CN102442849A - Disease-preventing bio-organic fertilizer prepared from straw and its preparation method - Google Patents

Disease-preventing bio-organic fertilizer prepared from straw and its preparation method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102442849A
CN102442849A CN2011103085417A CN201110308541A CN102442849A CN 102442849 A CN102442849 A CN 102442849A CN 2011103085417 A CN2011103085417 A CN 2011103085417A CN 201110308541 A CN201110308541 A CN 201110308541A CN 102442849 A CN102442849 A CN 102442849A
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parts
trichoderma
organic fertilizer
fermented
straw
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雷震
张小平
田秀财
王彬
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雷震
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E50/00Technologies for the production of fuel of non-fossil origin
    • Y02E50/30Fuel from waste, e.g. synthetic alcohol or diesel
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P20/00Technologies relating to chemical industry
    • Y02P20/10Process efficiency
    • Y02P20/133Renewable energy sources, e.g. sunlight
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W30/00Technologies for solid waste management
    • Y02W30/40Bio-organic fraction processing; Production of fertilisers from the organic fraction of waste or refuse

Abstract

Relating to the technical field of renewable energy, the invention specifically relates to a method for producing biogas and organic fertilizers with straw. The method of the invention comprises the steps of: (1) straw pretreatment; (2) straw composting; (3) anaerobic fermentation; and (4) fermentation product utilization. The method of the invention substantially improves the degradation rate of straw and gas output. Meanwhile, pretreatment by a composite bacterial agent can stabilize the pH value of a fermentation system, and is in favor of the normal occurrence of anaerobic fermentation, so that the content of methane in biogas can be raised. The method in the invention greatly saves cost, almost has no sewage discharge, and improves the utilization rate of renewable energy. The biogas produced by anaerobic fermentation of crop straw can be used as a resident cooking fuel or for power generation after treatment by the purification procedures of desulphurization and dehydration. On the other hand, the residue generated from anaerobic fermentation of straw can be separated into a biogas residue and biogas slurry that are then prepared into solid and liquid organic fertilizers, which are easy for crops to adsorb. Therefore, the comprehensive utilization rate of straw resources can be substantially enhanced.

Description

A kind of diseases prevention biological organic fertilizer that utilizes the stalk preparation and preparation method thereof
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of is the diseases prevention biological organic fertilizer and preparation method thereof of main material production with biocontrol trichoderma bacterium, actinomycetes and agricultural crop straw, belongs to the biological organic fertilizer production technical field.
Background technology
Agricultural crop straw is important Biological resources in the farm crop production system, also is the fourth-largest energy that is only second to coal, oil and natural gas in the world today.According to not exclusively estimating that the whole world can produce nearly 2,000,000,000 tons of stalks every year, and China's agricultural crop straw YO is about about 6~700,000,000 tons, first of the row world, and is main with corn, wheat, cotton and paddy stalk, accounts for 82% of total stalk output.How making full use of these resources and make environment not contaminated, is the difficult problem that modern agriculture faces.
At present in the straw utilization; Maximum with fertilizer (comprising direct returning to farmland) consumption, account for 36.6% of stalk resource, secondly be fuel and forage volume; Account for 23.7% and 22.6% of stalk resource respectively, other like industrial raw material (papermaking etc.), burn and throw aside to huddle and account for 17% altogether.These utilize in the approach, and physics method, chemical method and biological process are arranged.And physical mechanical method and chemical bases facture commonly used; All have many shortcomings, for example straw-returning has significant limitation, and China has a large population and a few land; The crop rotation system of lying fallow can not be carried out in the arable land; Cultivate continuously, not only the septic withered stalk that will not ferment be embedded in and do not have infertile field effect in the farmland, influence the crop seedling rate on the contrary; In addition; Arbitrarily abandoning and do not have control and burn, is the main mode that stalk is disposed in the vast rural area of China, and this not only can cause the wasting of resources, soil fertility damage, environmental pollution; Also can cause taking place frequently of fire and traffic hazard, and human health and vegeto-animal on every side ecotope are caused serious harm.And microbial method aspect straw utilization, have purposes wide, be of high nutritive value, advantage such as the cycle is short, renewable; More can improve the comprehensive benefit of straw utilization; And be beneficial to the agricultural Sustainable development; So, utilize suit property and the multifunctionality of mikrobe to transform stalk and receive domestic and international scientific research person day by day and pay attention to.
