. 这可以促进隔离涂层对碳纤维材料的粘附。 This may facilitate adhesion of the barrier coating on the carbon fiber material.

[0103] 如在下面和结合图15进一步描述的,制备催化剂为包含CNT形成催化剂的液体溶液,该催化剂包括过渡金属纳米颗粒。 [0103] As below and further described in conjunction with FIG. 15, the preparation of the catalyst comprising a liquid solution formed CNT catalyst, the catalyst comprising a transition metal nanoparticles. 合成的纳米管的直径与金属颗粒的尺寸相关,如上所述。 Synthesis size diameter of metal particles is associated nanotubes, as described above. 在一些实施方式中,CNT形成过渡金属纳米颗粒催化剂的商业分散体是可得的并且不经稀释即可使用,在其他实施方式中,催化剂的商业分散体可被稀释。 In some embodiments, the dispersion of the CNT commercial form transition metal nanoparticle catalysts are available and can be used without dilution, in other embodiments, the dispersions of the commercial catalyst can be diluted. 是否稀释该溶液可以取决于待生长的CNT的期望密度和长度,如上所述。 It may depend on whether the solution was diluted to be a desired growth density and length of the CNT, as described above.

[0104] 参考图15的例证性实施方式,基于化学气相沉积(CVD)方法,说明碳纳米管合成, 并且在高温发生该碳纳米管合成。 Illustrative Embodiment [0104] Referring to FIG. 15, based on a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, described carbon nanotube synthesis, the carbon nanotubes synthesis occurs at a high temperature. 具体温度是催化剂选择的函数,但是典型地在大约500 至1000°C的范围。 Temperature is a function specific catalyst selected, but is typically in the range of about 500 to 1000 ° C in. 因此,操作1504包括加热隔离涂布的碳纤维材料至上述范围内的温度以支持碳纳米管合成。 Thus, operation 1504 comprises heating the barrier coated carbon fiber material to a temperature within the above range to support carbon nanotube synthesis.

[0105] 在操作1506中,然后进行负载催化剂的碳纤维材料上的CVD-促进的纳米管生长。 [0105] In operation 1506, followed by CVD- promoting nano carbon fiber material supported on the catalyst tube growth. 由例如含碳原料气诸如乙炔、乙烯和/或乙醇,可促进CVD方法。 A carbon-containing feed gas by, for example acetylene, ethylene and / or ethanol, may facilitate such a CVD method. CNT合成方法一般使用惰性气体(氮气、氩气、氦气)作为主要的载气。 CNT synthesis methods typically using an inert gas (nitrogen, argon, helium) as the primary carrier gas. 提供碳原料为全部混合物的大约0%至大约15%之间的范围。 The carbon feedstock is in the range between about 0% of the total mixture to about 15 percent. 通过从生长室中清除湿气和氧气,制备CVD生长的基本惰性环境。 Substantially inert environment by removing moisture and oxygen, prepared for CVD growth from the growth chamber.

[0106] 在CNT合成方法中,CNT生长在CNT形成过渡金属纳米颗粒催化剂的位置。 [0106] In the CNT synthesis process, the growth of CNT formation position of the transition metal catalyst nanoparticles CNT. 强的等离子体产生电场的存在可被任选地应用以影响纳米管生长。 Strong plasma generating an electric field may optionally be applied to affect nanotube growth. 即,生长趋于沿电场的方向。 That is, growth tends in the direction of the electric field. 通过适当地调整等离子体喷射和电场的几何形状,垂直排列的CNT(即,垂直于碳纤维材料) 可被合成。 By appropriately adjusting the geometry of the plasma spray and electric field vertically aligned CNT (i.e., perpendicular to the carbon fiber material) can be synthesized. 在一定的条件下,即使没有等离子体,紧密地间隔开的纳米管保持垂直生长方向,导致类似于地毯或者森林的CNT的密集排列。 Under certain conditions, even if no plasma, closely spaced vertical holding nanotube growth direction, resulting in a dense array similar to carpet or CNT forests. 隔离涂层的存在也可影响CNT生长的方向性。 The present barrier coating can also affect the directionality of CNT growth.

[0107] 通过喷射或者浸渍涂布溶液或者通过例如等离子体方法的气相沉积,可完成在碳纤维材料上放置催化剂的操作。 [0107] or operation of the catalyst by, for example, a plasma vapor deposition method, may be placed on the completion of a carbon fiber material by spraying or dip coating solution. 技术的选择可以与施加隔离涂层的方式一致。 Selection techniques may be applied to a manner consistent with the barrier coating. 因此,在一些实施方式中,在溶剂中形成催化剂的溶液之后,通过用该溶液喷射或者浸渍涂布隔离涂布的碳纤维材料或者喷射和浸渍涂布结合,催化剂可被施加。 After Thus, in some embodiments, the catalyst solution is formed in a solvent with the solution or by spraying the carbon fiber material and dip coating or spraying dip coating binding barrier coated catalyst can be applied. 单独或者结合地使用的任一技术可被使用一次、两次、三次、四次、直到许多次,以提供用CNT形成催化剂基本均勻地涂布的碳纤维材料。 Either technique used alone or in combination may be used once, twice, three times, four times, until the number of times to provide a carbon fiber material to form a substantially uniformly coated with a catalyst CNT. 当使用浸渍涂布时,例如碳纤维材料可被置于第一浸渍浴中,在第一浸渍浴中持续第一停留时间。 When using dip coating, such as a carbon fiber material can be placed in a first dip bath, immersed in the first bath for a first dwell time. 当使用第二浸渍浴时,碳纤维材料可被置于第二浸渍浴中持续第二停留时间。 When the second dip bath, the carbon fiber material can be placed in a second residence time in the second dipping bath. 例如,碳纤维材料可被置于CNT形成催化剂的溶液大约3秒至大约90秒之间,这取决于浸渍配置和线速度。 For example, carbon fiber material may be placed between the CNT solution is approximately 90 seconds forming catalyst to about 3 seconds, depending on the configuration and the line speed was immersed. 使用喷射或者浸渍涂布方法,具有低于大约5%表面覆盖率至高达大约80%覆盖率的催化剂表面密度的碳纤维材料,其中CNT形成催化剂纳米颗粒几乎是单层的。 Using spraying or dip coating method, a material having a carbon fiber surface of the catalyst surface coverage of less than about 5% up to about 80% of the density of coverage, wherein the catalyst nanoparticles formed almost monolayer CNT. 在一些实施方式中,在碳纤维材料上涂布CNT形成催化剂的方法应只是产生单层。 In some embodiments, the method of the carbon fiber material is coated on the CNT-forming catalyst should produce only a single layer. 例如,一堆CNT形成催化剂上的CNT生长可以损害CNT并入至碳纤维材料的程度。 For example, a stack CNT CNT grown on the catalyst may be formed to the extent of damage to the carbon fibers incorporated CNT material. 在其他实施方式中,使用蒸发技术、电解沉积技术和本领域技术人员已知的其他方法诸如将过渡金属催化剂作为金属有机物、金属盐或者其他促进气相运输的组分加入等离子体原料气体,过渡金属催化剂可被沉积在碳纤维材料上。 In other embodiments, the use of evaporation techniques, electrolysis deposition techniques and other methods known to those skilled in the art, such as a transition metal catalyst as a metal organic, metal salt or other components can be added to promote vapor phase transport of plasma source gas, the transition metal the catalyst may be deposited on the carbon fiber material.

