CN102455439B  Diffracted wave field separation method based on Kirchhoff integral method  Google Patents
Diffracted wave field separation method based on Kirchhoff integral method Download PDFInfo
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 CN102455439B CN102455439B CN 201010527864 CN201010527864A CN102455439B CN 102455439 B CN102455439 B CN 102455439B CN 201010527864 CN201010527864 CN 201010527864 CN 201010527864 A CN201010527864 A CN 201010527864A CN 102455439 B CN102455439 B CN 102455439B
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 inclination angle
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Abstract
Description
Technical field
The present invention relates to the exploration of oil and gas field technical field, belong to the seismic signal analysis category, specifically a kind of seam hole imaging technique based on Kirchhoff integral method.
Background technology
For complex dielectrics, such as the Tarim Basin, oil gas preserves in ancient Cambrian system and ORDOVICIAN CARBONATE stratum, the buried depth on these stratum is below 5000m, primary pore is compacted already, filling totally, reservoir space of today is the secondary pores that will form the day after tomorrow by the effect such as corrosion, fracture.The distribution of these holes is not subjected to the control of sedimentary facies belt, and the scale that distributes and inhomogeneous.Therefore, wanting to seek these hole seam type reservoirs can only be by the means of earthquake.
The size of corrosion hole is often much smaller than the wavelength of seismic event, can think the catastrophe point of lithology.Diffraction will occur in seismic event on the catastrophe point of lithology, as long as detect these diffracted waves, by the seismic migration technology, diffracted wave is restrained, and just can determine the position of corrosion hole.Yet the fact is so not simple, and on the section after the skew, diffracted wave is often converged a point, thereby is submerged between numerous reflection lineups, is difficult for differentiating.In the CRP gather after common migration before stack (CRP), Diffraction Point and reflection spot show as again evening up of lineups equally, therefore, can not distinguish reflection wave and diffracted wave by the CRP gather (CRP) of migration before stack.
At present also be in the starting stage in the research aspect the diffracted wave field separation both at home and abroad, also do not have the achievement in research of moulding.Onthespot in exploration, diffracted wave is still the difficult problem of processing.Under many circumstances, owing to there not being effective separation means, diffracted wave can only be suppressed as a kind of interference.But so, underground medium abrupt information has just been lost, and the resolution of seismic prospecting also descends thereupon.Therefore, petroleum prospecting industry is especially faced when having the complicated reservoirs of corrosion hole in the urgent need to a kind of effective diffracted wave field separation method.
Summary of the invention
The invention is intended to provide a kind of by the high s/n ratio seismic data; by kirchhoff skew output inclination angle Dao Ji; obtain the independent imaging results of diffracted wave according to the obvious difference of concentrating diffracted wave and reflection wave in the road, inclination angle; thereby underground geology catastrophe point is carried out Precise imaging, so that better identify Carbonate Reservoir seam reservoir.
The technical scheme that the interval velocity field realization abovementioned purpose that the high s/n ratio seismic data that this patent use was processed and Accurate velocity analysis obtain is taked is as follows:
Step 1: use the interval velocity model of input to carry out ray tracing, obtain the cautious whilst on tour tabulation of each big gun of ground.The rapid finite difference ray casting that ray tracing can select Vidale (1988) to propose.
Step 2: Kirchhoff method output inclination angle Dao Ji:
At first, read in the input geological data one.And read in respectively the right whilst on tour tabulation of this together corresponding big gun inspection that step 1 obtains;
Secondly, calculate underground each point place's incident ray and reflected ray with the angle of vertical direction by following formula:
In the formula: τ _{s}Be shot point whilst on tour, τ _{r}Be geophone station whilst on tour, α _{s}For the angle α r of incident ray and vertical direction is the angle of reflected ray and vertical direction, (x, z) is volume coordinate.
According to geometric relationship, can obtain inclination angle theta, reflection angle With α _{s}, α _{r}Between relation
As can be known by ray tracing, can set up the relation of shot point coordinate and calculation level coordinate and inclination angle theta and geophone station coordinate r by above analysis
s＝s(x，z，r，θ)
And then the kirchhoff offset equation can be write as
So just realized kirchhoff skew output inclination angle Dao Ji.