Cotton stalk, corn straw, straw, straw etc. all belong to wood fiber biomass; Staple is Mierocrystalline cellulose (accounting for 40%), xylogen (20%-30%) and semicellulose (20%-30%), and the quality of these three kinds of compositions accounts for the 80%-95% of vegetable fibre raw material total mass.On the one hand, these materials must pass through thermophilic fermentation decomposition, competence exertion fertilizer efficiency; On the other hand, organism is easy to generate heat in decomposition course, if stalk is directly used without becoming thoroughly decomposed, takes place most probably to burn and plants or burning seedling phenomenon.Although can be during the Mierocrystalline cellulose exist singly by many microbiological degradation; But because in stalk cell wall, Mierocrystalline cellulose is wrapped in by xylogen and semicellulose, and xylogen has the benzene ring structure of some side chain; Complete hard shell is arranged; Be difficult for being degraded by microorganisms, therefore, cellulosic decomposition is restricted.Yet whiterot fungi can be the side chain of xylogen and aromatic oxygenation; And then destroyed and be difficult to the cell wall structure that decomposes in the stalk; Make with xylogen commissure Mierocrystalline cellulose and semicellulose together and dissociate out, and the intracellular nutritive substance capable of using of stalk is also come out.
Plant diseases is one of principal element that influences agriculture prodn, uses the major measure that chemical pesticide is still controlling plant diseases at present, but the chemical pesticide existence is prone to cause residual contamination, brings out disadvantageous effects such as pathogenic bacteria resistance and injury non-target organism.In seeking prophylactico-therapeutic measures process safely and effectively, the biological control of Plant diseases causes people's attention day by day.Biological control will become the controlling plant disease, the ecotope that protects the fields, the important measures of producing non-polluted farm product.
Trichoderma because its have adaptive faculty widely, to plant pathogenic fungi good pick up activity resistent, to non-target organism safety and advantage such as free from environmental pollution, oneself becomes has one of the biological and ecological methods to prevent plant disease, pests, and erosion of potentiality to be exploited mikrobe most.Utilize the mould biocontrol fungi as Plant diseases of wood, existing more research has also obtained gratifying achievement.In agriculture prodn, use Trichoderma and prevent and treat the existing many successful reports of soil-borne disease.
Actinomycetes also are the quasi-microorganisms with huge practical value; In about 8000 kinds of biologically active substances of from mikrobe, finding at present; Nearly 70% is actinomycetic secondary metabolite, and actinomycetes are picked up the antimetabolic product or decompose the fungal cell wall enzyme through generation in soil, to pathogenic fungi growth antagonistic action; Make that the pathogenic bacteria growing is suppressed in the soil, thereby avoid or alleviate Plant diseases.Have multiple fungal pathogen bacterium in the soil, these germs can parasitize soil for a long time, when condition is suitable, infect crop.In recent years, because multiple crop index improves and continuous cropping, these soil-borne diseases take place more and more serious.For example, capsicum root rot, cotton wilt etc. have had a strong impact on the raising and the economic benefit of output.Utilizing the biological pesticide control is one of important measures, but the pesticide producing cost is high, uses inconvenient.The biological organic fertilizer that production has the diseases prevention bacteriostasis then can overcome above-mentioned defective.
Summary of the invention
Deficiency to prior art; The present invention provides a kind of biological organic fertilizer with prophylaxis effect and preparation method thereof; With Trichoderma, actinomycetes liquid bacterial agent be that main raw material carries out Secondary Fermentation through the organism of effectively compound microbial fermenting agent fermentation maturity with the agricultural crop straw pulverized; Production has the biological organic fertilizer of the soil-borne disease of preventing and treating, and has obtained good effect.
Technical scheme of the present invention is following:
A kind of diseases prevention biological organic fertilizer is to be prepared from following component, is mass parts:
95~99 parts of the organism of becoming thoroughly decomposed add Trichoderma fermented liquid l~5 parts and make the Trichoderma fermented product;
95~99 parts of the organism of becoming thoroughly decomposed add actinomycetes fermentation liquor l~5 parts and make actinomycetes fermented product;
Trichoderma fermented product and actinomycetes fermented product dry in the air to moisture content 20~22%wt under the normal temperature by the mass ratio mixing mixing of 0.5~l:0.5~l.