[0108] 因为本发明的方法被设计为连续的,可以在一连串的浴中浸渍涂布可缠绕碳纤维材料,其中浸渍涂布浴在空间上是分开的。 [0108] Because the method of the present invention are designed to be continuous, the coating may be impregnated carbon fiber material may be wrapped in a series of baths, wherein the dip coating baths are spatially separated. 在从头产生初始碳纤维的连续方法中,浸渍浴或者CNT形成催化剂的喷射可以是施加和固化或者部分地固化隔离涂层至碳纤维材料之后的第一个步骤。 In a continuous process the initial de novo generation of carbon fibers, CNT-forming or dip bath may be applied to the injection of the catalyst and curing or partially curing of the barrier coating after the first step to a carbon fiber material. 对于新形成的碳纤维材料,代替施加上浆剂,可进行隔离涂层和CNT形成催化剂的施加。 For the newly formed carbon fiber material, instead of applying a sizing agent, and a barrier coating applied to CNT-forming catalyst may be carried out. 在其他实施方式中,在其他上浆剂的存在下,在隔离涂层之后CNT形成催化剂可被施加于新形成的碳纤维。 In other embodiments, the presence of other sizing agents, barrier coating after the CNT-forming catalyst can be applied to newly formed carbon fibers. CNT形成催化剂和其他上浆剂的这种同时施加仍可提供与碳纤维材料的隔离涂层表面接触的CNT形成催化剂,以保证CNT并入。 CNT CNT forming such a catalyst and other sizing agents while still applying the barrier coating to provide a contact surface of the carbon fiber material forming the catalyst, in order to ensure CNT infusion.

[0109] 使用的催化剂溶液可以是过渡金属纳米颗粒,其可以是如上所述的任何d-块过渡金属。 [0109] The catalyst solution used may be a transition metal nanoparticles, which may be any of the d- block transition metals as described above. 另外,纳米颗粒可以包括以元素的形式或者以盐形式及其混合物的d-块金属的合金和非合金混合物。 Further, the nanoparticles may comprise elements in the form of non-alloy or alloy mixture and d- block metal salt form and mixtures thereof. 这种盐形式包括但不限于,氧化物、碳化物和氮化物。 Such salt forms include, but are not limited to, oxides, carbides and nitrides. 非限制的示例性的过渡金属NPs包括Ni、Fe、Co、Mo、Cu、Pt、Au和Ag及其盐和混合物。 Exemplary non-limiting transition metal NPs include Ni, Fe, Co, Mo, Cu, Pt, Au and Ag and salts and mixtures thereof. 在一些实施方式中, 通过与隔离涂层沉积同时地,直接施加或者并入CNT形成催化剂至碳纤维材料,这种CNT形成催化剂被放置在碳纤维上。 In some embodiments, the carbon fiber material to form a catalyst by simultaneously applied directly or incorporated with a barrier coating deposited CNT, CNT-forming catalyst which is disposed on the carbon fiber. 从各个供应商,包括例如i^errotec Corporation (Bedford, NH),许多这些过渡金属催化剂是容易商业获得的。 From various suppliers, including, for example, i ^ errotec Corporation (Bedford, NH), many of these transition metal catalysts are readily commercially available.

[0110] 用于施加CNT形成催化剂至碳纤维材料的催化剂溶液可在任何普通的溶剂中,该溶剂允许CNT形成催化剂均勻地到处分散。 [0110] CNT-forming catalyst for applying a catalyst solution to the carbon fiber material may be in any common solvent, allowing the solvent to form a uniform CNT dispersed throughout the catalyst. 这种溶剂可包括但不限于,水、丙酮、己烷、异丙醇、甲苯、乙醇、甲醇、四氢呋喃(THF)、环己烷或者任何其他溶剂,其具有控制的极性以产生CNT形成催化剂纳米颗粒的适当的分散体。 Such solvents may include, but are not limited to, water, acetone, hexane, isopropanol, toluene, ethanol, methanol, tetrahydrofuran (THF), cyclohexane, or any other solvent having a polarity control to produce a CNT-forming catalyst suitable dispersing of nanoparticles. CNT形成催化剂的浓度可在催化剂与溶剂之比为大约1 : 1至1 : 10000的范围。 CNT-forming catalyst concentration may be in the ratio of catalyst to solvent is from about 1: in the range of 10,000: 1 to 1. 当隔离涂层和CNT形成催化剂同时施加时,也可使用这样的浓度。 And a barrier coating when applied simultaneously CNT-forming catalyst, such a concentration may also be used.

[0111] 在一些实施方式中,碳纤维材料的加热可在大约500°C和1000°C之间的温度,以在CNT形成催化剂的沉积之后合成碳纳米管。 [0111] In some embodiments, the carbon fiber material may be heated at a temperature between about 500 ° C and 1000 ° C to synthesize carbon nanotubes formed on the catalyst after the deposition of CNT. 在碳原料的引入之前或者基本与碳原料的引入同时,在这些温度下进行加热以便CNT生长。 Or substantially the same time, heated to CNT growth at these temperatures prior to the introduction of the carbon material and the carbon raw material is introduced.

[0112] 在一些实施方式中,本发明提供一种方法,其包括从碳纤维材料清除上浆剂,共形地在碳纤维材料上施加隔离涂层,施加CNT形成催化剂至碳纤维材料,加热碳纤维材料至至少500°C,以及在碳纤维材料上合成碳纳米管。 [0112] In certain embodiments, the present invention provides a method which comprises removed from the carbon fiber material sizing agent, conformally applied barrier coating on the carbon fiber material, applied to CNT-forming catalyst to the carbon fiber material, heating the carbon fiber material to at least 500 ° C, and synthesizing carbon nanotubes on the carbon fiber material. 在一些实施方式中,该CNT并入方法的操作包括从碳纤维材料清除上浆剂,施加隔离涂层至碳纤维材料,施加CNT形成催化剂至碳纤维,加热纤维至CNT合成温度和在负载催化剂的碳纤维材料上进行CVD-促进的CNT生长。 In some embodiments, the CNT infusion process operations including the removal from the carbon fiber material sizing agents, barrier coating is applied to the carbon fiber material, applied to CNT-forming catalyst to the carbon fiber, heating the fiber to a CNT synthesis temperature and the carbon fiber material in the supported catalyst CNT growth CVD- be promoted. 因此,当使用商业碳纤维材料时,构造并入CNT的碳纤维的方法可以包括在碳纤维材料上布置隔离涂层和催化剂之前从碳纤维材料清除上浆剂的独立步骤。 Method Accordingly, when the commercial carbon fiber, carbon fiber structure incorporated CNT may include a separate step of removing sizing agent from carbon fiber material and the catalyst before the barrier coating disposed on the carbon fiber material.

