CN102435156A - Large cylindrical workpiece dimension and geometric error measurement method - Google Patents

Large cylindrical workpiece dimension and geometric error measurement method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102435156A
CN102435156A CN2011102806220A CN201110280622A CN102435156A CN 102435156 A CN102435156 A CN 102435156A CN 2011102806220 A CN2011102806220 A CN 2011102806220A CN 201110280622 A CN201110280622 A CN 201110280622A CN 102435156 A CN102435156 A CN 102435156A
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measurement
measured
coordinate
workpiece
unique point
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CN2011102806220A
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CN102435156B (en
Inventor
李明
赵幸福
梁爽
杨恢
徐洋
张明
金志祥
李伟
林政�
朱海良
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University of Shanghai for Science and Technology
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University of Shanghai for Science and Technology
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Abstract

The invention provides a large cylindrical workpiece dimension and geometric error measurement method. An indirect measurement method is adopted to obtain the feature points of the measured elements of a workpiece; a homogeneous coordinate transformation method is adopted to transform the obtained feature points into a measurement coordinate system together by way of coordinate translation; a least square feature fitting algorithm is adopted to structure the fitted elements of the measured elements from the feature points, and the workpiece dimension and the geometric error are measured. The invention designs a method for correlating a measurement instrument and detection toolings with sensor data, the measurement instrument and targets are formed into the measurement coordinate system, and an auxiliary coordinate system is arranged on the detection toolings. The measurement method is highly universal; by utilizing a conventional measurement system, the measurement method not only can be used for measuring the geometric elements of cylindrical workpieces, but also can arrange a plurality of sets of detection toolings at different positions according to different measured workpieces; and by changing the shapes of the detection toolings, a measurement device can be used for measuring other large rotary workpieces.