The said organism that becomes thoroughly decomposed be with 5~20 parts of 50~75 parts of agricultural crop straws, grouts 15~30, the fowl and animal excrements of pulverizing, effectively compound microbial fermenting agent l~2 parts heap fermentation, drying in the air to moisture content 25%~35% makes.
Described agricultural crop straw is the fibre-bearing composition very high crop residues of seed results back under left, comprises the stalk of various crop such as cereal class, beans, potato class, oil plant class, crudefiber crop and cotton, sugarcane, tobacco, melon and fruit.
Described grouts are selected from soya-bean cake, peanut cake, cottonseed cake or rape cake.Preferably, the powder particle diameter of grouts≤20 orders.
Said effectively compound microbial fermenting agent is to be 15: 15: 15 in proportion with koning trichoderma, whiterot fungi, variable color bolt bacterium and EM bacterium, vinelandii, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, potassium solubilizing bacteria: 25: 10: the effectively compound microbial inoculant that the 10:10 enlarged culturing is processed.Wherein EM composite fungus agent (EM is the abbreviation of Effective Micro-organisms) is that 5 sections 10 such as photosynthetic bacteria group, yeast flora, lactobacillus, actinomycete group, mycorhiza flora are belonged to more than 80 kind of mikrobe compound a kind of typing microbial inoculum of cultivating in same state.Be brown translucent liquid, the pH value is between 3.5~4.5, and market is on sale.
Described Trichoderma fermented liquid and actinomycetes fermentation liquor are to form by the routine techniques fermentation, and wherein the bacterium of Trichoderma fermented liquid index alive is l х 10 7Individual/more than the milliliter, actinomycetes fermentation liquor bacterium index alive is l х 10 8Individual/more than the milliliter.The preferred trichoderma pseudokiningii of Trichoderma bacterial classification (Trichoderma pseudokoningii).The preferred subtilis of actinomycetes bacterial classification
(Bacillus?subtilis)。Bacterial classification is on sale by Chinese common micro-organisms preservation administrative center.
The preparation method of disease-preventing organic fertilizer of the present invention, step is following:
(1) the organic preparation of becoming thoroughly decomposed:
In mass parts; 5 ~ 20 parts of 15~30 parts of 50 ~ 75 parts of agricultural crop straws, grouts, fowl and animal excrements, 1~2 part of the effectively compound microbial fermenting agent pulverized; The moisture of adjustment compound is 55~65%wt, and C/N (carbon/nitrogen) mass ratio is 23~28, and the pH value is 7~7.5;
Above-mentioned compound is piled high about 1.5 meters trapezoidal heap; Length is not limit, and down punches 10~15 of every square metre of hole counts from the top; The material surface covers with gunnysack or straw screen or mat, begins to carry out aerobic fermentation (when the material temperature is lower than 10 ℃, will carry out manual work and be warming up to 25~35 ℃).Wait to pile temperature rise to 50 and ℃ pick up counting, fermented 5~7 days.When the stockpile temperature begins to descend, carry out turning, fermented 5~7 days again, turning in later per 5~7 days was once fermented 35~45 days altogether, and fermenting process is accomplished.The fertilizer moisture content baking that ferments above-mentioned or dry in the air to 25~35%wt, subsequent use.
(2) Trichoderma preparation of fermentation liquid is that bacterial classification gets the Trichoderma fermented liquid through inclined-plane and liquid culture with the Trichoderma, and bacterium index alive is 1 х 10 7Individual/more than the milliliter.
(3) preparation of actinomycetes fermentation liquor is that bacterial classification gets the Trichoderma fermented liquid through inclined-plane and liquid culture with actinomycetes, and bacterium index alive is l х 10 8Individual/more than the milliliter.
(4) Trichoderma fermented liquid l~5 parts is joined in 95~99 parts of organism that become thoroughly decomposed, regulate moisture content 60~70%wt, pH 6.5~7.5; Fully mixing piles high 0.4-0.6 meter long strip shape stockpile, covers gunnysack or straw screen or mat; 25~30 ℃ of the temperature of control stockpile; Turning every day once is total to fermentation culture 5~8 days, treats to stop after it covers with spore.Pick and place simultaneously line fermented liquid l~5 parts in addition and join in 95~99 parts of organism that become thoroughly decomposed, regulate moisture content 55~65%wt, pH 7~8; Fully mixing piles high 0.4-0.6 meter long strip shape stockpile, covers gunnysack or straw screen or mat; 25~30 ℃ of the temperature of control stockpile; Turning every day once is total to fermentation culture 5~8 days, treats to stop after it covers with spore.With above-mentioned Trichoderma fermented product and actinomycetes fermented product mixed mixing by 0.5~l:0.5~l, dry in the air under the normal temperature to moisture content 20~22%wt, disease-preventing organic fertilizer.