[0113] 合成碳纳米管的步骤可以包括形成碳纳米管的许多技术,包括在共同未决的美国专利申请号US 2004/0M5088中公开的那些,该专利通过引用并入本文。 Step [0113] Synthesis of carbon nanotubes forming the carbon nanotube can comprise a number of techniques, including in co-pending U.S. Patent Application No. US 2004 / 0M5088 those disclosed in the patents incorporated by reference herein. 通过本领域已知的技术,包括但不限于微腔、热或者等离子体-增强的CVD技术、激光烧蚀、弧光放电和高压一氧化碳(HiPCO),在本发明的纤维上生长的CNT可被完成。 By techniques known in the art, including but not limited to micro-cavity, thermal or plasma - enhanced CVD techniques, laser ablation, arc discharge and high pressure carbon monoxide (HiPCO), on the fibers of the present invention can be grown to complete CNT . 具体地,在CVD期间,可直接使用CNT形成催化剂布置在其上的隔离涂层的碳纤维材料。 Specifically, during CVD, CNT-forming catalyst may be used as the carbon fiber material disposed on the barrier coating thereon. 在一些实施方式中,在CNT合成之前,任何常规的上浆剂可被清除。 In some embodiments, the CNT synthesis prior to any conventional sizing agents can be cleared. 在一些实施方式中,乙炔气体被电离以产生CNT合成用的冷碳等离子体的喷射。 In some embodiments, the acetylene gas is ionized to generate cold carbon plasma jet with the CNT synthesis. 该等离子体被引导向负载催化剂的碳纤维材料。 The plasma is directed to the carbon fiber material of the supported catalyst. 因此,在一些实施方式中,在碳纤维材料上合成CNT包括(a)形成碳等离子体;和(b)引导碳等离子体至碳纤维材料上布置的催化剂上。 Thus, in some embodiments, the carbon fiber material comprising synthetic CNT (a) forming a carbon plasma; and (b) guiding the carbon plasma onto the catalyst disposed on the carbon fiber material. 生长的CNT的直径由CNT形成催化剂的尺寸控制,如上所述。 Controlling the catalyst size diameter of the CNT grown by the CNT is formed, as described above. 在一些实施方式中,上浆的纤维基底被加热至大约550至大约800°C之间以促进CNT合成。 In some embodiments, the sized fiber substrate is heated to between about 550 and about 800 ° C to facilitate CNT synthesis. 为引发CNT的生长,两种气体被释放入反应器:工艺气体诸如氩气、氦气或者氮气,和含碳气体诸如乙炔、乙烯、乙醇或者甲烷。 CNT growth is initiated, the two gases are released into the reactor: a process gas such as acetylene, ethylene, methane, ethanol, or such as argon, helium or nitrogen, and carbon-containing gas. 在CNT形成催化剂的位置生长CNT。 Position forming catalyst CNT CNT growth.

[0114] 在一些实施方式中,CVD生长是等离子体-增强的。 [0114] In some embodiments, CVD growth of plasma - enhanced. 通过在生长过程期间提供电场,等离子体可被产生。 By providing an electric field during the growth process, the plasma may be generated. 在这些条件下生长的CNT可以沿电场的方向。 CNT grown under these conditions may be the direction of the electric field. 因此,通过调整反应器的几何形状,垂直排列的碳纳米管可绕圆柱形纤维放射状地生长。 Therefore, by adjusting the geometry of the reactor, the carbon nanotubes can be vertically aligned radially about the cylindrical fibers grow. 在一些实施方式中,对于绕纤维的放射状生长,等离子体不是必需的。 In some embodiments, for fibers radially grow around the plasma is not necessary. 对于具有明显的侧面的碳纤维材料,诸如带材、垫、织物、板片以及类似物,催化剂可被布置在一个或者两个侧面上,并且相应地,CNT也可被生长在一个或者两个侧面上。 For the carbon fiber material having distinct sides, such as tapes, mats, fabrics, sheets and the like, the catalyst may be disposed on one or both sides, and accordingly, the CNT can be grown on one or both sides on.

[0115] 如上所述,在足以提供连续的过程以使可缠绕碳纤维材料功能化的速度下进行CNT合成。 [0115] As described above, in the CNT synthesis sufficient to provide a continuous process so that the winding speed may be functionalized carbon fiber material under. 许多设备构造有利于这种连续的合成,如下面例证。 Many devices configuration facilitates such continuous synthesis, as exemplified below.

[0116] 在一些实施方式中,可以在“全等离子体(all plasma)”方法中构造并入CNT的碳纤维材料。 [0116] In some embodiments, the configuration may be incorporated in the carbon fiber material CNT "full plasma (all plasma)" method. 全等离子体方法可以用如上所述的等离子体使碳纤维材料粗糙化,以改进纤维表面润湿特性和提供更加共形的隔离涂层,以及由于使用特定的反应性气体种类诸如氩气或者氦气基等离子体中的氧气、氮气、氢气进行碳纤维材料功能化的使用,通过机械互锁和化学粘附,增强涂层粘附力。 Full plasma process as described above can be used to make carbon fiber material plasma roughening of the fiber surface to improve the wetting characteristics and provide a more conformal barrier coating, and the use of specific reactive gas species such as argon or helium based plasma in oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen gas using a material functionalized carbon fibers, by mechanical interlocking and chemical adhesion, adhesion promoting coating.

[0117] 隔离涂层的碳纤维材料经过许多进一步的等离子体-介导的步骤以形成最终的并入CNT的产品。 [0117] Barrier coated carbon fiber material through a number of further plasma - mediated step to form the final product incorporated CNT. 在一些实施方式中,所述全等离子体方法可以包括隔离涂层被固化之后的第二表面改性。 In some embodiments, the method may comprise the whole plasma after a second surface-modified barrier coating is cured. 这是使碳纤维材料上隔离涂层的表面“粗糙化”的等离子体方法以促进催化剂沉积。 This is a barrier coating surface "roughened" plasma deposition method of a catalyst to promote carbon fiber material. 如上所述,使用各种不同气体的任何一种或者更多的等离子体,包括但不限于氩气、氦气、氧气、氨气、氢气和氮气,表面改性可得以实现。 As described above, using any of a variety of different gases or additional plasma, including but not limited to, argon, helium, oxygen, ammonia, hydrogen and nitrogen, the surface modification may be achieved.

[0118] 在表面改性之后,隔离涂布的碳纤维材料进行催化剂施加。 [0118] After the surface modification, barrier coated carbon fiber material is applied to the catalyst. 这是在纤维上放置CNT 形成催化剂的等离子体方法。 This plasma catalyst is disposed CNT is formed on the fibers. CNT形成催化剂典型地是如上所述的过渡金属。 CNT-forming catalyst, typically a transition metal as described above. 过渡金属催化剂可被加入等离子体原料气体作为前驱体,形式为铁磁流体、金属有机物、金属盐或者其他促进气相传输的组分。 The transition metal catalyst may be added to the plasma source gas as a precursor in the form of a ferrofluid, metal organic, metal salts or other components that facilitate the transmission of gas. 可在室温下周围环境中施加催化剂,既不需要真空也不需要惰性气氛。 The catalyst may be applied at room temperature in an ambient environment, neither vacuum nor an inert atmosphere. 在一些实施方式中,在催化剂施加之前碳纤维材料被冷却。 In some embodiments, the carbon fiber prior to applying the catalyst material is cooled.

