CN102444122A - Construction method of pile - Google Patents

Construction method of pile Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102444122A
CN102444122A CN2011102946442A CN201110294644A CN102444122A CN 102444122 A CN102444122 A CN 102444122A CN 2011102946442 A CN2011102946442 A CN 2011102946442A CN 201110294644 A CN201110294644 A CN 201110294644A CN 102444122 A CN102444122 A CN 102444122A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
tube
diffusion head
ram
pile
moulding
Prior art date
Application number
CN2011102946442A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
朱建新
Original Assignee
朱建新
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to CN2011101033507A priority Critical patent/CN102226341A/en
Priority to CN201110103350.7 priority
Application filed by 朱建新 filed Critical 朱建新
Priority to CN2011102946442A priority patent/CN102444122A/en
Publication of CN102444122A publication Critical patent/CN102444122A/en

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Abstract

The invention discloses a construction method of a pile, which includes the processes of placing at a suitable position, tube immersing, tamping-expanding forming, pouring forming and tube-taking out forming, and the like. The construction method has small construction noise, has little influence on the environment, is environment-friendly, has reliable construction quality and excellent pile body quality, and can form the multi-stage expanded head.

Description

A kind of job practices

Technical field

The present invention relates to a kind of job practices.

Background technology:

The construction technology of existing tube-sinking cast-in-situ pile, compaction pile generally adopts diesel hammer or vibrating hammer technology, and its construction noise is big, and vibration is big, and is bigger to the influence of surrounding environment, has some undesirable parts.

Summary of the invention:

The object of the present invention is to provide that a kind of construction feature of environmental protection is good, cost performance is good, the job practices of reliable quality stake.

Technical solution of the present invention is:

A kind of job practices is characterized in that: comprise the following steps:

(1) in place: that the equipment outer tube is located on the stake position that configures;

(2) single-unit or more piece outer tube are sunk down into set depth;

(3) ram to expand moulding: on carry hammer ram in multi-functional in the outer tube, by set inventory once or gradation inserts is thrown in the outer tube, on pull out outer tube certain altitude h >=0; Interior hammer ram is rammed inserts repeatedly and is formed enlarged footing, adjusts the compacted degree of the soil body and size, the shape of enlarged footing through adjusting following coefficient: degree of lifting h on the height H that feeds intake, the outer tube, ram the distance C that expands when accomplishing at the bottom of the outer tube at the bottom of the stake, ram in expanding when accomplishing at the bottom of the hammer ram at the bottom of the outer tube apart from E, ram inserts at the pile penetration D and the volume V of inserts that set under the impact energy; Concrete adjustment form is:

A) (D1, D2......Dn V) adjust the compacted degree of the soil body, when ramming inserts, are setting under the impact energy deflection D1, the D2 of n hammering continuously through adjustment compacting coefficient D ∈ ... Dn and summation nD thereof;

B) through adjustment shape factor α ∈ (H, h, c, E, D, V) adjust size, the shape of tamper diffusion head:

A) (H, h E) adjust size, the shape of tamper diffusion head, form spindle shape tamper diffusion head through adjustment shape factor α ∈;

B) (c E) adjusts size, the shape of tamper diffusion head, forms the column tamper diffusion head for H, h through adjustment shape factor α ∈;

C) (E, D V) adjust size, the shape of tamper diffusion head, form spherical tamper diffusion head through adjustment shape factor α ∈;

(4) build moulding: on carry interior hammer ram, build pile body or transfer precast pile;

(5) tube drawing moulding: extract outer tube, forming pile.

After step (3) is rammed the expansion moulding, outer tube is passed tamper diffusion head sink down into set depth, repeating step (3) rams and expands moulding again, forms second level tamper diffusion head; Or after step (3) was rammed the expansion moulding, with carrying on the outer tube to set depth, repeating step (3) rammed and expands moulding again, forms second level tamper diffusion head.

Repeat again that one or many passes with outer tube that tamper diffusion head sinks or on carry to set depth, ram and expand forming step, form the third level or more multistage tamper diffusion head.

Build moulding in the step (4) when transferring precast pile, the precast pile circumferential play is filled with the curing compound filling.

