CN102452776B - Method for treating oil sludge - Google Patents

Method for treating oil sludge Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102452776B
CN102452776B CN 201010514040 CN201010514040A CN102452776B CN 102452776 B CN102452776 B CN 102452776B CN 201010514040 CN201010514040 CN 201010514040 CN 201010514040 A CN201010514040 A CN 201010514040A CN 102452776 B CN102452776 B CN 102452776B
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microwave
greasy filth
oil
sludge
solids
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CN102452776A (en
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赵昕
回军
赵景霞
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China Petroleum and Chemical Corp
Sinopec Fushun Research Institute of Petroleum and Petrochemicals
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China Petroleum and Chemical Corp
Sinopec Fushun Research Institute of Petroleum and Petrochemicals
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Abstract

The invention discloses a method for treating oil sludge. The method realizes oil sludge integrated treatment by utilization of microwave demulsification dehydration, heat treatment flash evaporation and steam distillation. Concretely, the method comprises the following steps of 1, carrying out a microwave pretreatment demulsification dehydration process on oil sludge to reduce water content of the oil sludge, 2, heating the oil sludge subjected to the microwave pretreatment demulsification dehydration process to a temperature of 100 to 300 DEG C in an oxygen-free environment, feeding the heated oil sludge into a separating column, carrying out a heat treatment flash evaporation process, through condensation, recovering a light oil component and water separated by the heat treatment flash evaporation, and taking out sludge comprising a heavy oil component and solids from the separating column, and 3, carrying out solid-liquid separation of the sludge in the bottom of the separating column, recovering the heavy oil component as a coking or catalytic cracking raw material, and carrying out a steam distillation process on the solids to further recover an oil component from the solids. The method can realize full recovery of various valuable components of oil sludge and has good industrial application economical efficiency.