[0119] 继续全等离子体方法,碳纳米管合成发生在CNT生长反应器中。 [0119] Continue whole plasma process, carbon nanotube synthesis occurs in the CNT growth reactor. 这可以通过使用等离子体-增强的化学气相沉积实现,其中碳等离子体被喷射至负载催化剂的纤维上。 This can be done using a plasma - enhanced chemical vapor deposition implemented, in which carbon plasma is sprayed onto the catalyst-laden fibers. 因为碳纳米管生长发生在高温(取决于催化剂,典型地在大约500至1000°C的范围),因此在暴露于碳等离子体之前,负载催化剂的纤维可被加热。 Because the carbon nanotube growth occurs at a high temperature (depending on the catalyst, typically in the range of about 500 to 1000 ° C) so that a plasma prior to exposure to carbon fiber supported catalyst can be heated. 对并入方法,碳纤维材料可被任选地加热直到其变软。 A method of incorporating, a carbon fiber material optionally may be heated until it becomes soft. 在加热之后,碳纤维材料易于接收碳等离子体。 After heating, the carbon fiber material ready to receive the carbon plasma. 例如,通过使含碳气体诸如乙炔、乙烯、乙醇、以及类似气体经过能够使气体电离的电场,产生碳等离子体。 For example, by carbon-containing gas such as acetylene, ethylene, ethanol, and the like can be gas through an electric field ionizes the gas, carbon plasma is generated. 该冷的碳等离子体经过喷嘴被引导至碳纤维材料。 The cold carbon plasma is directed through a nozzle to the carbon fiber material. 碳纤维材料可以非常接近于喷嘴,诸如在喷嘴的大约1厘米之内,以接收等离子体。 Carbon fiber material can be very close to the nozzle, such as within about 1 centimeter of the nozzle to receive the plasma. 在一些实施方式中,加热器被置于等离子体喷射器处的碳纤维材料上,以保持碳纤维材料的高温。 In some embodiments, the heater is disposed on the carbon fiber material at the plasma injector to maintain the temperature of the carbon fiber material.

[0120] 连续的碳纳米管合成的另一构造包括直接在碳纤维材料上合成和生长碳纳米管的专用矩形反应器。 [0120] Another configuration comprises a continuous carbon nanotube synthesis dedicated direct synthesis and growth of carbon nanotubes rectangular reactor on the carbon fiber material. 该反应器可被设计用于生产负载碳纳米管的纤维的连续流线方法中。 The reactor may be designed for continuous in-line production of fibers of carbon nanotubes load process. 在一些实施方式中,通过化学气相沉积(“CVD”)方法在大气压下和在大约550°C至大约800°C的范围中的高温下在多区域反应器中生长CNT。 In some embodiments, ( "CVD") method and at an elevated temperature at about 550 ° C to 800 ° C to about the range of CNT growth in a multi-zone reactor by a chemical vapor deposition at atmospheric pressure. 合成发生在大气压下的事实是有利于反应器结合入纤维上CNT合成的连续处理生产线的一个因素。 The fact that synthesis occurs at atmospheric pressure is conducive to a binding factor synthesis reactor continuous process line into the CNT fibers. 与使用这种区域反应器的流线连续处理相一致的另一优势是,CNT生长在几秒钟内发生,与在本领域典型的其他方法和设备构造中的几分钟(或者更长)不同。 Another advantage of using such a line with the flow zone of the reactor is consistent with a continuous process, the CNT growth occurs within a few seconds, with a few other methods and apparatus configurations typical in the art (or more) different .

[0121] 根据各种实施方式的CNT合成反应器包括下列特征: [0121] CNT synthesis include the following features according to various embodiments of the reactor:

[0122] 矩形构造的合成反应器:本领域已知的典胡CNT合成反应器的横截面是圆形的。 Synthesis reactor [0122] rectangular configuration of: a cross-section known in the art Hu Code CNT synthesis reactor is circular. 对此有许多原因,包括例如历史的原因(在实验室中经常使用圆柱形反应器)和方便(在圆柱形反应器中容易模拟流体动力学),加热器系统容易接受圆形的管(石英,等等),并且易于制造。 There are many reasons for this, including, for example, historical reasons (cylindrical reactors are often used in the laboratory) and convenience (easy to model fluid dynamics in a cylindrical reactor), a heater system receptive of the circular tube (quartz , etc.), and easy to manufacture. 背离圆柱形的惯例,本发明提供具有矩形横截面的CNT合成反应器。 Facing away from the cylindrical convention, the present invention provides a CNT synthesis reactor having a rectangular cross section. 背离的原因如下:1.因为可由反应器处理的许多碳纤维材料是相对平的,诸如平的带材或者薄片状形式,因此圆形的横截面是反应器体积的低效利用。 Away from the following reasons: 1. Since many carbon fiber material may be processed by the reactor is relatively flat, such as a flat strip or sheet-like form, a circular cross section is so inefficient use of reactor volume. 这种低效导致圆柱形CNT合成反应器的若干缺点,包括例如,a)保持充分的系统净化;增加的反应器体积需要增加的气体流速以保持相同水平的气体净化。 This inefficiency results in several drawbacks cylindrical CNT synthesis reactor, including example, a) maintaining a sufficient system purge; increased reactor volume requires increased gas flow rates to maintain the same level of gas purification. 这导致对于开放的环境中的CNT大量生产是低效率的系统; b)增加的碳原料气体流量;按照上述的每一a),惰性气体流量的相对增加需要增加碳原料气体流量。 This results in an open environment for the mass production of the CNT is inefficient system; b) increased carbon source gas flow rate; according to each of the above a), the relative increase in the flow rate of the inert gas needed to increase the gas flow rate of carbon feed. 考虑1¾碳纤维丝束的体积比具有矩形横截面的合成反应器的总体积小2000 倍。 Consider 1¾ carbon fiber tows 2000 times smaller than the volume of the total volume having a rectangular cross-section of the synthesis reactor. 在相同的生长圆柱形反应器(即,其宽度容纳与矩形横截面反应器相同的平面碳纤维材料的圆柱形反应器)中,碳纤维材料的体积比室的体积小17,500倍。 Growth in the same cylindrical reactor (i.e., the width of which is accommodated a cylindrical reactor with a rectangular cross-section of the reactor in the same plane of the carbon fiber material), a small volume of the chamber volume ratio of carbon fiber material 17,500 times. 尽管气相沉积过程诸如CVD典型地仅由压力和温度控制,但体积对沉积的效率具有显著影响。 Although the vapor deposition process such as CVD Typically, but the volume has a significant impact on the efficiency of deposition is controlled by the pressure and temperature alone. 用矩形反应器,仍有过量的体积。 A rectangular reactor still excess volume. 该过量的体积促进不需要的反应;然而圆柱形反应器具有该体积的大约8倍。 This excess volume facilitates unwanted reactions; however, a cylindrical reactor having approximately eight times the volume. 由于这种更多的发生竞争反应的机会,在圆柱形反应器室中,期望的反应更慢地有效地发生。 Due to this greater opportunity for competing reactions, in a cylindrical reactor chamber, a desired reaction efficiently takes place more slowly. 对于连续方法的进行,CNT生长的这种减慢是有问题的。 For the continuous method, which slows the growth of CNT is problematic. 矩形反应器构造的一个好处是可以通过使用矩形室的小高度减小反应器体积,使得该体积比例更好以及反应更加有效。 One benefit of a rectangular reactor configuration is possible by using a small height of the rectangular chamber is reduced reactor volume, such that the volume ratio better and more efficient reaction. 在本发明的一些实施方式中,矩形合成反应器的总体积只是比经过合成反应器的碳纤维材料的总体积大大约3000倍。 In some embodiments of the present invention, the total volume of a rectangular synthesis reactor only after the ratio of the total volume of the carbon fiber material a large synthesis reactor is about 3000 times. 在一些进一步的实施方式中,矩形合成反应器的总体积只是比经过合成反应器的碳纤维材料的总体积大大约4000倍。 In some further embodiments, the total volume of a rectangular synthesis reactor only after the total volume ratio of the carbon fiber material a large synthesis reactor is about 4000 times. 在一些仍进一步的实施方式中,矩形合成反应器的总体积比经过合成反应器的碳纤维材料的总体积大不超过大约10,000倍。 In some still further embodiments, the total volume of a rectangular synthesis reactor is greater than the total volume of the synthesis reactor through the carbon fiber material is not more than about 10,000 times. 另外,明显的是,当使用圆柱形反应器时,与具有矩形横截面的反应器相比, 需要更多的碳原料气体以提供相同的流量百分数。 Further, it is apparent that when using a cylindrical reactor, as compared with a reactor having a rectangular cross-section, more carbon source gas flow rate to provide the same percentage. 应当理解,在一些其他实施方式中,合成反应器具有由多边形形式描述的横截面,该多边形形式不是矩形但与其比较类似,并且相对于具有圆形横截面的反应器其提供反应器体积的相似减小;c)有问题的温度分布;当使用相对小直径的反应器时,从室的中心至其壁的温度梯度是最小的。 It should be appreciated that in other embodiments, the synthesis reactor is described having a polygonal cross-sectional form of a polygonal form are not rectangular, but relatively similar thereto, and which provides a reactor having a reactor volume relative to the circular cross-section similar to decreases; c) temperature profile in question; when a relatively small diameter reactor, from the central chamber to a temperature gradient which wall is minimal. 但对于增大的尺寸,诸如可被用于商业规模生产,温度梯度增加。 But the increased size, such as may be used for commercial scale production, the temperature gradient increases. 这种温度梯度导致碳纤维材料基底上产品质量变化(即,产品质量作为径向位置的函数变化)。 This results in temperature gradients on the carbon fiber base material changes in quality (i.e., changes in product quality as a function of radial position). 当使用具有矩形横截面的反应器时,基本避免该问题。 When a reactor has a rectangular cross-section, substantially avoid the problem. 具体地,当使用平的基底时,反应器高度可随基底的尺寸按比例增大而保持不变。 In particular, when a flat substrate, the height of the reactor can be scaled depending on the size of the substrate increases remains unchanged. 反应器的顶部和底部之间的温度梯度基本上可被忽略,并且因此,避免了发生的热问题和产品质量变化。 The temperature gradient between the top and bottom of the reactor are essentially negligible, and therefore, avoids the problems of heat and product quality change. 2.气体引入:因为在本领域中通常使用管式炉,典型的CNT合成反应器在一端引入气体并且吸引其经过反应器至另一端。 2. The gas introduction: a tubular furnace as typically used in the art, a typical CNT synthesis gas is introduced into the reactor at one end and draw it through the reactor to the other end. 在本文公开的一些实施方式中,气体可被对称地引入反应器的中心或者目标生长区域之内,这或者通过侧面或者通过反应器的顶部和底部板。 In some embodiments disclosed herein, the gas can be introduced into the reactor symmetrically center or target area growth, either the top and bottom plate of the reactor through the sides or by. 这提高了CNT生长总体速度,因为在系统的最热部分,引入的原料气体连续地补充,该部分是CNT生长最活跃的位置。 This increases the overall speed of the CNT growth, as in the hottest part of the system, the introduction of the raw material gas is continuously replenished, the portion is CNT growth is most active. 对由矩形CNT反应器表现出的增加的生长速度,该恒定的气体补充是重要的方面。 Exhibited by a rectangle of the CNT reactor increased growth rate of the supplemental gas constant are important aspects.