Description

A kind of large-scale barrel mast shape workpiece size and geometric error measuring method
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of workpiece size and geometric error measuring method based on measurement of coordinates, particularly a kind of large-scale barrel mast shape workpiece size and geometric error measuring method belong to the commercial measurement field.
Background technology
The measuring method of present measurement of coordinates says it mainly is direct measurement from technological means; Surveying instrument adopts contact or non-contacting method (probe, survey ball, laser scanning) to obtain the information of element to be measured unique point on the workpiece; Simulate element to be measured, realize measurement and evaluation workpiece size and geometric error.This method ratio is easier to realize that precision is higher that still a prerequisite is arranged, the characteristic of workpiece element to be measured must directly be measured or can draw measurement.But the large-scale barrel mast shape workpiece of diameter between 2m-20m generally is made up of four main measure portion such as inwall, outer wall, upper surface and lower surfaces, and wherein both ends of the surface generally include complicated connection, assembling and hermetically-sealed construction; The inside surface of workpiece and outside surface also often have thin portion structure.For this type workpiece, there is following problem in general coordinate measuring method at present:
For large-scale barrel mast shape large-scale workpiece; In measuring process; Need carry out the composite measurement and the evaluation of size and geometric tolerances to two each main tested positions such as end face of inside surface, outside surface, workpiece of workpiece, measurement contents has also comprised whole workpiece size, workpiece local size, whole workpiece and local mutual relationship.In this case; When measuring with the method for directly measuring; In any case existing surveying instrument is put; The one-shot measurement clamping is difficult to accomplish the measurement to above element to be measured simultaneously, if increase the putting position of existing surveying instrument, can reduce measuring accuracy greatly, increase the complexity of measuring; Measure if change the station, then can reduce the precision of measurement and the efficient of measurement.Therefore for this type barrel mast shape large-scale workpiece, existing coordinate measurment instrument can't be realized in-site measurement.
Summary of the invention
To defective of the prior art; The objective of the invention is to propose a kind of large-scale barrel mast shape workpiece size and geometric error measuring method; Method through indirect measurement; Obtain the unique point of workpiece element to be measured, adopt coordinate transform and characteristic fitting algorithm, be used for measurement of coordinates barrel mast shape large-scale workpiece.Use existing surveying instrument; Can reach the measurement purpose, guarantee that measuring accuracy, one-shot measurement clamping can obtain under the prerequisite of all information measured; Be employed in the mode that certain sensor and target are set on the auxiliary detection frock, design a kind of calculate simple, measuring accuracy is higher and based on the size and the geometric error measuring method to barrel mast shape large-scale workpiece of measurement of coordinates.
The technical matters that the present invention will solve: for the large-scale workpiece of barrel mast shape; Need be to inside surface, the outside surface of workpiece; The composite measurement and the evaluation of size and geometric error are carried out in two each main tested positions such as end face of workpiece, and measurement contents has contained whole workpiece size, workpiece local size, whole workpiece and local mutual relationship again.The overall dimensions of workpiece comprises inner diameter of workpiece, external diameter etc.; Local size comprises size and the form and position tolerance etc. of wall thickness, the thin portion of the workpiece both ends of the surface structure (like the convex edge) of workpiece; Whole with local mutual relationship comprises the verticality of right alignment, axis of workpiece and the end face of part inside and outside diameter, the element to be measured such as the depth of parallelism of workpiece both ends of the surface.
In order to achieve the above object, the present invention adopts following technical proposals:
A kind of large-scale barrel mast shape workpiece size and geometric error measuring method through the method for indirect measurement, are obtained the unique point of workpiece element to be measured; Adopt the method for homogeneous coordinate transformation,, the unique point unification of obtaining is transformed to measurement coordinate system through coordinate translation; Adopt least square characteristic fitting algorithm, construct the match key element of element to be measured by unique point, workpiece size and geometric error are measured, its step is following:
Through the method for indirect measurement, obtain the unique point of workpiece element to be measured: design detects frock, measurement target drone is set detecting on the frock, makes surveying instrument obtain the unique point of the element to be measured such as interior external diameter, right alignment of whole workpiece size such as workpiece; Detecting sensor installation on the frock, make surveying instrument obtain the unique point of workpiece local size such as element to be measured such as workpiece end face inclination, wall thickness; Use sensor to obtain the element to be measured unique point at the coordinate figure that detects under the frock auxiliary coordinates; Surveying instrument through to target measurement obtain the coordinate figure of target under measurement coordinate system; Measurement target drone makes detection frock auxiliary coordinates be associated with measurement coordinate system;
Target can be provided through demarcation by more high-precision measuring equipment before installation at the coordinate figure that detects under the frock auxiliary coordinates, provides parameter; The relevant element to be measured unique point that sensor obtains also can be confirmed size and location parameter through system calibrating at the coordinate figure that detects under the frock auxiliary coordinates before installation; Adopt coordinate transform, the unique point of the relevant element to be measured that obtains is unified to measurement coordinate system;
