CN102409637B - Ecological restoration method of hydro-fluctuation belt - Google Patents

Ecological restoration method of hydro-fluctuation belt Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102409637B
CN102409637B CN 201110233753 CN201110233753A CN102409637B CN 102409637 B CN102409637 B CN 102409637B CN 201110233753 CN201110233753 CN 201110233753 CN 201110233753 A CN201110233753 A CN 201110233753A CN 102409637 B CN102409637 B CN 102409637B
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China
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concrete
slope
planting
bermuda grass
lattice frame
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CN 201110233753
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Chinese (zh)
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CN102409637A (en
Inventor
刘宏涛
袁玲
谢开骥
郝钰斌
宋利平
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中国科学院武汉植物园
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Abstract

The invention relates to an ecological restoration method of a hydro-fluctuation belt. The ecological restoration method comprises the following steps of: firstly prefabricating a concrete module on which Bermuda grass can be planted; planting the Bermuda grass resistant to flooding on the concrete module; flattening and tamping a side slope of the hydro-fluctuation belt, and constructing a reinforced concrete lattice frame; backfilling a planting matrix; and finally constructing and curing concrete blocks of a Bermuda grass lawn so as to form a complete full concrete-covered greened side slope of the hydro-fluctuation belt. The ecological restoration method has the beneficial effects of forming a stable side slope protection structure, preventing the side slope of the hydro-fluctuation belt from being directly washed by water waves, and protecting the soil of the hydro-fluctuation belt against erosion, thus achieving the purpose of conserving water and soil; and meanwhile a complete vegetation-covered landscape is formed, thus improving an ecological environment and achieving a wide application prospect and good environmental, social and economic benefits.