[0123] 分区。 [0123] partition. 提供相对冷的净化区域的室依附在矩形合成反应器的两端。 Providing a relatively cool region of the purification chamber attached to both ends of a rectangular synthesis reactor. 申请人已确定, 如果热的气体与外部环境(即,反应器的外部)混合,碳纤维材料的降解会增加。 Applicants have determined that if the hot gas and the external environment (i.e., external to the reactor) are mixed, the degradation of the carbon fiber material increases. 冷的净化区域提供内部系统和外部环境之间的缓冲。 A buffer between the internal system and the external environment to provide cooling of the purification region. 本领域已知的典型的CNT合成反应器构造典型地需要基底被小心地(并且缓慢地)冷却。 Known in the art typically CNT synthesis reactor configurations typically require the substrate is carefully (and slowly) cool. 在本矩形CNT生长反应器的出口处的冷的净化区域在短的时间段内达到冷却,如连续的流线处理所要求的。 The cool purge outlet in the region of the rectangular CNT growth reactor is cooled in a short period of time to reach, such as a continuous stream processing required.

[0124] 非接触、热壁的、金属的反应器。 [0124] Non-contact, hot wall, a metal reactor. 在一些实施方式中,使用由金属尤其是不锈钢制成的热壁反应器。 In some embodiments, the hot wall reactor using a metal, especially stainless steel. 这可能似乎有悖常理,因为金属,尤其是不锈钢,更容易发生碳沉积(即,形成烟灰和副产物)。 This may seem counterintuitive, because the metal, especially stainless steel, is more prone to carbon deposition (i.e., soot and by-products). 因此,多数CNT反应器构造使用石英反应器,因为有较少的碳沉积,石英容易清洁,并且石英有利于样品观察。 Thus, most of the CNT reactor is configured using a quartz reactor, because there is less carbon deposits, easy to clean quartz, quartz and facilitate sample observation. 但是,申请人已观察到,不锈钢上增加的烟灰和碳沉积导致更加一致的、更快的、更有效的和更稳定的CNT生长。 However, Applicant has observed that the increased soot and carbon deposits on the stainless steel results in a more consistent, faster, more efficient and more stable CNT growth. 不被理论束缚,已指出,与常压操作结合,发生在反应器中的CVD方法是扩散有限的。 Not being bound by theory, it has been noted that, in conjunction with the operating pressure occurs in the CVD reactor is diffusion limited. 即,催化剂是“过量供给的”,由于其相对更高的分压(比起假设在部分真空下操作反应器),在反应器系统中太多的碳可利用。 That is, the catalyst is "overfed", due to its relatively higher partial pressure (than if the reactor is operated under partial vacuum), too much carbon may be utilized in a reactor system. 因此,在开放的系统中——尤其在清洁的系统中——太多的碳可粘附至催化剂颗粒,减弱其合成CNT的能力。 Thus, in an open system - especially in the cleaning system - too much carbon may be adhered to the catalyst particles, weakening their ability to synthesize the CNT. 在一些实施方式中,当反应器是“脏的”时,即在金属反应器壁上具有沉积的烟灰,“有意地”运转矩形反应器。 In some embodiments, when the reactor is "dirty", i.e. walls having a metal deposited soot in the reactor, "intentionally" rectangular reactor operation. 一旦碳沉积成为反应器的壁上的单层,碳容易在其本身上沉积。 Once carbon deposits to a monolayer on the walls of the reactor, carbon is deposited on itself easily. 因为由于该机制一些可用的碳被“收回”,以自由基形式的剩余的碳原料以不使催化剂中毒的速度与催化剂反应。 Since the mechanism because some of the available carbon is "withdrawn" in the form of a free-radical carbon feedstock remaining rate so as not to poison the catalyst with the catalyst. 现有系统“干净地”运转,如果打开其用于连续的处理,其会以减小的生长速度产生CNT的低得多的产率。 Existing systems "cleanly", if it is opened for a continuous process which will produce a reduced growth rate much lower yield of the CNT.

