CN102445409B - Method for measuring dust concentration based on digital image technology - Google Patents

Method for measuring dust concentration based on digital image technology Download PDF

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CN102445409B
CN102445409B CN 201110295655 CN201110295655A CN102445409B CN 102445409 B CN102445409 B CN 102445409B CN 201110295655 CN201110295655 CN 201110295655 CN 201110295655 A CN201110295655 A CN 201110295655A CN 102445409 B CN102445409 B CN 102445409B
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image
dust
dust concentration
template
generation chamber
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CN102445409A (en
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滕光辉
余礼根
劳凤丹
宗超
徐微微
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China Agricultural University
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China Agricultural University
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Abstract

The invention relates to the technical field of monitoring of the poultry farming environment and air quality control, and discloses a device and method for measuring dust concentration based on a digital image technology. The device comprises a shooting template (1), a dust generator (2) and an image shooting body (3) connected in sequence, wherein the image shooting body (3) comprises a video camera (12) and an auxiliary light source arranged inside. In the invention, a dust image is acquired by using the video camera for analyzing to obtain a relation model between the dust concentration and an image brightness parameter, so that the dust concentration measuring accuracy is high. Due to the adoption of the device, online continuous measurement of a discharge source can be realized, the dust concentration change can be monitored in real time, and measuring errors caused by human factors are overcome effectively simultaneously; and the device has the advantages of easiness for operating and low cost, and is convenient to popularize and apply in a large area.