Description

A kind of ecological restoring method of falling zone
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of ecological restoring method of falling zone, belong to ecological environmental protection and administer technical field.
Background technology
After big-and-middle-sized reservoir builds up, often take the winter to hold the scheduling method that the summer lets out, reach ten meters even falling zones of tens of meters thereby form the height of water in the reservoir surrounding.Falling zone or claim that the falling zone is the distinctive a kind of phenomenon of reservoir, refers to due to the reservoir level seasonal movement zone that the reservoir area is periodically flooded and surfaced.Its phase of flooding is half a year, is generally to flood winter.Flood the winter and reveal owing to having changed the summer under the natural environment, original plant ecosystem has suffered broken ring significantly.If the falling zone is dealt with improperly, untimelyly carry out restoration of the ecosystem, can bring a series of ecosystem environment problem, as serious cave in, soil erosion, pollution of waterhead, natural landscape is destroyed, and forms " a yellow waistband " that not even a blade of grass grows.
For the existing many researchs of the restoration of the ecosystem of falling zone.Utilization four sides self-locking structure is realized the connection between square brick body member, forms water-fluctuation zone self-locking wave-dissipation vegetation type ecological slope protection structure (Chinese patent grant number CN101581084B).Slope top plantation masson pine, the degree of depth 2m that disappears is with interior plantation vetiver, and intermingle vetiver and Bermuda grass between 2-10m make the domatic recovery band of reservoir drawdown band abrupt slope area formation vegetation (Chinese patent application number 201010102730.4).A kind of wetland improvement method of improving reservoir drawdown district ecological environment; offset scope 5m with interior, exist the falling zone on level land, large tracts of land gentle slope to protect, plant successively planting submerged plant, floating leaf submerged plant, emergent aquactic plant and humidogene shrub (Chinese patent application 200910099098.X) according to the degree of depth that disappears.Plant in addition vetiver, Bermuda, paspalum notatum and be used for the novel plant configuration of river levee reservoir erosion control shore protection and ecological engineering technology (Chinese patent application number 03146885.3).The method of plantation Bermuda grass is repaired reservoir drawdown band and riverbank damaged ecosystem (Chinese patent application number 200810032895.1).Above method is only repaired side slope on plant or structure; can not be formed on and carry out simultaneously again the stable composite structured of plant landscape on the basis of firm edge slope structure, can not be fundamentally not only protect the falling zone Stability Analysis of Structures, solved soil erosion and but also realize the vegetation reparation.
Hard falling zone side slope can effectively prevent slope failure, keeps the stability of side slope, but the growing space of green plants can not be provided, and easily forms large stretch of concrete area of coverage in the water level phase of falling after rise, affects attractive in appearance; And repair for the falling zone of pure plant method, although can satisfy the falling zone greening function, side slope is stable not, easily causes and caves in and come down.For ecological management and the reparation of falling zone, building the physical arrangement that is fit to and selecting suitable floristics is two key technologies of restoration of the ecosystem, and both complete combination could be built stable greening side slope, realizes lasting falling zone restoration of the ecosystem.
Summary of the invention
Technical problem to be solved by this invention is for the deficiencies in the prior art, and a kind of ecological restoring method of falling zone is provided, and can improve the falling zone view, can conserve water and soil, prevent slope failure simultaneously, and is significant to improving Environment of Reservoirs.
Technical scheme of the present invention comprises following concrete steps:
1) precast concrete module: selecting rubble, cement, inorganic mineral powder, water reducing agent, water is raw material, the 1500-1700:250-300:30-40:3-5:50-80 proportioning stirs, builds and form by weight, described inorganic mineral powder by flyash and ferrosilicon smelting electric furnace reclaim fine silica powder in mass ratio routine 3:7 mix; Concrete modular thickness is 4-8cm, moulding maintenance 7-10 days more afterwards;
2) planting bermuda grass turf on concrete modular: the concrete modular surface sowing Bermuda grass seed in the maintenance moulding, cover nonwoven, can become the level ground after water seasoning 40-50 days;
3) the falling zone side slope builds steel concrete lattice frame: the falling zone side slope is tamped in leveling, then builds steel concrete lattice frame;
4) falling zone side slope lattice frame backfill planting matrix: backfill phytyl matter in the lattice frame is followed successively by the dark medium coarse sand of 3-5cm, the dark base manure of planting soil, 1-3cm that 25-35cm is dark, leveling, compacting degree 90-93% from top to bottom;
5) Bermuda grass concrete lawn is installed: in backfill the concrete lawn of Bermuda grass of in the lattice frame of planting matrix, planting being installed, and use pointing with cement mortar;