[0125] 尽管进行如上所述的“脏的”CNT合成一般是有益的,但设备的某些部分,诸如气体集合管和入口,当烟灰形成阻塞时可消极地影响CNT生长过程。 [0125] Despite the above "dirty" CNT synthesis generally beneficial, but some portions of the apparatus, such as a gas inlet manifold and, when soot formation obstruction can negatively impact the CNT growth process. 为了解决该问题,可用抑制烟灰的涂料诸如二氧化硅、氧化铝或者MgO保护CNT生长反应室的这些区域。 To solve this problem, these areas can be used to suppress the soot coatings CNT growth reactor such as silica, alumina or MgO protection. 实践中,设备的这些部分可被浸涂在这些抑制烟灰的涂料中。 In practice, the portion of the device may be dip-coated in these soot inhibiting coatings. 这些涂料可使用金属诸如INVAR.⑧,因为INVAR具有相似的CTE (热膨胀系数),这在更高的温度保证涂层的适当粘附力,防止烟灰显著地聚集在关键区域。 These coatings may be used such as metal INVAR.⑧, as INVAR has a similar CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion), which ensure proper adhesion of the coating at higher temperatures, preventing the soot significantly in critical areas.

[0126] 结合的催化剂还原和CNT合成。 [0126] CNT synthesis catalyst reduction and binding. 在本文公开的CNT合成反应器中,催化剂还原和CNT生长都发生在反应器内。 In the CNT synthesis reactor disclosed herein, the catalyst reduction and CNT growth occur within the reactor. 这是重要的,因为如果作为单独的操作进行,还原步骤不能足够及时完成用于连续的方法。 This is important, because if carried out as a separate operation, the reduction step can be accomplished timely enough for a continuous process. 在本领域已知的典型的方法中,还原步骤典型地花费1-12小时进行。 In a typical process known in the art, the reduction step typically takes 1-12 hours. 根据本发明,两种操作都发生在反应器中,这至少部分地是由于碳原料气体引入反应器的中心而不是末端的事实,碳原料气体引入末端在使用圆柱形反应器的技术中是典型的。 According to the invention, two operations occur in the reactor, at least in part because the carbon source gas is introduced into the center of the reactor rather than the fact that the end of the carbon source gas is typically introduced into the end technology using a cylindrical reactor of. 当纤维进入加热的区域时发生还原过程;在此时,气体已有时间与壁反应,并且在与催化剂反应并且引起氧化还原(通过氢自由基相互作用)之前冷却。 Reduction process occurs when the fibers into the heated zone; in this case, the gas has had time to react with the wall, and causing a redox reaction with a catalyst and (interaction through hydrogen radical) before cooling. 正是在该过渡区域发生还原。 Reduction is exactly what happened in the transition region. 在系统中最热的等温区域,发生CNT生长,最大生长速度出现在接近反应器中心的气体入口附近。 In the system, the hottest isothermal region CNT growth occurs, the maximum growth rate occurs near the center of the reactor in the vicinity of the gas inlet.

[0127] 在一些实施方式中,当使用松散地连接的碳纤维材料诸如碳丝束时,该连续的方法可以包括展开丝束的线股和/或丝的步骤。 [0127] In some embodiments, when a carbon fiber material, such as carbon loosely connected tow, the method may include the step of continuous tow strands and / or filaments deployment. 因此,当丝束被打开,例如,使用基于真空的纤维伸展系统,其可被伸展。 Thus, when the tow is opened, for example, using a vacuum-based fiber spreading system, which may be extended. 当使用可能相对硬的上浆的碳纤维时,可使用额外的加热以使丝束“软化”,以促进纤维伸展。 When using the sizing may be relatively stiff carbon fibers, may be used to make the additional heating tow "softening", to facilitate fiber spreading. 包括单独的丝的伸展纤维可被充分地伸展开,以暴露丝的全部表面积,因此允许丝束在随后的方法步骤中更加有效地反应。 Including individual filaments stretched fibers may be spread apart sufficiently to expose the entire surface area of ​​the filaments, the tow thus allowing more efficient reaction in a subsequent process step. 对于3k丝束,这种伸展可以达到大约4英寸至大约6英寸之间跨度(across)。 For 3k tow, stretching this can be achieved between about 4 inches to about 6 inches Span (across). 伸展的碳丝束可以经过表面处理步骤,该步骤由如上所述的等离子体系统组成。 Carbon tow extending through a surface treatment step may be the step of the plasma system composed as described above. 在施加隔离涂层并粗糙化之后,伸展的纤维然后可经过CNT形成催化剂浸渍浴。 After roughening and barrier coating is applied, the fibers may then be extended through the catalyst impregnation bath CNT formation. 结果是碳丝束的纤维,其具有放射状地分布在纤维的表面上的催化剂颗粒。 The result is a carbon fiber tow, having the catalyst particles are radially distributed over the surface of the fibers. 丝束的催化负载的纤维然后进入适当的CNT生长室,诸如上述的矩形室,其中经过大气压CVD或者PE-CVD方法的流动被用于以高达每秒钟数微米的速度合成CNT。 Catalyst loaded fiber tow then enters the appropriate CNT growth chamber, such as a rectangular chamber described above, wherein the flow through or atmospheric CVD PE-CVD method is used to speed up to several microns per second CNT synthesis. 现在具有放射状地排列的CNT的丝束纤维退出CNT生长反应器。 Now tow fibers having radially aligned CNT CNT growth reactor exit.

[0128] 在一些实施方式中,并入CNT的碳纤维材料可以经过另一处理方法,在一些实施方式中,该方法是用于使CNT功能化的等离子体方法。 [0128] In some embodiments, the CNT-infused carbon fiber material may be subjected to further treatment, in some embodiments, the method is a method for plasma functionalized CNT. CNT的另外的功能化可用于促进其对特定树脂的粘附力。 Further functionalized CNT may be used to promote adhesion to the specific resin. 因此,在一些实施方式中,本发明提供具有功能化的CNT的并入CNT的碳纤维材料。 Thus, in some embodiments, the present invention provides a carbon fiber material having functionalized CNT CNT-infused.

[0129] 作为可缠绕碳纤维材料的连续处理的一部分,并入CNT的碳纤维材料可以进一步经过上浆浸渍浴,以施加任何另外的在最终产品中可能有益的上浆剂。 [0129] As part of a continuous process may be wound carbon fiber material, CNT-infused carbon fiber material may be further impregnated through a sizing bath, to apply any further in the final product sizing agent may be beneficial. 最终,如果期望湿绕,并入CNT的碳纤维材料可经过树脂浴,并被卷绕在心轴或者卷轴上。 Finally, if desired wet wound, CNT-infused carbon fiber material through a resin bath may be, and is wound on a spool or mandrel. 所得碳纤维材料/树脂组合物将CNT锁定在碳纤维材料上,允许更容易的操作和复合材料制作。 The resulting carbon fiber material / resin composition of the CNT is locked on the carbon fiber material, allowing for easier handling and composite materials. 在一些实施方式中,CNT并入用于提供改进的丝缠绕。 In some embodiments, CNT is incorporated for providing improved wire entanglement. 因此,在碳纤维诸如碳丝束上形成的CNT经过树脂浴以生产树脂-浸渍的、并入CNT的碳丝束。 Therefore, CNT is formed on a carbon such as carbon fiber tow through a resin bath to produce a resin - impregnated, CNT-infused carbon tow. 在树脂浸渍之后,碳丝束可通过输送头(delivery head)被置于旋转心轴的表面上。 After resin impregnation, the carbon tows can be placed on the surface of the rotating mandrel by transport head (delivery head). 然后,以精确的几何形状图案,以已知的方式, 丝束可被卷绕在心轴上。 Then, a precise geometry of the pattern, in a known manner, the tow can be wound around the mandrel.