Through the element to be measured unique point of extracting, simulate the characteristic of element to be measured, through the method for measurement of coordinates, workpiece size and geometric error are measured.
The present invention has following conspicuous outstanding substantive distinguishing features compared with prior art:
1) the present invention obtains the unique point of workpiece element to be measured through the indirect method of measuring.Through detecting frock, one-shot measurement is installed the whole element to be measured that just can measure different parts, improves measuring accuracy, has practiced thrift Measuring Time.
2) the present invention is provided with sensor detecting on the frock, and it is related that the setting of these sensors and relevant element to be measured carry out, measuring workpieces local size and whole workpiece and local mutual relationship.
3) the present invention has designed surveying instrument and the correlating method that detects frock and sensing data.Surveying instrument and target are formed measurement coordinate system; On the detection frock, auxiliary coordinates is set.Through the method for system calibrating, obtain target and the sensing station coordinate figure under auxiliary coordinates.Through method of coordinates transform, simulate the characteristic of element to be measured, carry out the evaluation of size and geometric tolerances.
This measuring method has good versatility; Utilize existing measuring equipment; Not only can be used in the measurement of the geometric element of cylindrical workpiece, and, many covers can be set in different positions detect frocks according to the difference of measuring workpieces; Through changing the moulding of said detection frock, this measurement mechanism can be used for the measurement of other huge revolving class workpiece.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the measured workpiece synoptic diagram of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is the hardware configuration connection layout of measuring method of the present invention.
Fig. 3 is the mathematical model figure of measuring method of the present invention.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing embodiments of the invention are described in further detail, but the present invention is not limited to present embodiment, all employings and analog structure of the present invention and similar variation thereof, close thinking, protection scope of the present invention all should be listed in.
As shown in Figure 1 is the synoptic diagram of measuring object of the present invention, characteristic such as table 1 that it need be measured:
The characteristic that table 1 workpiece need be measured
The hardware components of this measuring method comprises: surveying instrument 1, the first detects frock 2, the second and detects frock 3, measurement target drone 4,5, wireless data transfer module 6, sensor (digital dial gauge) 7,8,9,10,11,12 and 13, computing machine 14.Fig. 2 is the hardware configuration connection layout of this measuring method.
The data transfer mode of this its measuring system of method is: surveying instrument 1 measurement data is connected on the calculation machine 14 through data bus; Sensor (7,8,9,10,11,12 and 13) data are transferred to computing machine 14 through wireless data transfer module 4, on computing machine 14, accomplish and calculate.
The mathematical model of this measuring method is as shown in Figure 3: O-XYZ is a measurement coordinate system, and o-xyz is for detecting the frock auxiliary coordinates.The reading of target point can be a cartesian coordinate system, also can be polar coordinate system, and the transformation equation that polar coordinate system is converted into rectangular coordinate system in space is:
Through surveying instrument, obtain the coordinate figure of target central point under measurement coordinate system; Obtain the element to be measured unique point at the coordinate figure that detects under the frock auxiliary coordinates through sensor; Obtain target at the coordinate figure that detects under the frock auxiliary coordinates through demarcation; Through method of coordinates transform, release the coordinate figure of element to be measured unique point under measurement coordinate system, through fit method, workpiece size and geometric error are measured then.
The actual measurement step is following:
1) surveying instrument 1 is positioned over the central authorities at barrel mast shape workpiece, and during measurement, surveying instrument need be adjusted the flat benchmark of water saving;
2) detect the bead that frock 2 is fixed on the workpiece upper surface; Detect the bead that frock 3 is fixed on the workpiece lower surface; Because it is related that the design of target and relevant element to be measured carry out, promptly target 4 is associated with benchmark A and benchmark B, and target 5 is associated with benchmark C and benchmark D; Through measurement, can obtain the element to be measured such as right alignment, Workpiece length L of inner diameter of workpiece r, external diameter R, workpiece surfaces externally and internally to target.Benchmark when benchmark A, B, C, D install for detecting frock.
3) detect sensor installation (digital dial gauge) 7,8,9 and 10 on the frock 2, detect sensor installation (digital dial gauge) 11,12 and 13 on the frock 3.Carry out relatedly with relevant reference element when sensor is provided with, set up measurement coordinate system,, just can extrapolate the shape of workpiece end face convex edge and the verticality of positional information, axis of workpiece and end face, the element to be measured such as degree of tilt of both ends of the surface through sensor readings.Interrelational form such as table 2:
Table 2 element to be measured and detection frock correlating method
4) sensor has the data-interface of standard, arrives computer 14 to data transmission through wireless transport module.
5) after the detection frock installs, measure each target by certain flow process, on laptop computer, use Survey Software then, accomplish the automatic calculating and the form generation of respectively measuring project through manual work.
Present embodiment is used to be needed present embodiment is carried out system parameter calibration, eliminates after the influence of each mounting accuracy of component to The measuring precision, can raw data be converted into Cartesian coordinates, carries out actual measurement.