6) maintenance: need offset that the band side slope carries out dailyly watering after installation, fertilising, weeding and prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control management, to promote the fast quick-recovery of slope landscape; The falling zone side slope adopts the First Year water level after present technique is repaired to fall the phase after rise, needs the multiple green situation of close observation, in time water seasoning.
It is limestone or diabase or the basalt of 0.8-1.0cm that the rubble of concreting module can adopt particle diameter.More than the concrete modular compressive strength of making can reach 15MPa.
In such scheme, for easy construction, the concrete modular length and width are rectangle or the square of 30-50cm.
At the steel concrete lattice frame that the falling zone side slope builds, width is 3-5m, and its lattice girder width is 20-30cm, and the degree of depth is 30-40cm.
In the planting matrix of lattice frame backfill, medium coarse sand particle diameter 0.5-3mm, the requirement of planting soil is loam, pH6.0-7.5, organic content 〉=10g/kg, salt content≤1.2g/kg, effectively N 〉=60mg/kg, available P 〉=8mg/kg, quick-acting K 〉=75mg/kg, unit weight≤1.3g/cm 3, particle diameter≤2cm, chad content<10wt%.
The main component that the ferrosilicon smelting electric furnace reclaims fine silica powder is SiO 2, also having the impurity such as a small amount of iron oxide, alumina, calcium oxide, magnesia, Partial Replacement cement is conducive to reduce the alkalescence of concrete modular.
The inventive method has been selected the water-fast Bermuda grass that floods for up to half a year on the south the Huanghe valley.Adopt the present invention can make the falling zone side slope protection, repair and complete within half a year, not only can greatly improve the efficient that the falling zone slope ecological is repaired, and have larger social benefit and environmental benefit, wide popularizing application prospect is arranged.
Offset band and carry out the vegetation ecological repair process, can improve the falling zone view, conserve water and soil, prevent slope failure, significant to improving water environment.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the concrete mould block structural diagram.
Fig. 2 is falling zone side slope lattice frame schematic diagram.
Fig. 3 is the lattice girder structure chart.
Fig. 4 is the side slope sectional drawing after repairing.
Number in the figure 1 rubble, 2 cement and inorganic mineral powder, 3 concrete lattice frames, 4 base manure, 5 planting soils, 6 medium coarse sands, the concrete lawn of 7 planting Bermuda grass.
The specific embodiment
Embodiment 1
1) the prefabricated concrete modular that can plant Bermuda grass: selecting particle diameter is that the limestone aggregate, cement, inorganic mineral powder, water reducing agent, water of 0.8-1.0cm stirs, builds and be made according to part by weight 1550:255:32:3:65, inorganic mineral powder by flyash and ferrosilicon smelting electric furnace reclaim fine silica powder in mass ratio routine 3:7 mix (other embodiment is identical).The impurity such as the silt before raw material stirs in cleaning or the removal building stones that sieve, branch, in whipping process, gradation adds entry, in order to avoid excess moisture affects the space.Concrete thickness is 5-6cm, and the length of side is the square of 35cm, gets final product shaping and demoulding after concreting in 12 hours, is health-preserving chamber maintenance 7-10 days more than 90% in humidity after the demoulding;
2) planting bermuda grass turf on concrete modular: temperature on average is greater than more than 18 ℃ the time, and the concrete upper seeding wheel Bermuda grass seed in the maintenance moulding does not need matrix during sowing; After planting cover nonwoven (opening after germination), every day, water seasoning, sprayed weekly foliage fertilizer once (0.1wt% composite fertilizer or urea), can become the level ground after 40-50 days; The front broken cake fertilizer of dusting of the rear 20 days left and right lawn Cheng Ping that germinates is to promote into the level ground.
3) the falling zone side slope builds steel concrete lattice frame: falling zone to be repaired side slope leveling compacting after-pouring steel concrete lattice frame; The effect of lattice frame is to prevent slope failure, and the lattice girder width is 30cm, and the degree of depth is 40cm, the lattice width of frame be 3-5m(according to landform, the lattice width of frame is different).
4) falling zone side slope lattice frame backfill planting matrix: the special planting matrix of backfill in the lattice frame, be followed successively by from top to bottom the dark medium coarse sand of 3-5cm, base manure, leveling compacting that fertile planting soil, 1-3cm that 25-35cm is dark are thick, (base manure 4, planting soil 5, medium coarse sand 6 in Fig. 4), compacting degree 90-93%.Base manure is placed on orlop, is to grow downwards for the root that impels Bermuda grass.
5) Bermuda grass concrete lawn is installed: in backfill the concrete lawn of planting Bermuda grass is installed in the lattice frame of planting matrix, and with the above pointing with cement mortar of M10;
6) maintenance: after installing the falling zone side slope of plant cover concrete carry out dailyly watering, fertilising, weeding and prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control management, to promote the fast quick-recovery of slope landscape; The falling zone side slope adopts the First Year water level after present technique is repaired to fall after rise needs the multiple green situation of close observation, and in time water seasoning, in time remove inflorescence and promote to walk nourishing and growing of stem.
Embodiment 2