The described stockpile punching of above step (1), 3~5 centimetres in preferred aperture, hole depth is to the bottom of stockpile.
The described stockpile turning of above step (1), preferably the material with the stockpile surface ploughs under inside, and originally inner material is translated into the outside.
The preparation of above step (2) (3) Trichoderma, actinomycetes fermentation liquor can be by routine techniques
Excellent results of the present invention is following:
1, degrading straw efficient is high
With koning trichoderma, whiterot fungi, variable color bolt bacterium and EM bacterium, vinelandii, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, the mixed according to a certain percentage effectively compound microbial fermenting agent that gets of potassium solubilizing bacteria; Rely on mikrobe to act synergistically each other; The efficient Decomposition that is the EM bacterium is rapidly with labile organic matter degradations such as the carbohydrate in the raw material, protein, starch, fat; Make the Mierocrystalline cellulose hot mastication, for koning trichoderma, whiterot fungi provide advantageous environment; Koning trichoderma, whiterot fungi, variable color bolt bacterium can be small-molecule substance with macromolecular substance catabolisms such as lignocelluloses fast simultaneously; Nutritive substance as the EM bacterium; Thereby make EM bacterium, koning trichoderma, whiterot fungi and variable color bolt bacterium form good common metabolism relation, generate complicated and the stable ecosystem.The adding of effectively compound microbial fermenting agent has improved microorganism active, and then has improved the efficient of decomposing straw.
2, effective constituent is high, and anti-soil-borne disease is effective
The organism that becomes thoroughly decomposed is good microbiological culture media, is fit to especially for the saprophytic property antagonism Trichoderma that with Mierocrystalline cellulose, xylogen is major nitrogen source especially.Existing mikrobe biocontrol fungicide mainly is traditional liquid fermentation process, owing to receive the restriction of instrument, equipment, throughput is limited, yields poorly, and therefore, the usage quantity of in application, recommending is generally not high, and protection effect is poor.The present invention does not receive the restriction of large-scale fermentation equipment, and the small amount of liquid microbial inoculum is fermented in the organism that becomes thoroughly decomposed once more, has increased the concentration of effective constituent in the fertilizer greatly, and protection effect obviously improves.
3, to agricultural product security
The antagonism Trichoderma has produced the lytic enzyme of a series of degraded pathogenic bacteria cell wallss in parasitic processes, like chitinase, cellulase, zytase, LSD etc.These enzymes have the intensive hydrolytic action to the cell walls of plant pathogenic fungi, thereby suppress the pathogenic bacteria spore germination and cause mycelia and the clearing up of spore, and asking of enzyme has synergy.Effect through enzyme is destroyed fungal cell wall, causes that then protoplasma disintegrates.Actinomycetes are the antibiotic main mushrooms of initiative, as a big production source of agricultural antibiotic by the extensive exploitation utilization.These enzymes and microbiotic have no side effect to people, animal, also be difficult in plant materials residual, to agricultural product security.