Description

A kind for the treatment of process of greasy filth
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind for the treatment of process of oily sludge.
Background technology
Greasy filth mainly refers to the oily sludge that the crude oil that causes due to a variety of causes or other oil product and earth etc. form, and the oil field is normal produce in the oily sediment taken out of of system etc., be a kind of solid waste that is rich in mineral oil, main component is crude oil, Ni Heshui.The solid particulate size can be from not enough micron to several inches, and great majority are between 1 to 100 micron, and crude oil kind, refinery structure and operational condition are depended in oil composition, and the composition of mud may temporal evolution and change.Usually contain certain crude oil (concentration quality 5%~80%), heavy metal ion (as iron, copper, nickel etc.) and inorganic salts (concentration quality 5%~20%) compound etc. in mud.Generally contain the materials such as benzene homologues, phenols in these greasy filth, and follow stench and toxicity, if directly contact with physical environment, can make that the soil poisons, acidifying or alkalization, cause the change of soil and soil structure, hinder plant root growth and can cause larger pollution to water body and vegetation, also meaning the waste of petroleum resources simultaneously.
By national Hazardous Waste List, greasy filth is listed in Hazardous wastes, and its chronicity and potentiality to environmental hazard just attracts great attention.Carrying out greasy filth management and Study of Prevention Technology is a vital task of present national environmental protection work.Therefore, how these oily sludges being carried out innoxious and recycling, is also the important environmental issue that pendulum needs to be resolved hurrily in face of oil refining industry.
The technology of processing at present oily sludge mainly contains resource recovery, harmless treatment and comprehensive utilization technique etc.Resource recycling technology comprises solvent extration, WATER-WASHING METHOD, micro emulsion washing, breakdown of emulsion method etc.Greasy filth harmless treatment treatment technology comprises immobilization processing, the technology such as biological treatment, burning.Comprehensive utilization technique comprises that thermolysis, brickmaking are paved the way and other purposes.The treatment technology of greasy filth is varied, and every kind of method has relative merits and the scope of application separately.Along with the increasingly stringent of environmental regulation and perfect, the Oilfield Oil-Contained Silt treatment technology will attract great attention, the inexorable trend that oily sandy sludge is innoxious, resource utilization, comprehensive utilization treatment technology will become the development of oil sludge and sand treatment technology.
Solvent extration is commonly use in the greasy filth treatment technology a kind of, its utilization " similar mixing " principle, select suitable organic solvent to make extraction agent, with organism from greasy filth by solvent extraction out after, recycle by distilling solvent is separated from mixture, the crude oil of recovery is used for freshening.US484271 adopts extraction oxidation oxidation style that oily sludge is processed, and first adds a kind of light hydrocarbon to make extraction agent in mud, and after extraction, oily and most of organism is removed, residual mud HNO 3Oxide treatment under 200~375 ℃ and condition of normal pressure.
CN02133117.0 adopts the technical finesse oily sludge of " extraction heat-dehydration-solid-liquid separation ", oily sludge is carried out mechanical dehydration, then mix and preheating with extraction solvent oil, carry out extraction heat-processed after mixing, then carry out solid-liquid separation, liquid phase enters coker, and solid phase can be used as fuel, and the vapour phase of extraction heat-dehydration is carried out oily water separation after condensation.The method process is simple, need not specific installation, investment and process cost are low, not only effectively processed oily sludge, and wherein valuable components is fully utilized, simultaneously can not bring disadvantageous effect to after-treatment device, but energy consumption is higher, and centimetre does not utilize the various valuable constituents in greasy filth.
Summary of the invention
The present invention proposes a kind for the treatment of process of greasy filth, can fully reclaim the various valuable constituents in greasy filth, the industrial application good economy performance.
The treatment process of greasy filth of the present invention comprises microwave demulsifying dehydration-thermal treatment flash distillation-vapor distillation method synthesis processing greasy filth, and concrete steps are as follows:
(1) greasy filth is adopted the Microwave Pretreatment breaking emulsion and dewatering, reduce water content in greasy filth.The microwave radiation frequency is 300MHz~300GHz, preferred 2450MHz, and power is 500~3000W, radiated time 10~60min/m 3(treatment time of every cubic metre of greasy filth).
(2) greasy filth after microwave dehydration is heated to 100~300 ℃ under anoxic condition, preferred 150~250 ℃, then enters knockout tower and carry out flash evaporation.The lightweight oil content that flashes off and water reclaim by the mode of condensation.Heavy oil content and solids are taken out in knockout tower with the form of mud.
(3) the tower bottom slurry is carried out after solid-liquid separation with the heavy Oil recovery, as coking or catalytically cracked material.Solids adopts vapor distillation further to reclaim oil content.Solid-liquid separation adopts the modes such as vacuum filtration, pressure filtration or centrifuging.Vapor distillation carries out wherein oil gas with water vapor under the hot conditions of 320~480 ℃, steam distilled pressure-controlling is at 0.2~0.4MPa.After processing, solids acts as a fuel or landfill with solidifying agent curing.
The present invention combines microwave dehydration, flash evaporation and vapor distillation process, makes greasy filth obtain fully effectively processing.Microwave chemical is an emerging forward position cross discipline that grows up on substance characteristics and repercussion study basis thereof in microwave field.Microwave is that frequency is about a kind of frequency electromagnetic waves of 300MHz~300GHz.Microwave frequency commonly used is 2450MHz.It has electromagnetic wave characteristics such as reflection, transmission, interference, diffraction, polarization and Energy Transfer.In recent years, the further exploitation of the efficient heat generation characteristic of microwave, it uses the fields such as catalytic chemistry, materials processing, pollution control that turn to from traditional communication field.Wherein, polluting control field, particularly obtaining larger progress aspect the processing of the solid waste such as industrial sludge, medical waste, junked tire, electronic waste and building waste.The characteristics of microwave heating effect are that rate of heating is fast, are quick on the draw, and homogeneous heating, efficient is high, and selectivity is better.Utilize this characteristic of microwave, can dewater to mud, make the water-oil emulsion break milk separation in mud, realize the recycling of oil, water, mud three-phase.The evaporation energy input directly for water, is conducive to the greasy filth break milk separation in microwave treatment processing greasy filth process.
The flash evaporation treatment technology is that greasy filth is heated to more than 100 ℃, then carries out flash distillation at knockout tower, and steam and hydrocarbons are separated out from knockout tower.Heavy constituent hydrocarbon and inorganics can carry out solid-liquid separation after discharging flashing tower as bed mud, and the solid of separation adopts the vapor distillation method further to reclaim.
The inventive method processing efficiency is high, and required equipment scale is little, the industrial application good economy performance.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is greasy filth treatment process process flow diagram of the present invention.
Embodiment
Embodiment 1
The explanation specific embodiment of the invention as an example of certain refinery's oil tank bottom greasy filth example.The present invention is particularly applicable to the high greasy filth of water ratio, therefore the greasy filth of selecting is moisture 75.5%, and oil-containing 14.2%, all the other are solid matter (percentage composition that relates in the present invention is take weight as benchmark).
Greasy filth is entered water knockout by pumping.The external microwave radiation device of water knockout.The microwave radiation frequency is 2450MHz, and power is 800W.Radiated time 40min/m 3After the microwave demulsifying dehydration, the greasy filth water ratio can drop to 32%.The greasy filth that will dewater is heated to 250 ℃, sends into flashing tower and carries out flash distillation.Tower top obtains water vapour and lighter hydrocarbons steam, and condensation separates by water-and-oil separator, obtains the lightweight oil content, and sewage enters Sewage treatment systems.Be the mud that heavy oil content and solids are mixed at the bottom of the flashing tower tower.Mud reclaims the heavy oil content after vacuum filtration, as the delayed coking raw material.The mud of processing under 400 ℃ of conditions, carries out wherein oil gas with water vapor.The pressure-controlling that purges is at 0.2MPa.Final oil recovery rate is 98.7%.
Embodiment 2
The explanation specific embodiment of the invention as an example of certain refinery's oil tank bottom greasy filth example.Greasy filth oil-containing 45%, moisture 41%, all the other are solid matter.Technical process is with embodiment 1.The microwave radiation frequency is 2450MHz, and power is 1500W.Radiated time 15min/m 3After the microwave demulsifying dehydration, the greasy filth water ratio can drop to 15%.It is 200 ℃ that Heating temperature is processed in flash distillation.Vapor distillation is under 450 ℃ of conditions, and pressure-controlling is at 0.3MPa.Final oil recovery rate is 97.4%.