Said immersed tube method is:

(a) ram the soil body in: the interior hammer ram in the outer tube is mentioned move up and down the soil body the punching outer tube under or pile body, formation sheared edge;

(b) outer tube sinks: outer tube adopts one of following method to sink at least: 1. under the outer tube deadweight, outer tube sinks from gravity along sheared edge; 2. start back-pressure or static pressure water booster system on the outer tube, outer tube sinks along the sheared edge pressurization; 3. start the vibrating device on the outer tube, outer tube is along the sheared edge vibration-sunk; 4. start vibration and water booster system on the outer tube simultaneously, outer tube along sheared edge shake depress heavy; 5. start the spinning apparatus on the outer tube, outer tube sinks along sheared edge spinning; 6. start the dematron device on the outer tube, outer tube is sunk along the sheared edge rubbing and pressure;

(c) mutual (a) and (b) step sinks down into set depth until outer tube.

Inserts in the step (3) is one or more in brickbat, rubble, slag, cobble, regeneration aggregate, cement mix, the dried water-bearing concreae; Curing compound in the step (4) is to be the liquid state or the powdery reinforcement material of major ingredient with cement.

The immersed tube method is: bury shoe or dry concrete underground in the outer tube bottom, adopt external force that outer tube is sunk down into set depth simultaneously; Or directly revolve dig, manually digging hole is to set depth.

Outer tube sinks to adopting the static pressure water booster system that the outer tube pressurization is sunk or adopts the dematron device that starts on the outer tube that outer tube is sunk along the sheared edge rubbing and pressure, and used static pressure water booster system or dematron device are different self-contained units with interior rammer device, pipe drawing device.

Construction noise of the present invention is little, little to ambient influnence, and the feature of environmental protection is good, reliable construction quality, and pile quality is good.Can form multistage overall stake.

The present invention can be according to the size of strata condition, site condition, surrounding environment and engineering quantity; Select suitable construction equipment and construction technology; Both can equipment integrated construction one pile, but the also multiple devices pile of constructing, but also multiple devices continuous productive process; The scope of application is constructed to the pile foundation engineering of highrise building by multistory building, little high level under appropriate condition.

Below in conjunction with embodiment the present invention is described further.

The specific embodiment

Embodiment 1:

A kind of job practices comprises the following steps:

(1) in place: that the equipment outer tube is located on the stake position that configures;

(2) outer tube is sunk down into set depth; Said immersed tube method is:

(a) ram the soil body in: the interior hammer ram in the outer tube is mentioned move up and down the soil body the punching outer tube under or pile body, formation sheared edge;

(b) outer tube sinks: outer tube adopts one of following method to sink at least: 1. under the outer tube deadweight, outer tube sinks from gravity along sheared edge; 2. start back-pressure or static pressure water booster system on the outer tube, outer tube sinks along the sheared edge pressurization; 3. start the vibrating device on the outer tube, outer tube is along the sheared edge vibration-sunk; 4. start vibration and water booster system on the outer tube simultaneously, outer tube along sheared edge shake depress heavy; 5. start the spinning apparatus on the outer tube, outer tube sinks along sheared edge spinning; 6. start the dematron device on the outer tube, outer tube is sunk along sheared edge with the rubbing mode;

(c) mutual (a) and (b) step sinks down into set depth until outer tube.

(3) ram to expand moulding: on carry the interior hammer ram in the outer tube, by set inventory once or gradation inserts is thrown in the outer tube, on pull out outer tube certain altitude h >=0; Interior hammer ram is rammed inserts repeatedly and is formed enlarged footing, adjusts the compacted degree of the soil body and size, the shape of enlarged footing through adjusting following coefficient: degree of lifting h on the height H that feeds intake, the outer tube, ram the distance C that expands when accomplishing at the bottom of the outer tube at the bottom of the stake, ram in expanding when accomplishing at the bottom of the hammer ram at the bottom of the outer tube apart from E, ram inserts at the pile penetration D and the volume V of inserts that set under the impact energy; Concrete adjustment form is:

A) (D1, D2......Dn V) adjust the compacted degree of the soil body, when ramming inserts, are setting under the impact energy deflection D1, the D2 of n hammering continuously through adjustment compacting coefficient D ∈ ... Dn and summation nD thereof;