Step 3: concentrate in the road, inclination angle that step 2 obtains, reflection wave shows as the curve of a upward opening, and the diffracted wave of observing directly over Diffraction Point shows as a horizontal linear.Therefore, can both be separated by the method for medium filtering.Can carrying out according to following operation of medium filtering:
At first, read in an inclination angle Dao Ji.
Secondly, the amplitude that its adjacent several roads same depth point is got in every each depth point together of concentrating for choosing the road through consists of a sequence, and this sequence is pressed from small to large (from big to small) ordering.
At last, get the intermediate value of abovementioned sequence as the filtering output of this this depth point, road.
Step 4: road, the inclination angle collection stack of the filtering output that step 3 is obtained just can generate the independent imaging section of diffracted wave.
Above embodiment only is used for explanation the present invention, but not is used for limiting the present invention.
Description of drawings
Horizontal reflection INTERFACE MODEL of Fig. 1 (a);
Fig. 1 (b) is that Fig. 1 (a) is at the inclination angle Dao Ji at the horizontal reflection interface of x=0 place observation;
Inclination angle of Fig. 1 (c) is 25 ° tiltedinterface model;
Fig. 1 (d) is that Fig. 1 (c) is at the inclination angle Dao Ji of the tiltedinterface of x=0 place observation.
The single Diffraction Point model of Fig. 2 (a);
Fig. 2 (b) is the inclination angle Dao Ji of Fig. 2 (a) institute representation model when observing at the x=0 place;
Fig. 2 (c) is the inclination angle Dao Ji of Fig. 2 (a) institute representation model when observing at the x=100m place;
Fig. 2 (d) is the inclination angle Dao Ji of Fig. 2 (a) institute representation model when observing at the x=100m place;
Each parameter schematic diagram of Fig. 3 ray tracing system.
Fig. 4 multilayered medium diffraction model.5 Diffraction Points are wherein arranged, lay respectively at x=2000m and x=2200m place.
Near in Fig. 5 model shown in Figure 4 the Diffraction Point several inclination angle Dao Ji.The road of black line mark integrates the place as x=2000m.
Fig. 6 (a) is the inclination angle Dao Ji of black line mark among Fig. 5;
Fig. 6 (b) is the diffracted wave after road, inclination angle collection separates among Fig. 6 (a);
Fig. 6 (c) is the reflection wave after road, inclination angle collection separates among Fig. 6 (a).
Skew stacked section before Fig. 7 (a) separates model diffraction shown in Figure 4;
Skew stacked section after Fig. 7 (b) separates model diffraction shown in Figure 4.
Embodiment
By a numerical model working of an invention process is described:
A multilayered medium rate pattern of model (as shown in Figure 4).5 Diffraction Points are wherein arranged, lay respectively at x=2000m and x=2200m place.There are two Diffraction Points at the x=2000m place, and the degree of depth is respectively 3000m and 4400m; There are three Diffraction Points at the x=2200m place, and the degree of depth is respectively 3000m, 4400m and 4800m.
Adopt Kirchhoff just to drill to model, adopt split shooting, 300 roads receive, and totally 300 big guns cover for 150 times, 2 milliseconds of samplings, and record length is 4 seconds.
Then generate several inclination angle Dao Ji (as shown in Figure 5) by the described method of step 2.Concentrating reflecting interface in the road, inclination angle is the curve that is bent upwards, corresponding inclination angle and the degree of depth of its extreme point indication.Diffraction Point is concentrated in the road shown in the black line (x=2000m) and is well evened up, and concentrates on monotonous curve in other roads.
Separate diffracted wave and reflection wave road collection (as shown in Figure 6) afterwards by step 3 again.
Stacked section before and after at last diffracted wave field being separated compares (as shown in Figure 7).Can find out, on the stacked section (Fig. 7 (a)) before diffracted wave separates, the reflection of bed interface is very strong, has covered in the reflection of hole fully; Can't see the reflective information of bed interface on the stacked section of diffracted wave after separating (Fig. 7 (b)), the just reflective information (oval point among the figure) of hole that stays.
List of references
Vidale，J.E.，1988，Finitedifference?traveltime?calculation：Bull.，Seis.Sot.Am.，78，20622076.
Vidale，J.E.，1990，3D?finitedifference?traveltime?calculation：Geophysics，55，523528.
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