1) the prefabricated concrete modular that can plant Bermuda grass: the selection particle diameter is that diabase aggregate, cement, inorganic mineral powder, water reducing agent, the water of 0.8-1.0cm stirs to build according to part by weight 1600:260:30:3.5:68 and is made, the impurity such as the silt before raw material stirs in cleaning or the removal building stones that sieve, branch, in whipping process, gradation adds entry, in order to avoid excess moisture affects the space.Concrete thickness is 5cm, and the length of side is the square of 50cm, gets final product shaping and demoulding after concreting in 12 hours, is health-preserving chamber maintenance 7-10 days more than 90% in humidity after the demoulding;
2) planting bermuda grass turf on concrete modular: temperature on average is greater than more than 18 ℃ the time, and the concrete upper seeding wheel Bermuda grass seed in the maintenance moulding does not need matrix during sowing; After planting cover nonwoven (opening after germination), every day, water seasoning, sprayed weekly foliage fertilizer once (0.1wt% composite fertilizer or urea), can become the level ground after 40-50 days; The front broken cake fertilizer of dusting of the rear 20 days left and right lawn Cheng Ping that germinates is to promote into the level ground.
3) the falling zone side slope builds steel concrete lattice frame: falling zone to be repaired side slope leveling compacting after-pouring steel concrete lattice frame; The effect of lattice frame is to prevent slope failure, and the lattice girder width is 30cm, and the degree of depth is 40cm, the lattice width of frame be 3-5m(according to landform, the lattice width of frame is different).
4) falling zone side slope lattice frame backfill planting matrix: the special planting matrix of backfill in the lattice frame is followed successively by the dark medium coarse sand of 3-5cm, thick base manure, the leveling compacting of fertile planting soil, 1-3cm that 25-35cm is dark, compacting degree 90-93% from top to bottom;
5) Bermuda grass concrete lawn is installed: in backfill the concrete lawn of planting Bermuda grass is installed in the lattice frame of planting matrix, and with the above pointing with cement mortar of M10;
6) maintenance: after installing the falling zone side slope of plant cover concrete carry out dailyly watering, fertilising, weeding and prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control management, to promote the fast quick-recovery of slope landscape; The falling zone side slope adopts the First Year water level after present technique is repaired to fall after rise needs the multiple green situation of close observation, and in time water seasoning, in time remove inflorescence and promote to walk nourishing and growing of stem.
Embodiment 3
This example is on-the-spot sowing Bermuda grass in the falling zone, needs the long engineering time, needs to select appropriate opportunity, with the impact that guarantees that reinstatement works is not subjected to water level to disappear and.
1) the prefabricated concrete modular that can plant Bermuda grass: select particle diameter be 0.8-1.0cm basalt aggregate, cement, inorganic mineral powder, water proportionally (1650:255:32:3.5:65) stir to build and be made, the impurity such as the silt before raw material stirs in cleaning or the removal building stones that sieve, branch, in whipping process, gradation adds entry, in order to avoid excess moisture affects the space.Concrete thickness is 5-6cm, and the length of side is the square of 35cm, gets final product shaping and demoulding after concreting in 12 hours, is health-preserving chamber maintenance 7-10 days more than 90% in humidity after the demoulding;
2) the falling zone side slope builds steel concrete lattice frame: falling zone to be repaired side slope leveling compacting after-pouring steel concrete lattice frame; The effect of lattice frame is to prevent slope failure, and the lattice girder width is 20cm, and the degree of depth is 30cm, the lattice width of frame be 3m(according to landform, the lattice width of frame is different).
3) falling zone side slope lattice frame backfill planting matrix: the special planting matrix of backfill in the lattice frame, be followed successively by from top to bottom dark thick base manure, the leveling compacting of fertile planting soil, 1-3cm of medium coarse sand, 25-35cm of 3-5cm,, compacting degree 90-93%;
4) concrete modular is installed: in backfill in the lattice frame of planting matrix, concrete modular is installed, and with the above pointing with cement mortar of M10;
5) planting bermuda grass turf on concrete modular: temperature on average is greater than more than 18 ℃ the time, and the concrete upper seeding wheel Bermuda grass seed in the falling zone side slope does not need matrix during sowing; After planting cover nonwoven (opening after germination), every day, water seasoning, sprayed weekly foliage fertilizer once (0.1wt% composite fertilizer or urea), can become the level ground after 40-50 days; The front broken cake fertilizer of dusting of the rear 20 days left and right lawn Cheng Ping that germinates is to promote into the level ground.
6) maintenance: the band side slope carries out dailyly watering from after planting namely offseting, fertilising, weeding and prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control management, to promote the fast quick-recovery of slope landscape; The falling zone side slope adopts the First Year water level after present technique is repaired to fall after rise needs the multiple green situation of close observation, and in time water seasoning, in time remove inflorescence and promote to walk nourishing and growing of stem.