B) through adjustment shape factor α ∈ (H, h, c, E, D, V) adjust size, the shape of tamper diffusion head:

A) (H, h E) adjust size, the shape of tamper diffusion head, form spindle shape tamper diffusion head through adjustment shape factor α ∈;

B) (c E) adjusts size, the shape of tamper diffusion head, forms the column tamper diffusion head for H, h through adjustment shape factor α ∈;

C) (E, D V) adjust size, the shape of tamper diffusion head, form spherical tamper diffusion head through adjustment shape factor α ∈;

(4) build moulding: on carry interior hammer ram, build pile body or transfer precast pile, when transferring precast pile, the precast pile circumferential play is filled with the curing compound filling;

(5) tube drawing moulding: extract outer tube, forming pile.

Inserts in the step (3) is one or more in brickbat, rubble, slag, cobble, regeneration aggregate, cement mix, the dried water-bearing concreae; Curing compound in the step (4) is to be the liquid state or the powdery reinforcement material of major ingredient with cement.

Embodiment 2:

A kind of job practices comprises the following steps:

(1) in place: that the equipment outer tube is located on the stake position that configures;

(2) outer tube is sunk down into set depth; Said immersed tube method is:

(a) ram the soil body in: the interior hammer ram in the outer tube is mentioned move up and down the soil body the punching outer tube under or pile body, formation sheared edge;

(b) outer tube sinks: outer tube adopts one of following method to sink at least: 1. under the outer tube deadweight, outer tube sinks from gravity along sheared edge; 2. start back-pressure or static pressure water booster system on the outer tube, outer tube sinks along the sheared edge pressurization; 3. start the vibrating device on the outer tube, outer tube is along the sheared edge vibration-sunk; 4. start vibration and water booster system on the outer tube simultaneously, outer tube along sheared edge shake depress heavy; 5. start the spinning apparatus on the outer tube, outer tube sinks along sheared edge spinning, 6. starts the dematron device on the outer tube, and outer tube is sunk along the sheared edge rubbing and pressure;

(c) mutual (a) and (b) step sinks down into set depth until outer tube.

Inserts in the step (3) is one or more in brickbat, rubble, slag, cobble, cement mix, the concrete; Curing compound in the step (4) is to be the liquid state or the powdery reinforcement of soft soil material of major ingredient with cement.

(3) ram to expand moulding: on carry hammer ram in multi-functional in the outer tube, by set inventory once or gradation filler is thrown in the outer tube, on pull out outer tube certain altitude h >=0; Interior hammer ram is rammed inserts repeatedly and is formed enlarged footing, adjusts the compacted degree of the soil body and size, the shape of enlarged footing through adjusting following coefficient: degree of lifting h on the height H that feeds intake, the outer tube, ram the distance C that expands when accomplishing at the bottom of the outer tube at the bottom of the stake, ram in expanding when accomplishing at the bottom of the hammer ram at the bottom of the outer tube apart from E, ram inserts at the pile penetration D and the volume V of inserts that set under the impact energy; Concrete adjustment form is:

A) (D1, D2......Dn V) adjust the compacted degree of the soil body, when ramming inserts, are setting under the impact energy deflection D1, the D2 of n hammering continuously through adjustment compacting coefficient D ∈ ... Dn and summation nD thereof;

B) through adjustment shape factor α ∈ (H, h, c, E, D, V) adjust size, the shape of tamper diffusion head:

A) (H, h E) adjust size, the shape of tamper diffusion head, form spindle shape tamper diffusion head through adjustment shape factor α ∈;

B) (c E) adjusts size, the shape of tamper diffusion head, forms the column tamper diffusion head for H, h through adjustment shape factor α ∈;

C) (E, D V) adjust size, the shape of tamper diffusion head, form spherical tamper diffusion head through adjustment shape factor α ∈;

After step (3) is rammed the expansion moulding, outer tube is passed tamper diffusion head sink down into set depth, repeating step (3) rams and expands moulding again, forms second level tamper diffusion head.