Claims (1)

1. one kind large-scale barrel mast shape workpiece size and geometric error measuring method is characterized in that: through the method for indirect measurement, obtain the unique point of workpiece element to be measured; Adopt the method for homogeneous coordinate transformation,, the unique point unification of obtaining is transformed to measurement coordinate system through coordinate translation; Adopt least square characteristic fitting algorithm, construct the match key element of element to be measured by unique point, workpiece size and geometric error are measured, its step is following:
1) method through indirectly measuring, obtain the unique point of workpiece element to be measured: design detects frock, measurement target drone is set detecting on the frock, makes surveying instrument obtain the unique point of the element to be measured such as interior external diameter, right alignment of whole workpiece size such as workpiece; Detecting sensor installation on the frock, make surveying instrument obtain the unique point of workpiece local size such as element to be measured such as workpiece end face inclination, wall thickness; Use sensor to obtain the element to be measured unique point at the coordinate figure that detects under the frock auxiliary coordinates; Surveying instrument through to target measurement obtain the coordinate figure of target under measurement coordinate system; Measurement target drone makes detection frock auxiliary coordinates be associated with measurement coordinate system;
2) target can be provided through demarcation by more high-precision measuring equipment before installation at the coordinate figure that detects under the frock auxiliary coordinates, provides parameter; The relevant element to be measured unique point that sensor obtains also can be confirmed size and location parameter through system calibrating at the coordinate figure that detects under the frock auxiliary coordinates before installation; Adopt coordinate transform, the unique point of the relevant element to be measured that obtains is unified to measurement coordinate system;
3) through the element to be measured unique point of extraction, simulate the characteristic of element to be measured, through the method for measurement of coordinates, workpiece size and geometric error are detected.
CN 201110280622 2011-09-21 2011-09-21 Large cylindrical workpiece dimension and geometric error measurement method Expired - Fee Related CN102435156B (en)

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Cited By (6)

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CN103557848A (en) * 2013-11-12 2014-02-05 江苏省镇江船厂(集团)有限公司 Positioning and measuring method for mounting large-sized barrel type base
CN104034291A (en) * 2014-06-09 2014-09-10 同济大学 Industrial measurement fitting method based on prior error decomposition weight assessment
CN104457601A (en) * 2014-12-24 2015-03-25 上海数造三维科技有限公司 Adjusting device and method of scraper used for rapid photo-curing formation
CN105588512A (en) * 2015-12-15 2016-05-18 上海隧道工程有限公司 Measurement device and method for measuring dimension of quasi-rectangular tunnel segment component
CN106141810A (en) * 2016-08-08 2016-11-23 上海航天精密机械研究所 The ensuring method of tubular workpiece lumen processing wall thickness under robot manipulation
CN110160442A (en) * 2019-04-22 2019-08-23 南京航空航天大学 A kind of flexible measuring tooling and its scaling method for conduit end face of flange vision-based detection

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JP2010032473A (en) * 2008-07-31 2010-02-12 Sony Corp Shape evaluating device, shape evaluating method, and shape evaluating program

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Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103557848A (en) * 2013-11-12 2014-02-05 江苏省镇江船厂(集团)有限公司 Positioning and measuring method for mounting large-sized barrel type base
CN103557848B (en) * 2013-11-12 2015-07-01 江苏省镇江船厂(集团)有限公司 Positioning and measuring method for mounting large-sized barrel type base
CN104034291A (en) * 2014-06-09 2014-09-10 同济大学 Industrial measurement fitting method based on prior error decomposition weight assessment
CN104034291B (en) * 2014-06-09 2017-02-22 同济大学 Industrial measurement fitting method based on prior error decomposition weight assessment
CN104457601A (en) * 2014-12-24 2015-03-25 上海数造三维科技有限公司 Adjusting device and method of scraper used for rapid photo-curing formation
CN104457601B (en) * 2014-12-24 2018-04-24 上海数造机电科技股份有限公司 A kind of scraper adjusting method for photocureable rapid shaping
CN105588512A (en) * 2015-12-15 2016-05-18 上海隧道工程有限公司 Measurement device and method for measuring dimension of quasi-rectangular tunnel segment component
CN105588512B (en) * 2015-12-15 2018-11-02 上海隧道工程有限公司 The measuring device and method of class rectangle tunnel tunnel segment component size
CN106141810A (en) * 2016-08-08 2016-11-23 上海航天精密机械研究所 The ensuring method of tubular workpiece lumen processing wall thickness under robot manipulation
CN106141810B (en) * 2016-08-08 2019-09-17 上海航天精密机械研究所 The ensuring method of cylindrical workpiece embedded SMA actuators wall thickness under robot manipulation
CN110160442A (en) * 2019-04-22 2019-08-23 南京航空航天大学 A kind of flexible measuring tooling and its scaling method for conduit end face of flange vision-based detection

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