4, reduce the medication number of times, practice thrift the recruitment cost
The special root diseases of crop pest should be putting prevention first, in case caused certain harm when falling ill medication again.This fertilizer applies main root district when being employed in seeding crops or transplanting, to preventing that germ from invading root system, the harm seedling has good action.Simultaneously, medicine, fertilizer are used together, and the spraying times when having reduced morbidity has been saved the recruitment cost, has improved economic benefit.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is an explanation diseases prevention biological organic fertilizer preparation flow synoptic diagram of the present invention, is in order to describe embodiment of the present invention better, is not to be the number of devices of reality and detailed flow setting.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with embodiment the present invention is further specified, but be not limited thereto.Raw material is explained as follows:
The effectively compound microbial fermenting agent is, is 15: 15: 15 in proportion with koning trichoderma, whiterot fungi, variable color bolt bacterium and EM bacterium, vinelandii, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, potassium solubilizing bacteria: 25: 10: the effectively compound microbial inoculant that the 10:10 enlarged culturing is processed.Wherein EM composite fungus agent (EM is the abbreviation of Effective Micro-organisms) is that 5 sections 10 such as photosynthetic bacteria group, yeast flora, lactobacillus, actinomycete group, mycorhiza flora are belonged to more than 80 kind of mikrobe compound a kind of typing microbial inoculum of cultivating in same state.Be brown translucent liquid, the pH value is between 3.5~4.5, and market is on sale.Trichoderma is the Chinese common micro-organisms preservation of trichoderma pseudokiningii (Trichoderma pseudokoningii) administrative center bacterial classification catalog number 3.3002; Actinomycetes are the Chinese common micro-organisms preservation of subtilis (Bacillus subtilis) administrative center bacterial classification catalog number 1.933, and Chinese common micro-organisms preservation administrative center buys.Air-dry cotton stalk, its water cut 10.85%, thick organism 56.54 %, nitrogen 0.941%, phosphorus 0.146%, potassium 0.910%, C/N ratio are 34, ash content 5.90.
Raw material consumption umber among the embodiment is mass parts, and all ratios are mass ratio, and all per-cents are mass percent.
Embodiment 1:
(1) preparation of effectively compound microbial fermenting agent
With koning trichoderma, whiterot fungi, variable color bolt bacterium, EM bacterium, vinelandii, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, potassium solubilizing bacteria enlarged culturing on corresponding substratum, concrete steps are: 1. preserve the inclined-plane with the SPSS washing, shake up to the aseptic triangular flask bacteria suspension; 2. inoculate slant culture in the seed bottle, 30 ℃, 200r/min cultivates 24h and obtains seed liquor; 3. 10% seed liquor is inoculated into that enlarged culturing 44h obtains fermented liquid in the fermentation flask, is mixed with the effectively compound microbial zymocyte liquid in the ratio of 15:15:15:25:10:10:10.
(2) the organic preparation of becoming thoroughly decomposed:
In mass parts (down together), that 1 part of thorough mixing of 10 parts of 15 parts of 74 parts of air-dry cotton stalks, dregs of beans, chicken manures, effectively compound microbial fermenting agent of pulverizing is even.The moisture of adjustment compound is 62%, and C/N is 27, and pH 7.1.
Above-mentioned compound is piled high 1.5 meters trapezoidal heap, down punch from the top, 15 of every square metre of hole counts cover gunnysack, carry out aerobic fermentation.Wait to pile temperature rise to 50 and ℃ pick up counting, fermented 7 days.When the stockpile temperature begins to descend, carry out turning, fermented 7 days again, turning in later per 7 days was once fermented 35 days altogether, and fermenting process is accomplished.The fertilizer moisture content baking that ferments above-mentioned or dry in the air to 30%, subsequent use.
(3) Trichoderma preparation of fermentation liquid
In the test tube that PDA substratum (yam 20%, glucose 2%, agar 2%) is housed, insert koning trichoderma, in 30 ℃ of constant incubators, leave standstill and cultivate 3~5d.With above-mentioned slant medium on the koning trichoderma spore wash with sterilized water, process spore suspension.The amount of shaking in the bottle with 10% at the 500ml that 100mLPDY substratum (yam 20%, glucose 2%, yeast extract paste 1%) is housed inserts the koning trichoderma spore suspension, under 25 ℃, 120~150r/min condition, cultivated 2 days, the Trichoderma fermented liquid.Bacterium index alive is 1.32 х 10 7Individual/milliliter.
(4) preparation of actinomycetes fermentation liquor:
Inclined-plane seed: culture medium prescription: NaCl 19.5g, MgCl 225.9g, Na 2S0 43.3g, CaCl 221.9g, peptone 5.0g, yeast extract paste 1.0g, agar 16g, water 1000mL, pH 7.5.Sterilization 30min under 0.11MPa pressure, the inclined-plane has made back inoculation Bacillus subtilis strain under aseptic condition, is placed in 28 ℃ of constant incubators and cultivates 2 days.