Can repeat one or many again and outer tube is passed tamper diffusion head sink down into set depth, ram to expand forming step, form the third level or more multistage tamper diffusion head.

Saidly outer tube passed the immersed tube method that tamper diffusion head sinks down into set depth be:

(a) ram the soil body in: the interior hammer ram in the outer tube is mentioned move up and down the soil body the punching outer tube under or pile body, formation sheared edge;

(b) outer tube sinks: outer tube adopts one of following method to sink at least: 1. under the outer tube deadweight, outer tube sinks from gravity along sheared edge; 2. start back-pressure or static pressure water booster system on the outer tube, outer tube sinks along the sheared edge pressurization; 3. start the vibrating device on the outer tube, outer tube is along the sheared edge vibration-sunk; 4. start vibration and water booster system on the outer tube simultaneously, outer tube along sheared edge shake depress heavy; 5. start the spinning apparatus on the outer tube, outer tube sinks along sheared edge spinning; 6. start the dematron device on the outer tube, outer tube is sunk along sheared edge with the rubbing mode;

(c) mutual (a) and (b) step sinks down into set depth until outer tube.

(4) build moulding: on carry interior hammer ram, build pile body or transfer precast pile, when transferring precast pile, the precast pile circumferential play is filled with the curing compound filling;

(5) tube drawing moulding: extract outer tube, forming pile.

Inserts in the step (3) is one or more in brickbat, rubble, slag, cobble, regeneration aggregate, cement mix, the dried water-bearing concreae; Curing compound in the step (4) is to be the liquid state or the powdery reinforcement material of major ingredient with cement.

Embodiment 3:

A kind of job practices comprises the following steps:

(1) in place: that the equipment outer tube is located on the stake position that configures;

(2) bury shoe or dry concrete underground in the outer tube bottom, adopt static pressure equipment first that single-unit or the pressurization of more piece outer tube are sunk down into set depth simultaneously;

(3) ram the expansion moulding: static pressure equipment first is removed (the heavy or tube drawing that can be used for carrying out next pile); Interior rammer equipment second is located on the outer pile tube position that immersed tube is good; On carry in the interior hammer ram of rammer equipment; By set inventory once or gradation inserts is thrown in the outer tube, on pull out outer tube certain altitude h >=0; Interior hammer ram is rammed inserts repeatedly and is formed enlarged footing, adjusts the compacted degree of the soil body and size, the shape of enlarged footing through adjusting following coefficient: degree of lifting h on the height H that feeds intake, the outer tube, ram the distance C that expands when accomplishing at the bottom of the outer tube at the bottom of the stake, ram in expanding when accomplishing at the bottom of the hammer ram at the bottom of the outer tube apart from E, ram inserts at the pile penetration D and the volume V of inserts that set under the impact energy; Concrete adjustment form is:

A) (D1, D2......Dn V) adjust the compacted degree of the soil body, when ramming inserts, are setting under the impact energy deflection D1, the D2 of n hammering continuously through adjustment compacting coefficient D ∈ ... Dn and summation nD thereof;

B) through adjustment shape factor α ∈ (H, h, c, E, D, V) adjust size, the shape of tamper diffusion head:

A) (H, h E) adjust size, the shape of tamper diffusion head, form spindle shape tamper diffusion head through adjustment shape factor α ∈;

B) (c E) adjusts size, the shape of tamper diffusion head, forms the column tamper diffusion head for H, h through adjustment shape factor α ∈;

C) (E, D V) adjust size, the shape of tamper diffusion head, form spherical tamper diffusion head through adjustment shape factor α ∈.

(4) build moulding: on carry interior hammer ram, build pile body;

(5) tube drawing moulding: interior rammer equipment second is removed (rammer that can be used for next pile expands); Pull out equipment third by static pressure equipment first or quiet and be located in and ram on the outer pile tube position of expanding moulding, adopt the quiet mode tube drawing moulding or adopt the moulding of special-purpose tube drawing equipment fourth tube drawing of extricating oneself from a predicament and brace oneself up to action.Static pressure equipment first and interior rammer equipment second, quietly pull out equipment third, special-purpose tube drawing equipment fourth is different self-contained unit.