Description

A kind of powder concentration measurement method based on Digital image technology
Technical field
The present invention relates to livestock and poultry cultivation environmental monitoring and air quality control technical field, be specifically related to a kind of apparatus for measuring dust concentration based on Digital image technology and method.
Background technology
Along with scale, intensive, industrial aquaculture pattern continuous popularization and the development in China, animal-breeding is healthy and the animal products quality is troubling.As its important component part, the quality of air quality more and more causes people's concern in the poultry house.Poultry house is a relatively airtight production environment, be subject to indoor environment factor (illumination, temperature, humidity, ventilation), outdoor climate factor (round the clock and seasonal variations), and the factor of animal (animal activity, body weight and age in days change) own, the impact of human factor (feeding and management condition) etc., the dust granules thing is more and concentrated.Have the scholar to point out, the total suspended particles substrate concentration is near 30 times of national standard limit value annual mean in its poultry house.Dust granules is one of air pollutants main in the poultry house, and it adsorbs microorganism, foul smell, harmful gas, is the favourable approach that livestock and poultry is propagated.Simultaneously, dust can affect poultry raiser's health and poultry production power, causes the humans and animals respiratory disease, and corrosion building and equipment pollute plant's surrounding air environment.
For the research of Source of Dust, space distribution and determination techniques thereof in the poultry house, China's starting is evening relatively, and the outburst of in recent years bird flu causes that people pay much attention to air-polluting in animal products quality, the poultry house.Research and develop effective dust concentration measuring tool and method and measure dust concentration in the poultry house, learn the rule that dust produces, propagates and distribute in the poultry house, for improving air quality in the house, improve its feeding level, increase the animal products competitive power significant.
The measuring method of dust at present concentration mainly contains the filter membrane method of weighing, β rays method, piezoelectric vibration method, ultrasonic attenuation method, blackness method, light scattering method etc.These measuring methods respectively have its relative merits, and the filter membrane method of weighing is widely used but complex operation, can not realize on-line monitoring; The β rays method has certain radioactivity, measures the impact that is subject to peopleware and psychological application, and needs the supervision of national correlation department; The piezoelectric vibration method can on-line monitoring, but it needs manual operations, and program is loaded down with trivial details, and measuring accuracy is not high; The blackness method is simple to operate, but affected by subjective and objective factor, and measuring error is larger; Light scattering method can be realized remote continuous coverage, but it is limited by environmental baseline, needs periodic maintenance.Therefore use new technology, explore new powder concentration measurement method and be necessary very much.
Summary of the invention
The technical matters that (one) will solve
Technical matters to be solved by this invention is: how to measure accurately, easily dust concentration.
(2) technical scheme
For solving the problems of the technologies described above, the invention provides a kind of apparatus for measuring dust concentration based on Digital image technology, comprise: the shooting template, dust generation chamber and the image taking body that connect successively, described image taking body comprise video camera and the secondary light source that is installed on inside.
Preferably, all adopt screwed connection between described shooting template, dust generation chamber and the image taking body.
Preferably, the end towards described dust generation chamber of described shooting template is equipped with lamina of septum pellucidum, and the other end is equipped with chequered with black and white chessboard Grid Template.
Preferably, described dust generation chamber is provided with air inlet, exhaust outlet, the airduct that is connected with described air inlet, and the centrifugal blower that is connected with described airduct.
Preferably, the end towards described dust generation chamber of described image taking body is equipped with lamina of septum pellucidum.
Preferably, described secondary light source is led light source, is circular layout.
The invention provides a kind of method of utilizing described measurement device dust concentration, it is characterized in that, may further comprise the steps:
S1, utilize described camera acquisition gas to be measured to introduce the image of described shooting template before the described dust generation chamber, use image segmentation threshold values algorithm that described image is processed, find out respectively number of pixels maximal value and corresponding brightness value thereof in the brightness histogram, with the black region of the image that obtains described shooting template and the intrinsic apparent brightness value of white portion With
S2, gas to be measured is introduced described dust generation chamber, wait for the regular hour, mix to described dust generation indoor air flow, form steady flow condition;
S3, utilize the image of the described shooting template of described camera acquisition, segmentation threshold values algorithm process image obtains to take the black region of image of template and the apparent brightness value B of white portion this moment w(R) and B b(R), wherein, R represents that described camera lens is to the vertical range of described shooting template;
S4, according to formula M = ξ R · { ln ( B w * - B b * ) - ln [ B w ( R ) - B b ( R ) ] } Calculate dust concentration M in the gas to be measured, wherein, when scale-up factor ξ is definite value by just establishing M through formula ξ = MR · { ln ( B w * - B b * ) - ln [ B w ( R ) - B b ( R ) ] } Calculative determination.
(3) beneficial effect
The present invention utilizes camera acquisition dust image to analyze, and draws the relational model between dust concentration and the brightness of image parameter, thereby measures dust concentration, and accuracy is high.This device both can have been realized, METHOD FOR CONTINUOUS DETERMINATION online to emission source, again can the Real-Time Monitoring dust concentration change, effectively overcome the measuring error that human factor causes simultaneously, and have advantage simple to operate, that cost is low, be convenient to large scale application.The present invention is applicable to closed poultry house powder concentration measurement.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the device front elevation of the embodiment of the invention;
Fig. 2 is the device side view of the embodiment of the invention.
Wherein, 1-takes template; 2-dust generation chamber; 3-image taking body; The 4-Grid Template; The 5-lamina of septum pellucidum; The 6-screw thread; The 7-centrifugal blower; The 8-airduct; The 9-air inlet; The 10-exhaust outlet; The 11-LED light source; The 12-video camera.
Embodiment
Regard to down a kind of apparatus for measuring dust concentration and method based on Digital image technology proposed by the invention, describe in detail in conjunction with the accompanying drawings and embodiments.
For the existing technical matters of powder concentration measurement method (especially closed poultry house powder concentration measurement method), the invention provides a kind of portable unit of measuring dust concentration in the poultry house based on Digital image technology.Utilize Digital image technology to estimate airborne dust concentration, core technology is to utilize camera acquisition dust image to analyze, and draws the relational model between dust concentration and the brightness of image parameter.Ultimate principle is as follows:
Take observer or video camera as basic point, under certain illumination condition, reference object is set as an image that comprises black region and white portion.Along with the observer and take the increasing of distance between the template or air in the rising of dust granules substrate concentration, the apparent brightness difference in template black and white zone will diminish gradually.
Gain knowledge according to atmospheric physics, that object beyond certain distance sends or reflect light, before entering human eye or ccd video camera sensitive component, the weakening of one section air column between experiencing from the position to observer (comprising air scattering, reflection and absorption), this section air column will produce additional air column brightness D (R) to various reflection of lights and one or many scattering simultaneously.Apparent brightness apart from the shooting template image black and white zone that the actual distance that receives of the camera of video camera is the R place is expressed as respectively B like this w(R) and B b(r), its expression formula is respectively:
B w ( R ) = B w * · exp { - ∫ 0 R σ w ( r ) · dr } + D ( R ) , B b ( R ) = B b * · exp { - ∫ 0 R σ w ( r ) · dr } + D ( R ) . - - - ( 1 )
Above in two equatioies, last item can be regarded the intrinsic apparent brightness (usefulness of black region and the white portion of the image of taking template as Or Expression, the image parameter before namely dust occurs), be after the air column of R weakens (or delustring), to the contribution of apparent brightness, σ through thickness w(r) be atmospheric extinction coefficient, σ w(r) value is relevant with the particle concentration in the atmosphere, supposes that the particle in the gas is primary scattering to scattering of light, and then the relevant knowledge according to atmospheric physics can get, and the mass concentration M of dust is proportional to the extinction coefficient σ of gas dust in the gas w(r).So expression formula is arranged:
M=ξ·σ w(r) (2)
ξ is scale-up factor in the formula, and is relevant with light refractive index with the distribution of gas particles thing yardstick spectrum, and extinction coefficient mainly distributes relevant with the lambda1-wavelength distribution with the particle diameter of dust.
The interior gas particles thing particle diameter of hypothesis closed poultry house distributes and fixes among the present invention, because the luminous environment under the closed raising condition is controlled, so lambda1-wavelength is definite, can suppose that then the gained extinction coefficient is a fixed value simultaneously.Suppose extinction coefficient σ herein w(r) be single value, then according to above (1) and (2) formula, can derive:
M = - ξ R · ln { B w ( R ) - B b ( R ) B w * - B b * } - - - ( 3 )
Owing to taking the intrinsic brightness in the black and white zone of template image Or Be definite value (calculate according to experiment condition, it is relevant with measurement mechanism), therefore in the formula Also be fixed value, variable being changed to of formula (3) then:
M = ξ R · { ln ( B w * - B b * ) - ln [ B w ( R ) - B b ( R ) ] } - - - ( 4 )
By the supposition of front, coefficient ξ is stable, can get gas particle concentration M and ln{B b(R)-B b(R) } linear inverse relation.1n{B in the formula b(R)-B b(R) } be unknown number, all the other are the experiment initial value, and ξ is definite value (100mg/m for example by just establishing M 3) time through formula (4) calculative determination.
Thus, only need know apart from the image template black region that comprises black region and white portion at observer's distance R place and the apparent brightness B of white portion w(R) and B b(R), can determine particle concentration value M in gas this moment according to formula (3) or (4).
As shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2, portable unit of the present invention adopts the shading cylindrical structure, is divided into and takes template 1, dust generation chamber 2 and image taking body 3 three parts, is characterized in: adopt three sections screwed connections, and for convenience detach, be easy to carry about with one.Take and 14 * 14 chequered with black and white chessboard Grid Templates 4 to be housed as the background of photographic images in the template 1, be provided with lamina of septum pellucidum 5, prevent dust accumulation; Dust generation chamber 2 provides measurement environment simultaneously, and gas to be measured is discharged through air inlet 9 introducings, exhaust outlet 10 by centrifugal blower 7, forms mixed uniformly airflow field; Image taking body 3 mainly is comprised of video camera 12, secondary light source, lamina of septum pellucidum 5, and its video camera 12 is mainly used in taking the image that the template 4 of front and back occurs dust, and secondary light source is the led light source 11 of annular, provides with this and takes specific photoenvironment.Utilize screw thread 6 to connect between this device cylindricality cavity, front and rear sections is respectively arranged with lamina of septum pellucidum 5, and Main Function is to stop that dust to the pollution of template and camera lens, also is convenient to test the cleaning of rear device.
The principle of work of this device is: gas to be measured in the closed poultry house is delivered to measurement mechanism through centrifugal blower, utilizes based on the dust concentration in the analytical algorithm estimation house of Digital image technology.The specific works process is: the first step, before the operative installations, its dismounting is thoroughly cleaned, and especially clean out residual dust in the dust generation chamber, and the dust on the dividing plate is residual, then will install each parts and carry out assembly and connection; Second step, utilize the background template before video camera occurs dust to capture image, use image segmentation threshold values algorithm that described image is processed, find out respectively number of pixels maximal value and corresponding brightness value thereof in the brightness histogram, to obtain formula (4) With The 3rd step, utilize blower fan will give up interior gas and be incorporated into the dust generation chamber through air intake opening, indoor air flow to be occured mixes, and forms steady flow condition, can judge that it reaches photographing request; The 4th step, utilize the background template after video camera occurs dust repeatedly to take pictures, segmentation threshold values algorithm process image obtains B this moment w(R) and B b(R) numerical value, when being definite value by just establishing M through formula ξ = MR · { ln ( B w * - B b * ) - ln [ B w ( R ) - B b ( R ) ] } Calculative determination ξ numerical value (decide on test scene, need to set the dust concentration initial value to obtain through experimental calculation according to field working conditions); In the 5th step, calculate the dust concentration numerical value of testing under the operating mode through formula (4).
As can be seen from the above embodiments, the present invention utilizes dust concentration in the Digital image technology estimation closed poultry house, can realize real-time automatic measurement; Adopt monoblock type, integrated design, both saved installing space, be convenient to again the device each several part is carried out operational administrative, simple in structure, with low cost.
Above embodiment only is used for explanation the present invention; and be not limitation of the present invention; the those of ordinary skill in relevant technologies field; in the situation that do not break away from the spirit and scope of the present invention; can also make a variety of changes and modification; therefore all technical schemes that are equal to also belong to category of the present invention, and scope of patent protection of the present invention should be defined by the claims.