Fermented liquid: culture medium prescription is glucose 10g, Semen Maydis powder 8g, and sal epsom 5g, phosphate buffered saline buffer (SODIUM PHOSPHATE, MONOBASIC 0.52g, Sodium phosphate, dibasic 2.33g) adds water 1000mL, and pH is transferred to 7.0.The inclined-plane seed is received in the liquid nutrient medium, under 28 ℃, 200r/min shaking culture 3 days, seed liquor.Again with shaking culture in the inoculum size liquid medium within of l~2% 4 days, actinomycetes fermentation liquor.Bacterium index alive is 1.23 х 10 8Individual/milliliter.
(5) preparation of diseases prevention biological organic fertilizer
3 parts of Trichoderma fermented liquids are joined in 97 parts of organism that become thoroughly decomposed, regulate moisture content 65%, pH 7.2; Fully mixing piles high 0.5 meter long strip shape stockpile, covered with plastic film; 25~30 ℃ of the temperature of control stockpile, turning every day once are total to fermentation culture 7 days.Other picks and places 4 parts of line fermented liquids and joins in 96 parts of organism that become thoroughly decomposed, and regulates moisture content 62%, pH7.0; Fully mixing piles high 0.5 meter long strip shape stockpile, covered with plastic film; 25~32 ℃ of the temperature of control stockpile, turning every day once are total to fermentation culture 7 days.Above-mentioned Trichoderma fermented product and actinomycetes fermented product are pressed the mixed mixing of l:0.5, dry in the air under the normal temperature to moisture content 22%, the diseases prevention biological organic fertilizer.
Embodiment 2:
The preparation of effectively compound microbial fermenting agent, the organism that becomes thoroughly decomposed, Trichoderma fermented liquid and actinomycetes fermentation liquor is following with the preparation of embodiment 1. different is diseases prevention biological organic fertilizer:
2 parts of Trichoderma fermented liquids are joined in 98 parts of edible fungi residues that become thoroughly decomposed, regulate moisture content 68%, pH 6.8; Fully mixing piles high 0.5 meter long strip shape stockpile, covers gunnysack; 25~30 ℃ of the temperature of control stockpile, turning every day once are total to fermentation culture 7 days.Other picks and places 2 parts of line fermented liquids and joins in 98 parts of edible fungi residues that become thoroughly decomposed, and regulates moisture content 60%, pH7.3; Fully mixing piles high 0.5 meter long strip shape stockpile, covered with plastic film; Temperature .25~32 ℃ of control stockpile, turning every day once, fermentation culture is 7 days altogether.Above-mentioned Trichoderma fermented product and actinomycetes fermented product are pressed the mixed mixing of l:l, dry in the air under the normal temperature to moisture content 2l%, the diseases prevention biological organic fertilizer.
Embodiment 3:
(1) preparation of effectively compound microbial fermenting agent is with embodiment 1;
(2) the organic preparation of becoming thoroughly decomposed:
In mass parts (down together), that 2 parts of thorough mixing of 15 parts of 28 parts of 55 parts of air-dry cotton stalks, dregs of beans, chicken manures, effectively compound microbial fermenting agent of pulverizing are even.The moisture of adjustment compound is 58%, and C/N is 25, and the pH value is 7.5.
Above-mentioned compound is piled high 1.5 meters trapezoidal heap, down punch from the top, 15 of every square metre of hole counts cover gunnysack, carry out aerobic fermentation.Wait to pile temperature rise to 50 and ℃ pick up counting, fermented 7 days.When the stockpile temperature begins to descend, carry out turning, fermented 7 days again, turning in later per 7 days was once fermented 35 days altogether, and fermenting process is accomplished.The fertilizer moisture content baking that ferments above-mentioned or dry in the air to 30%, subsequent use.
(3) the same EXAMPLE l of the preparation of Trichoderma fermented liquid and actinomycetes fermentation liquor.
(4) preparation of diseases prevention biological organic fertilizer
Trichoderma fermented liquid l part is joined in 99 parts of edible fungi residues that become thoroughly decomposed, regulate moisture content 60%, pH 6.5; Fully mixing piles high 0.5 meter long strip shape stockpile, covers gunnysack; 25~30 ℃ of the temperature of control stockpile, turning every day once are total to fermentation culture 7 days.Other picks and places 2 parts of line fermented liquids and joins in 98 parts of edible fungi residues that become thoroughly decomposed, and regulates moisture content 58%, pH7.5; Fully mixing piles high 0.5 meter long strip shape stockpile, covers gunnysack; 25~32 ℃ of the temperature of control stockpile, turning every day once are total to fermentation culture 7 days.Above-mentioned Trichoderma fermented product and actinomycetes fermented product are pressed the mixed mixing of l:l, dry in the air under the normal temperature to moisture content 22%, the diseases prevention biological organic fertilizer.