Inserts in the step (3) is one or more in brickbat, rubble, slag, cobble, regeneration aggregate, cement mix, the dried water-bearing concreae.

Claims (8)

1. the job practices of a stake is characterized in that: comprise the following steps:
(1) in place: that the equipment outer tube is located on the stake position that configures;
(2) single-unit or more piece outer tube are sunk down into set depth;
(3) ram to expand moulding: on carry hammer ram in multi-functional in the outer tube, by set inventory once or gradation inserts is thrown in the outer tube, on pull out outer tube certain altitude h >=0; Interior hammer ram is rammed inserts repeatedly and is formed enlarged footing, adjusts the compacted degree of the soil body and size, the shape of enlarged footing through adjusting following coefficient: degree of lifting h on the height H that feeds intake, the outer tube, ram the distance C that expands when accomplishing at the bottom of the outer tube at the bottom of the stake, ram in expanding when accomplishing at the bottom of the hammer ram at the bottom of the outer tube apart from E, ram inserts at the pile penetration D and the volume V of inserts that set under the impact energy; Concrete adjustment form is:
A) (D1, D2......Dn V) adjust the compacted degree of the soil body, when ramming inserts, are setting under the impact energy deflection D1, the D2 of n hammering continuously through adjustment compacting coefficient D ∈ ... Dn and summation nD thereof;
B) through adjustment shape factor α ∈ (H, h, c, E, D, V) adjust size, the shape of tamper diffusion head:
A) (H, h E) adjust size, the shape of tamper diffusion head, form spindle shape tamper diffusion head through adjustment shape factor α ∈;
B) (c E) adjusts size, the shape of tamper diffusion head, forms the column tamper diffusion head for H, h through adjustment shape factor α ∈;
C) (E, D V) adjust size, the shape of tamper diffusion head, form spherical tamper diffusion head through adjustment shape factor α ∈;
(4) build moulding: on carry interior hammer ram, build pile body or transfer precast pile;
(5) tube drawing moulding: extract outer tube, forming pile.
2. the job practices of stake according to claim 1 is characterized in that: after step (3) is rammed the expansion moulding, outer tube is passed tamper diffusion head sink down into set depth, repeating step (3) rams and expands moulding again, forms second level tamper diffusion head; Or after step (3) was rammed the expansion moulding, with carrying on the outer tube to set depth, repeating step (3) rammed and expands moulding again, forms second level tamper diffusion head.
3. the job practices of stake according to claim 1 is characterized in that: repeat again that one or many passes with outer tube that tamper diffusion head sinks or on carry to set depth, ram and expand forming step, form the third level or more multistage tamper diffusion head.
4. the job practices of stake according to claim 1 is characterized in that: build moulding in the step (4) when transferring precast pile, the precast pile circumferential play is filled with the curing compound filling.
5. according to the job practices of claim 1,2 or 3 described stakes, it is characterized in that: said immersed tube method is:
(a) ram the soil body in: the interior hammer ram in the outer tube is mentioned move up and down the soil body the punching outer tube under or pile body, formation sheared edge;
(b) outer tube sinks: outer tube adopts one of following method to sink at least: 1. under the outer tube deadweight, outer tube sinks from gravity along sheared edge; 2. start back-pressure or static pressure water booster system on the outer tube, outer tube sinks along the sheared edge pressurization; 3. start the vibrating device on the outer tube, outer tube is along the sheared edge vibration-sunk; 4. start vibration and water booster system on the outer tube simultaneously, outer tube along sheared edge shake depress heavy; 5. start the spinning apparatus on the outer tube, outer tube sinks along sheared edge spinning; 6. start the dematron device on the outer tube, outer tube is sunk along the sheared edge rubbing and pressure;
(c) mutual (a) and (b) step sinks down into set depth until outer tube.
6. according to the job practices of claim 1,2 or 3 described stakes, it is characterized in that: the inserts in the step (3) is one or more in brickbat, rubble, slag, cobble, regeneration aggregate, cement mix, the dried water-bearing concreae; Curing compound in the step (4) is to be the liquid state or the powdery reinforcement material of major ingredient with cement.
7. according to the job practices of claim 1,2 or 3 described stakes, it is characterized in that: the immersed tube method is: bury shoe or dry concrete underground in the outer tube bottom, adopt external force that outer tube is sunk down into set depth simultaneously; Or directly revolve dig, manually digging hole is to set depth.
8. according to the job practices of claim 1,2 or 3 described stakes; It is characterized in that: outer tube sinks to adopting the static pressure water booster system that the outer tube pressurization is sunk or adopts the dematron device that starts on the outer tube that outer tube is sunk along the sheared edge rubbing and pressure, and used static pressure water booster system or dematron device are different self-contained units with interior rammer device, pipe drawing device.
CN2011102946442A 2011-04-25 2011-09-28 Construction method of pile CN102444122A (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN2011101033507A CN102226341A (en) 2011-04-25 2011-04-25 Construction method for piles
CN201110103350.7 2011-04-25
CN2011102946442A CN102444122A (en) 2011-04-25 2011-09-28 Construction method of pile