Claims (6)

1. method of measuring dust concentration based on the apparatus for measuring dust concentration of Digital image technology, it is characterized in that, described device comprises: the shooting template (1), dust generation chamber (2) and the image taking body (3) that connect successively, described image taking body (3) comprises video camera (12) and the secondary light source that is installed on inside, said method comprising the steps of:
S1, utilize video camera (12) to gather gas to be measured to introduce the image that dust generation chamber (2) is taken template (1) before, use image segmentation threshold values algorithm that described image is processed, find out respectively number of pixels maximal value and corresponding brightness value thereof in the brightness histogram, with the black region of the image that obtains described shooting template (1) and the intrinsic apparent brightness value of white portion With
S2, gas to be measured is introduced described dust generation chamber (2), wait for the regular hour, mix the formation steady flow condition to interior the air-flow of described dust generation chamber (2);
S3, utilize described video camera (12) to gather the image of described shooting template (1), segmentation threshold values algorithm process image obtains to take the black region of image of template (1) and the apparent brightness value B of white portion this moment w(R) and B b(R), wherein, R represents that described video camera (12) camera lens is to the vertical range of described shooting template (1);
S4, according to formula M = ξ R · { ln ( B w * - B b * ) - ln [ B w ( R ) - B b ( R ) ] } Calculate dust concentration M in the gas to be measured, wherein, when scale-up factor ξ is definite value by just establishing M through formula ξ = MR · { ln ( B w * - B b * ) ln [ B w ( R ) - B b ( R ) ] } Calculative determination.
2. the method for measurement dust concentration as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that, all adopts screw thread (6) to connect between described shooting template (1), dust generation chamber (2) and the image taking body (3).
3. the method for measurement dust concentration as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that, end towards described dust generation chamber (2) of described shooting template (1) is equipped with lamina of septum pellucidum (5), and the other end is equipped with chequered with black and white chessboard Grid Template (4).
4. the method for measurement dust concentration as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that, described dust generation chamber (2) is provided with air inlet (9), exhaust outlet (10), the airduct (8) that is connected with described air inlet (9), and the centrifugal blower (7) that is connected with described airduct (8).
5. the method for measurement dust concentration as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that, the end towards described dust generation chamber (2) of described image taking body (3) is equipped with lamina of septum pellucidum (5).
6. the method for measurement dust concentration as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that, described secondary light source is led light source (11).
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