Claims (6)

1. the treatment process of a greasy filth, is characterized in that comprising microwave demulsifying dehydration-thermal treatment flash distillation-vapor distillation method synthesis processing greasy filth, and concrete steps are as follows:
(1) greasy filth is adopted the Microwave Pretreatment breaking emulsion and dewatering, reduce water content in greasy filth;
(2) greasy filth after microwave dehydration is heated to 100~300 ℃ under anoxic condition, then enter knockout tower and carry out flash evaporation, the lightweight oil content that flashes off and water reclaim by the mode of condensation, and heavy oil content and solids are taken out in knockout tower with the form of mud;
(3) the tower bottom slurry is carried out after solid-liquid separation the heavy Oil recovery, as coking or catalytically cracked material, solids adopts vapor distillation further to reclaim oil content.
2. it is characterized in that in accordance with the method for claim 1: the microwave irradiation power of step (1) Microwave Pretreatment breaking emulsion and dewatering is 500~3000W.
3. according to the described method of claim 1 or 2, it is characterized in that: the microwave irradiation time of step (1) Microwave Pretreatment breaking emulsion and dewatering is 10~60min/m 3
4. it is characterized in that in accordance with the method for claim 1: step (2) is heated to 150~250 ℃ with the greasy filth after microwave dehydration under anoxic condition.
5. it is characterized in that in accordance with the method for claim 1: the solids vapor distillation of step (3) carries out under the hot conditions of 320~480 ℃.
6. according to the described method of claim 1 or 5, it is characterized in that: the steam distilled pressure-controlling of step (3) is at 0.2~0.4MPa.
CN 201010514040 2010-10-15 2010-10-15 Method for treating oil sludge Active CN102452776B (en)

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CN102949974B (en) * 2012-08-31 2014-09-03 中国石油大学(北京) Microwave heating device and application thereof
CN103771677B (en) * 2012-10-24 2015-06-17 中国石油化工股份有限公司 Method using hydrogen donor for thermal conversion processing of greasy filth
CN104087338A (en) * 2014-06-09 2014-10-08 青岛东方循环能源有限公司 A dehydrating method of tyre pyrolysis oil
CN104671621B (en) * 2015-01-28 2016-08-24 徐明好 A kind of processing method of urban wastewater treatment firm mud
CN105330124B (en) * 2015-11-25 2018-04-24 东南大学 A kind of method and device of microwave radiation solvent extraction combination deep dehydration for biosolids material
CA3116018A1 (en) * 2015-12-25 2017-06-29 Cyc Machinery Inc. Method and system for processing oily mixture
CN105668961B (en) * 2016-03-09 2019-04-09 北京天灏柯润环境科技有限公司 Sludge treatment equipment and method
CN106434766A (en) * 2016-12-17 2017-02-22 易永强 Method for producing biogas by soybean oil sludge fermentation
CN107118786A (en) * 2017-05-05 2017-09-01 李苏卿 For domestic sludge, the microwave cracking machine of stalk and microwave cracking method
CN109399756B (en) * 2017-08-15 2021-12-17 中国石油化工股份有限公司 Method and apparatus for desalting and dewatering oil-containing waste
CN109399888B (en) * 2017-08-15 2021-12-17 中国石油化工股份有限公司 Method and device for continuous desalting and dewatering of oily sludge
CN109293204B (en) * 2018-10-19 2022-03-22 东营华联石油化工厂有限公司 Oil sludge treatment system and treatment method thereof
CN109761469B (en) * 2019-03-13 2021-10-22 东营市康杰化工科技发展有限责任公司 Separation method of oily sludge and application of sludge impurities in preparation of activated carbon
CN111908743A (en) * 2019-05-07 2020-11-10 中国石油天然气集团有限公司 Oil sludge hydrothermal treatment separation and recovery system and method

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