[0130] 上述的卷绕方法提供管道、管或者如通过阳模特征地生产的其他形态(forms)。 [0130] The winding method provides a conduit, such as a tube or by other forms (Forms) male land production model. 但是由本文公开的卷绕方法制造的形态不同于通过常规的丝卷绕方法生产的那些。 However, the winding form made by the method disclosed herein differ from those produced by conventional filament winding process. 具体地, 在本文公开的方法中,形态由包括并入CNT的丝束的复合材料制造。 Specifically, in the methods disclosed herein, the form of a composite material comprising producing CNT-infused tows. 因此这些形态受益于增强的强度以及类似性质,如通过并入CNT的丝束所提供的。 Therefore these forms benefit from enhanced strength properties, and the like, such as by incorporating the CNT bundles provided.

[0131] 在一些实施方式中,CNT并入在可缠绕碳纤维材料上的连续方法可达到在大约0. 5ft/min至大约36ft/min之间的线速度。 [0131] In some embodiments, CNT is incorporated in a continuous process on a carbon fiber material can be wound up to about 0. 5ft / min line speed to between about 36ft min /. 在其中CNT生长室是3英尺长并且在750°C生长温度下操作的这种实施方式中,可以以大约6ft/min至大约36ft/min的线速度运转方法,以产生例如具有长度在大约1微米至大约10微米之间的CNT。 CNT growth chamber in which is three feet long and this embodiment operating at a growth temperature of 750 ° C, may be about 6ft / min to about 36ft / min line speed operation to produce, for example, have a length of approximately 1 microns to about 10 microns between the CNT. 也可以以大约lft/min 至大约6ft/min的线速度运转该方法,以产生例如具有长度在大约10微米至大约100微米之间的CNT。 It may be about lft / min to about 6ft min line speed operation / method, for example, to produce a CNT having a length of between about 10 microns to about 100 microns. 可以以大约0. 5ft/min至大约lft/min的线速度运转该方法,以产生例如具有长度在大约100微米至大约200微米之间的CNT。 It may be about 0. 5ft / min to about lft / min line speed of the process operation, for example to produce a length of between about 100 microns to about 200 microns CNT. 但是,CNT长度不仅与线速度和生长温度有关,而且碳原料和惰性载气二者的流速也可影响CNT长度。 However, not only the length of the CNT line speed and the growth temperature, and flow rate of both the carbon feedstock and an inert carrier gas can also affect the length of the CNT. 例如,由高线速度(6ft/min 至36ft/min)的惰性气体中少于1 %碳原料组成的流速将产生具有长度在1微米至大约5 微米之间的CNT。 For example, an inert gas of a high linear velocity (6ft / min to 36ft / min) of less than 1% of the flow rate of the carbon raw material composition will produce CNT having a length of between 1 micron to about 5 microns. 由高线速度(6ft/min至36ft/min)的惰性气体中大于1 %碳原料组成的流速将产生具有长度在5微米至大约10微米之间的CNT。 The flow rate of the inert gas from a high linear velocity (6ft / min to 36ft / min) is greater than 1% of the carbon in the feed composition will produce CNT having a length of between 5 microns to about 10 microns.

[0132] 在一些实施方式中,多于一种碳材料可被同时通过该方法运转。 [0132] In some embodiments, the carbon material may be more than one simultaneous operation by this method. 例如,多种带材、 丝束、丝、线股以及类似物可被并行地通过该方法运转。 For example, a variety of tapes, strands, filaments, strands and the like may be run in parallel by this method. 因此,任何数量的预制碳纤维材料卷可被并行地通过该方法运转并且在方法结束时再卷绕。 Thus, any number of volumes of carbon fiber material preforms can be run in parallel and at the end of the process and then wound by this method. 可并行地运转的卷绕碳纤维材料的数量可以包括一、二、三、四、五、六、直到可适应于CNT生长反应室的宽度的任何数量。 Number of wound carbon fiber material can be run in parallel may include one, two, three, four, five, six, may be adapted to any number CNT growth until the width of the reaction chamber. 而且,当多种碳纤维材料被通过该方法运转时,收集的卷数量可少于方法开始时卷的数量。 Further, when a plurality of the carbon fiber material is operated by this method, the number of volumes may be collected when the number of volumes less than the method begins. 在这种实施方式中,碳线股、丝束或者类似物可被发送经过将这种碳纤维材料结合成为更有序的碳纤维材料诸如织造织物或者类似物的进一步过程。 In this embodiment, the carbon strands, tows or the like may be transmitted via such carbon fiber materials combined into a more ordered carbon fiber materials such as woven fabrics or further process the like. 例如,连续的方法也可结合后处理切碎机,其促进形成并入CNT的切短纤维垫。 For example, a continuous treatment method may also be combined after the shredder, which promote the formation of chopped fibers incorporated CNT mats.

[0133] 可以理解,基本不影响本发明各种实施方式的活性的改进也被包括在本文提供的本发明定义范围内。 [0133] It will be appreciated, does not substantially affect the activity of the various embodiments of an improved embodiment of the present invention are also included within the definition of the invention provided herein. 因此,下列实施例意欲阐明而并非限制本发明。 Accordingly, the following examples are intended to illustrate but not limit the invention.

[0134] 实施例I [0134] Example I

[0135] 该实施例表示用于太阳能接收器中的并入CNT的涂层的制造和模式的特征。 [0135] This example illustrates manufacture for feature and pattern coating CNT incorporated in the solar receiver.

[0136] 通过下列步骤可以制造基于CNT的涂层: [0136] CNT-based coatings can be produced by the following steps:

[0137] 如上所述,在卷对卷(reel-to-reel)系统中将CNTs并入至碳纤维丝束(碳纤维是示例性的)。 [0137] As described above, in the roll in the roll (reel-to-reel) system incorporated into CNTs on carbon fiber tow (carbon fiber is exemplary). 然后并入CNT的纤维丝束被缠绕在加热元件上。 Then CNT-infused fiber tow is wound on the heating element. 按照需要增加另外的反射层。 As required to add additional reflective layer. 期望通过该步骤制成的涂层表现出太阳能选择性涂层的特性。 Desirable coating formed by this step exhibits the characteristics of a solar selective coating. 使用并入CNT的纤维的涂层的精确特性取决于CNT长度和密度。 Using the CNT-coated fibers are incorporated depends on the precise nature and length of the CNT density.