Claims (5)

1. the ecological restoring method of a falling zone, is characterized in that, comprises the steps:
1) precast concrete module: selecting rubble, cement, inorganic mineral powder, water reducing agent, water is raw material, the 1500-1700:250-300:30-40:3-5:50-80 proportioning stirs, builds and form by weight, described inorganic mineral powder by flyash and ferrosilicon smelting electric furnace reclaim fine silica powder in mass ratio routine 3:7 mix; Concrete modular thickness is 4-8cm, moulding maintenance 7-10 days more afterwards;
2) planting bermuda grass turf on concrete modular: the concrete modular surface sowing Bermuda grass seed in the maintenance moulding, cover nonwoven, can become the level ground after water seasoning 40-50 days;
3) the falling zone side slope builds steel concrete lattice frame: the falling zone side slope is tamped in leveling, then builds steel concrete lattice frame;
4) falling zone side slope lattice frame backfill planting matrix: backfill phytyl matter in the lattice frame is followed successively by the dark medium coarse sand of 3-5cm, the dark base manure of planting soil, 1-3cm that 25-35cm is dark, leveling, compacting degree 90-93% from top to bottom;
5) Bermuda grass concrete lawn is installed: in backfill the concrete lawn of Bermuda grass of in the lattice frame of planting matrix, planting being installed, and use pointing with cement mortar;
6) maintenance.
2. restorative procedure according to claim 1, is characterized in that, selected the water-fast Bermuda grass that floods for up to half a year on the south the Huanghe valley, selects not add the direct-seeding of any matrix or hypothallus during sowing.
3. restorative procedure according to claim 1, is characterized in that, it is limestone or diabase or the basalt of 0.8-1.0cm that the rubble of concreting module adopts particle diameter.
4. restorative procedure according to claim 1 and 2, is characterized in that, at the steel concrete lattice frame that the falling zone side slope builds, width is 3-5m, and the lattice girder width is 20-30cm, and the degree of depth is 30-40cm.
5. restorative procedure according to claim 1 and 2, it is characterized in that, in the planting matrix of lattice frame backfill, medium coarse sand particle diameter 0.5-3mm, the requirement of planting soil is loam, pH6.0-7.5, organic content 〉=10g/kg, salt content≤1.2g/kg, effective N 〉=60mg/kg, available P 〉=8mg/kg, quick-acting K 〉=75mg/kg, unit weight≤1.3g/cm 3, particle diameter≤2cm, chad content<10wt%.
CN 201110233753 2011-08-16 2011-08-16 Ecological restoration method of hydro-fluctuation belt CN102409637B (en)

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CN105165520A (en) * 2015-08-12 2015-12-23 广东红日节能环保科技有限公司 Plantation method using water dampness-resistant tree seed to restore reservoir hydro fluctuation belt
CN106869148A (en) * 2017-03-30 2017-06-20 三亚新大兴园林生态有限公司 A kind of side slope ecological protection structure
CN108677871A (en) * 2018-05-28 2018-10-19 南昌工程学院 A kind of construction method of assembled grass planting concrete precast block and its ecological revetment
CN109083096B (en) * 2018-08-08 2021-02-19 重庆大学产业技术研究院 Step-shaped ecological slope protection structure of reservoir hydro-fluctuation belt and implementation method thereof
CN110331697A (en) * 2019-07-19 2019-10-15 安徽农业大学 Half dew partly floods the restorative procedure in region in a kind of reservoir drawdown band steep hillslope
CN110396984A (en) * 2019-07-23 2019-11-01 安徽农业大学 A kind of reservoir drawdown band rock slope plant cover concrete bank protecting method
CN110593199A (en) * 2019-10-30 2019-12-20 瑞派尔(宜昌)科技集团股份有限公司 Construction process of ecological concrete in hydro-fluctuation area

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CN201314039Y (en) * 2008-12-15 2009-09-23 中交上海航道勘察设计研究院有限公司 Ecological recovering type bank protection structure in riverway beaches

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