Embodiment 4:
(1) preparation of effectively compound microbial fermenting agent is with embodiment 1
(2) become thoroughly decomposed organic preparation with embodiment 3
(3) the same EXAMPLE l of the preparation of Trichoderma fermented liquid and actinomycetes fermentation liquor.The preparation of different is diseases prevention biological organic fertilizer is following:
5 parts of Trichoderma fermented liquids are joined in 95 parts of edible fungi residues that become thoroughly decomposed, adjusting moisture content 70%, pH 7.5, and fully mixing piles high 0.5 meter long strip shape heap, covers gunnysack, 25~30 ℃ of the temperature of control stockpile, turning every day once is total to fermentation culture 7 days.Other picks and places 5 parts of line fermented liquids and joins in 95 parts of edible fungi residues that become thoroughly decomposed, and regulates moisture and contains
Measure 65%, pH value 8.0, fully mixing piles high 0.5 meter long strip shape heap, covers gunnysack, 25~32 ℃ of the temperature of control stockpile, turning every day once is total to fermentation culture 7 days.Above-mentioned Trichoderma fermented product and actinomycetes fermented product are pressed the mixed mixing of 0.5:l, dry in the air under the normal temperature to moisture content 22%, the diseases prevention biological organic fertilizer.
Comparative Examples: the organism that becomes thoroughly decomposed that only prepares with EXAMPLE l step (2) does not add Trichoderma fermented liquid and actinomycetes fermentation liquor and ferments once more as fertilizer.
The effect of above EXAMPLE l~4 and Comparative Examples is following:
Supplying formation testing vegetable kind is " No. 13, Hunan oil ", and soil is the experimental plot.Supplying examination leaf mustard kind is " Huarong leaf mustard ", the experimental plot cultivation.All fertilizer are all used as base manure, and application process is the disposable bottom that applies planting furrow before rape and leaf mustard transplanting, with the rice shoot of planting after the part mixing with soil.Amount of application, 100 kilograms every mu in cotton, 200 kilograms every mu in leaf mustard.
Embodiment of the present invention only is the description that preferred implementation of the present invention is carried out; Be not that design of the present invention and scope are limited; Under the prerequisite that does not break away from design philosophy of the present invention, engineering technical personnel make technical scheme of the present invention in this area various modification and improvement all should fall into protection scope of the present invention; The technology contents that the present invention asks for protection all is documented in claims.

Claims (10)

1. diseases prevention biological organic fertilizer that utilizes stalk preparation and preparation method thereof diseases prevention biological organic fertilizer is characterized in that being processed by following mass parts raw material:
95~99 parts of the organism of becoming thoroughly decomposed add Trichoderma fermented liquid l~5 parts and make the Trichoderma fermented product;
95~99 parts of the organism of becoming thoroughly decomposed add actinomycetes fermentation liquor l~5 parts and make actinomycetes fermented product;
Trichoderma fermented product and actinomycetes fermented product mix by the mass ratio of 0.5~l:0.5~l, moisture content 20~22% (wt).
2. according to the diseases prevention biological organic fertilizer of claim 1; It is characterized in that the said organism that becomes thoroughly decomposed is 5~20 parts of 15~30 parts of 50~75 parts of agricultural crop straws, grouts, fowl and animal excrements, the effectively compound microbial fermenting agent l~2 parts of heap fermentations to pulverize, drying in the air to moisture content 25%~35% makes.
3. according to the diseases prevention biological organic fertilizer of claim 1; It is characterized in that described Trichoderma fermented liquid and actinomycetes fermentation liquor are that fermentation forms; Wherein the bacterium of the Trichoderma fermented liquid index of living is l х more than 107/milliliter, and the actinomycetes fermentation liquor bacterium index of living is that l х is more than 108/milliliter.
4. according to desirable 2 the diseases prevention biological organic fertilizer that requires; It is characterized in that described agricultural crop straw is the fibre-bearing composition very high crop residues of seed results back under left, comprises the stalk of various crop such as cereal class, beans, potato class, oil plant class, crudefiber crop and cotton, sugarcane, tobacco, melon and fruit; Described grouts are selected from one or more of soya-bean cake, peanut cake, cottonseed cake or rape cake; Said effectively compound microbial fermenting agent is to be 15: 15: 15 in proportion with koning trichoderma, whiterot fungi, variable color bolt bacterium and EM bacterium, vinelandii, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, potassium solubilizing bacteria: 25: 10: the effectively compound microbial inoculant that the 10:10 enlarged culturing is processed.