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN2011102946442A CN102444122A (en) 2011-04-25 2011-09-28 Construction method of pile

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CN102444122A true CN102444122A (en) 2012-05-09

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CN2011102946442A CN102444122A (en) 2011-04-25 2011-09-28 Construction method of pile

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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN104099925A (en) * 2014-07-25 2014-10-15 王继忠 Construction device for concrete pile and construction method thereof
CN109853561A (en) * 2019-04-08 2019-06-07 王磊 The construction method of static pressed pile

Families Citing this family (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102644269A (en) * 2012-05-04 2012-08-22 朱建新 Non-earth-borrowing composite pile and construction method thereof
CN103821138B (en) * 2012-07-02 2016-09-07 朱建新 The construction method of composite pile
CN105350525A (en) * 2015-11-09 2016-02-24 朱建新 Construction method for piles
CN106049464B (en) * 2016-06-06 2018-07-03 朱建新 The construction method of stake
CN106049465B (en) * 2016-06-06 2018-07-06 朱建新 A kind of construction method of
CN106013093B (en) * 2016-06-15 2018-09-11 朱建新 A kind of pile construction method
CN106088085B (en) * 2016-06-15 2018-07-06 朱建新 Pile construction method
CN106088018A (en) * 2016-06-24 2016-11-09 朱建新 The construction method of stake
CN106049466A (en) * 2016-06-30 2016-10-26 朱建新 Construction method for pile
CN106013145A (en) * 2016-07-15 2016-10-12 朱建新 Pile construction method
CN106759332A (en) * 2016-12-06 2017-05-31 朱建新 The construction method and construction equipment of stake

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB2143565A (en) * 1983-06-06 1985-02-13 Frankignoul Pieux Armes Improvements in or relating to foundation piles
CN1851151A (en) * 2006-04-06 2006-10-25 朱建新 Internal-tamping immersed tube bored concrete tamping-extending pile construction method
CN101126236A (en) * 2007-09-29 2008-02-20 王茂华 Blasting pile-forming method for multi-stage club-footed pile
CN101130957A (en) * 2007-09-29 2008-02-27 陈宁华 Mixed pile-forming method for multilevel expanding bottom pile with high bearing capacity
CN101798809A (en) * 2010-03-16 2010-08-11 朱建新 Non-borrow composite underreamed pile constructing method

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB2143565A (en) * 1983-06-06 1985-02-13 Frankignoul Pieux Armes Improvements in or relating to foundation piles
CN1851151A (en) * 2006-04-06 2006-10-25 朱建新 Internal-tamping immersed tube bored concrete tamping-extending pile construction method
CN101126236A (en) * 2007-09-29 2008-02-20 王茂华 Blasting pile-forming method for multi-stage club-footed pile
CN101130957A (en) * 2007-09-29 2008-02-27 陈宁华 Mixed pile-forming method for multilevel expanding bottom pile with high bearing capacity
CN101798809A (en) * 2010-03-16 2010-08-11 朱建新 Non-borrow composite underreamed pile constructing method

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN104099925A (en) * 2014-07-25 2014-10-15 王继忠 Construction device for concrete pile and construction method thereof
CN109853561A (en) * 2019-04-08 2019-06-07 王磊 The construction method of static pressed pile

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