[0138] 图16表示该并入CNT的纤维涂层也就是Buckypaper的模式的反射率数据,其中虚线表示理论的理想涂层的覆盖率。 [0138] FIG. 16 shows the CNT-infused fiber coating is Buckypaper reflectance data pattern, wherein the dashed line represents the theoretical coverage over the coating. 围绕加热元件缠绕的并入CNT的纤维具有类似于Buckypaper的CNTs的排列。 CNT-infused fiber around the heating element having a winding arrangement similar Buckypaper of CNTs. 在图17的SEM图像中显示在Buckypaper中CNT的排列。 It shows the arrangement of the CNT in Buckypaper SEM image in FIG. 17.

[0139] 具有并入CNT的纤维的涂层可被形成在热吸收器元件的外表面上用于结合至太阳能接收器中,诸如在图18中例证的太阳能接收器。 The outer surface of the coating layer [0139] having incorporated CNT fiber may be formed in the heat absorbing element for binding to the solar receiver, such as a solar receiver 18 in the illustration of FIG. 该太阳能接收器包括围绕用并入CNT 的涂层涂覆的吸热元件的环形套筒。 The solar receiver heat absorbing element comprises a coating surrounding the coated incorporated CNT annular sleeve. 环形套筒可以是在其外表面、内表面、或者内和外表面二者上具有抗反射涂层的硼硅酸盐玻璃,以使经过环形套筒传播的入射辐射的量最大化。 The sleeve may be annular outer surface, inner surface, or on both the inner and outer surface of a borosilicate glass having an antireflection coating, so that the amount of incident radiation through the annular sleeve to maximize the spread. 环形套筒可被抽空至压力(小于或者等于0.0001托)以使由于存在于并入CNT的涂层和环形套筒之间的空气中的对流产生的热损失最小化。 The annular sleeve may be evacuated to a pressure (less than or equal to 0.0001 Torr) so that heat loss in the presence of air incorporated between the CNT coating and convection annulus are minimized.

[0140] 尽管参考上述实施方式已描述前述发明,但可进行各种改进和变型而不背离本发明的精神。 [0140] While the above-described embodiments with reference to the foregoing invention has been described embodiment, but various modifications and variations are possible without departing from the spirit of the invention. 因此,所有这种改进和变型被认为在权利要求的范围内。 Accordingly, all such modifications and variations are considered within the scope of the claims.

Claims (22)

  1. 1.太阳能接收器,其包括:吸热元件,其具有外表面和相对于所述外表面的内表面;和第一涂层,其包括与所述吸热元件的所述外表面表面接合并且至少部分地覆盖所述吸热元件的所述外表面的并入碳纳米管的纤维材料;藉此接收、吸收入射至所述第一涂层上的太阳辐射并将其转化为热能,并且从所述第一涂层传递所述热能至所述吸热元件。 1. The solar receiver, comprising: a heat absorbing member having an outer surface and an inner surface relative to said outer surface; a first coating layer and including a surface engaging a surface of the outer member and the heat sink fibrous material at least partially covering the surface of the carbon nanotubes incorporated into the heat sink element outside; thereby receiving, absorbing the solar radiation incident on the first coating layer and converted into heat, and from the first coating of the thermal energy transferred to the heat sink element.
  2. 2.权利要求1所述的太阳能接收器设备,其中所述吸热元件具有第一末端和第二末端,其中传热流体在所述第一末端进入所述吸热元件并且在所述第二末端离开所述吸热元件。 The solar receiver apparatus according to claim 1, wherein said heat absorbing member having a first end and a second end, wherein the heat transfer fluid into the heat absorbing element in the first end and the second end away from the heat absorbing element.
  3. 3.权利要求1所述的太阳能接收器,其中所述吸热元件包括热管道。 The solar receiver according to claim 1, wherein said heat absorbing element comprises a heat pipe.
  4. 4.权利要求1所述的太阳能接收器,其中所述吸热元件包括金属。 The solar receiver according to claim 1, wherein said heat absorbing element comprises a metal.
  5. 5.权利要求1所述的太阳能接收器,其中所述吸热元件具有凹槽,其大小适合于容纳所述并入CNT的纤维材料。 The solar receiver according to claim 1, wherein said heat absorbing member has a groove, which is sized to accommodate the fiber material of the CNT-infused.
  6. 6.权利要求1所述的太阳能接收器,其中所述并入CNT的纤维材料包括并入碳纳米管的纤维丝束。 The solar receiver according to claim 1, wherein said fibrous material comprises CNT-infused fiber tows incorporated carbon nanotubes.
  7. 7.权利要求1所述的太阳能接收器,还包括整合在所述第一涂层内以形成复合材料的环境涂层。 The solar receiver according to claim 1, further comprising integrating within the first layer to form a composite material of a coating environment.
  8. 8.权利要求7所述的太阳能接收器,其中所述环境涂层包括陶瓷基体材料。 The solar receiver according to claim 7, wherein the environmental coating comprises a ceramic matrix material.
  9. 9.权利要求7所述的太阳能接收器,还包括金属颗粒。 The solar receiver of claim 7, further including metal particles.
  10. 10.权利要求1所述的太阳能接收器,还包括置于所述第一涂层上的环境涂层,其中所述环境涂层包括低发射率涂层。 The solar receiver of claim 1, further comprising a coating disposed on the first environmental coating, wherein said environmental coating comprising a low emissivity coating.
  11. 11.权利要求1所述的太阳能接收器,还包括含有金属的环境涂层。 11. A solar receiver according to claim 1, further comprising a coating comprising a metal environment.
  12. 12.权利要求1所述的太阳能接收器,还包括含有抗反射材料的环境涂层。 The solar receiver of claim 1, further comprising an antireflective material containing environmental coating.
  13. 13.权利要求1所述的太阳能接收器,还包括围绕所述第一涂层和所述吸热元件的环形套筒,产生间隙。 13. A solar receiver according to claim 1, further comprising an annular sleeve surrounding the first coating and the heat absorbing member, a gap is generated.
  14. 14.权利要求13所述的太阳能接收器,其中所述间隙包括空气。 14. A solar receiver according to claim 13, wherein said gap comprises air.
  15. 15.权利要求13所述的太阳能接收器,其中所述间隙是抽空的。 15. A solar receiver according to claim 13, wherein said gap is evacuated.
  16. 16.权利要求1所述的太阳能接收器设备,其中配置所述设备以与发电系统整合。 16. A solar receiver apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the apparatus is arranged to integrate the power generating system.
  17. 17.用于太阳能接收器装置的多层涂层,其包括:包括并入CNT的纤维材料的第一涂层;和置于所述第一涂层上的环境涂层。 17. A solar receiver for multi-layer coating apparatus, comprising: a first coating comprising a CNT-infused fiber material; and a coating disposed on the first environmental coating.
  18. 18.权利要求17所述的涂层,其中所述第一涂层还包括陶瓷基体。 18. The coating of claim 17, wherein the first coating further comprises a ceramic matrix.
  19. 19.权利要求17所述的涂层,其中所述第一涂层还包括金属颗粒。 19. The coating of claim 17, wherein the first coating further comprises metal particles.
  20. 20.权利要求17所述的涂层,其中所述环境涂层包括金属膜。 20. The coating of claim 17, wherein said film comprises a metallic environmental coating.
  21. 21.权利要求17所述的涂层,其中所述环境涂层包括抗反射涂层。 21. The coating of claim 17, wherein the environmental coating comprises an antireflective coating.
  22. 22.权利要求17所述的涂层,其中所述环境涂层包括低发射率涂层。 22. The coating of claim 17, wherein said environmental coating comprising a low emissivity coating.
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