5. according to the diseases prevention biological organic fertilizer of claim 4, it is characterized in that described Trichoderma bacterial classification is a trichoderma pseudokiningii, the actinomycetes bacterial classification is a subtilis.
6. according to the diseases prevention biological organic fertilizer of claim 4; It is characterized in that described EM composite fungus agent, is that 5 sections 10 such as photosynthetic bacteria group, yeast flora, lactobacillus, actinomycete group, mycorhiza flora are belonged to more than 80 kind of mikrobe compound a kind of typing microbial inoculum of cultivating in same state.
7. according to the diseases prevention biological organic fertilizer that utilizes stalk preparation of claim 1 to 6 and preparation method thereof diseases prevention biological organic fertilizer preparation method, step is following:
(1) the organic preparation of becoming thoroughly decomposed
In mass parts; With 5 ~ 20 parts of 15~30 parts of 50 ~ 75 parts of agricultural crop straws, grouts, fowl and animal excrements, 1~2 part of the effectively compound microbial fermenting agent pulverized; The moisture of adjustment compound is 55~65% (wt), and the C/N mass ratio is 23~28, and the pH value is 7~7.5;
Above-mentioned compound is piled trapezoidal heap, down punch from the top, 10~15 of every square metre of hole counts, the material surface covers with gunnysack or straw screen or mat, begins to carry out aerobic fermentation, waits to pile temperature rise to 50 and ℃ picks up counting, and ferments 5~7 days; When the stockpile temperature begins to descend, carry out turning, fermented 5~7 days again, turning in later per 5~7 days was once fermented 35~45 days altogether, and fermenting process is accomplished; The fertilizer moisture content baking that ferments above-mentioned or dry in the air to 25~35% (wt);
(2) Trichoderma preparation of fermentation liquid is that bacterial classification gets the Trichoderma fermented liquid through inclined-plane and liquid culture with the Trichoderma, and bacterium index alive is that 1 х is more than 107/milliliter;
(3) preparation of actinomycetes fermentation liquor is that bacterial classification gets the Trichoderma fermented liquid through inclined-plane and liquid culture with actinomycetes, and bacterium index alive is that l х is more than 108/milliliter;
(4) Trichoderma fermented liquid l~5 parts is joined in 95~99 parts of organism that become thoroughly decomposed, regulate moisture content 60~70% (wt), pH 6.5~7.5; Fully mixing piles high 0.4-0.6 meter long strip shape stockpile, covers gunnysack or straw screen or mat; 25~30 ℃ of the temperature of control stockpile; Turning every day once is total to fermentation culture 5~8 days, treats to stop after it covers with spore; Pick and place simultaneously line fermented liquid l~5 parts in addition and join in 95~99 parts of organism that become thoroughly decomposed, regulate moisture content 55~65%wt, the pH value is 7~8; Fully mixing piles high 0.4-0.6 meter long strip shape stockpile, covers gunnysack or straw screen or mat; 25~30 ℃ of the temperature of control stockpile; Turning every day once is total to fermentation culture 5~8 days, treats to stop after it covers with spore; With above-mentioned Trichoderma fermented product and actinomycetes fermented product mixed mixing by 0.5~l:0.5~l, dry in the air to moisture content 20~22% (wt), obtain the diseases prevention biological organic fertilizer.
8. according to the diseases prevention biological organic fertilizer preparation method of claim 10, it is characterized in that the described stockpile punching of step (1), turning.
9. according to Claim 8 diseases prevention biological organic fertilizer preparation method is characterized in that described trapezoidal stack height is that length is not limit about 1.5 meters; 3~5 centimetres in said aperture, hole depth is to the bottom of stockpile.
10. according to the diseases prevention biological organic fertilizer preparation method of claim 12, it is characterized in that the material on stockpile surface is ploughed under inside, originally inner material is translated into the outside.
CN2011103085417A 2011-10-13 2011-10-13 Disease-preventing bio-organic fertilizer prepared from straw and its preparation method Pending CN102442849A (en)

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