CN102405749A - Method for planting medicago sativa in salinization wasteland of arid region - Google Patents

Method for planting medicago sativa in salinization wasteland of arid region Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102405749A
CN102405749A CN201110235839XA CN201110235839A CN102405749A CN 102405749 A CN102405749 A CN 102405749A CN 201110235839X A CN201110235839X A CN 201110235839XA CN 201110235839 A CN201110235839 A CN 201110235839A CN 102405749 A CN102405749 A CN 102405749A
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alfalfa
suaeda salsa
planting
sowing
medicago sativa
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CN102405749B (en
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赵振勇
田长彦
张科
王平
王雷
尹传华
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Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography of CAS
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Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography of CAS
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Abstract

The invention relates to a method for planting medicago sativa in a salinization wasteland of an arid region. In the method, a low-salt environment for plant seed germination and seedling growth is created by using a mode of pressure drip irrigation, so that successful planting of plant seedlings in the saline-alkali soil is realized; shading protection is provided for the medicago sativa seedlings by planting the medicago sativa and suaeda salsa together and using the characteristic of fast growth of the suaeda salsa; and meanwhile, the salt content of the soil of the medicago sativa root zone is reduced by using high biomass and in vivo salt gathering characteristic of the suaeda salsa. By the method, the inhibition of the saline-alkali soil environment on medicago sativa seed germination and seedling growth is overcome, a condition for later normal growth of the medicago sativa is created, and a technical support is provided for production of high-quality pasture in Xinjiang and development of the animal husbandry.

Description

A kind of arid biogeographic zone salination wasteland alfalfa planting and establishing method
Technical field
The invention belongs to the plant cultivation field, specifically is the method for mixed seeding Suaeda salsa alfalfa treated under the condition of drip irrigation of moderate salty soils wasteland.
Background technology
Xinjiang is the famous native pasture of China, also is one of important animal husbandry base of China.7.2 hundred million mu of Xinjiang native pasture areas capable of using receive climatic variation, overgrazed, reclamation of wasteland grassland, excavate medicinal material etc. and influence, and existing 85% degeneration occurred, and wherein 30% is serious degradation.Be to realize sustainable development of animal husbandry, Xinjiang comes into effect the returning husbandry to grassland engineering from last century end, strengthens artificial fodder grass construction of base, widelys popularize the plantation of fodder grass, advances the herdsman to settle down.Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a kind of good leguminous forage, in area farming and animal husbandry production of NORTHWEST CHINA arid and semi-arid and ecological construction, is bringing into play very important effect.In recent years, Xinjiang alfalfa cultivated area is ascendant trend year by year basically, and clover has occupied critical positions in the crop mix adjustment of each department, become the tie of the coordination of farming and animal husbandry.Pass through fine-variety breeding; The alfalfa kind salt resistance of pastoral area popularizing planting, drought resistance aspect are improved; But seed is responsive to the low salt concn reaction in the sprouting stage; Receive the toxic action of salt ion after high salt concentration is coerced more easily, create low relatively salt concentration environment in the seedling planting phase and alfalfa is successfully planted very crucial.
Suaeda salsa (Suaeda salsa) is a kind of true halophytes of typical strong stress resistance, has characteristics such as drought-enduring, salt tolerant alkali, adaptability is strong, can be in the solonchak of salt content 4.3% normal growth.Suaeda salsa can be used as the pionner that improvement utilizes the saline land, to enlarge ecological benefits and economic benefit.In the general time, emerge when 10cm ground temperature is stabilized in 10 ℃ of left and right sides mid-April, and in 5 months, get into the branch phase last ten-days period, the branch phase is the summit of growth phase in the time of infertility, and biomass increases rapidly, gets at the beginning of late July to 8 month and blossom and bear fruit the phase, and the biomass increase is slow.
It is the method that the cuttage branch comes alfalfa treated that one Chinese patent application number 02128113.0 has been set forth vegetative propagation, and this method is inappropriate for the large-scale planting of alfalfa.Number of patent application 03117550.3 has been set forth after a kind of the sowing seeds not earthing to avoid causing the naked broadcasting method of uneven alfalfa of emerging because of earthing; Number of patent application 03149654.7 discloses a kind of by gibberellin, ammonium molybdate and ethanol proportioning preparation and based on the seed soaking type of seeding of this preparation, and these two kinds of technical methods can provide certain experiences for the seed sowing alfalfa planting.Number of patent application 201010233703.0 has been set forth the method for light saline land alfalfa planting, relate to the light saline land autumn turn over, execute farmyard manure, ridging, suppression and spring step such as ridge upper seeding wheel, workload is bigger, program is more loaded down with trivial details.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is; A kind of arid biogeographic zone salination wasteland alfalfa planting and establishing method is provided; The mode of this method utilization pressurization drip irrigation is created the low-salt environment of plant seed germination and growth of seedling, realizes the successful planting of saline land plant seedling, with alfalfa and Suaeda salsa mixed seeding; Characteristics provide the protection of shading for the alfalfa seedling to utilize Suaeda salsa to grow rapidly, utilize simultaneously that the Suaeda salsa biomass is big to reduce roots of alfalfa district soil salt content with the interior polysalt characteristics of body.The method of the invention has overcome not only that the salt affected soil environment is sprouted alfalfa seed and the inhibition of growth of seedling, also for the later stage normal growth of alfalfa creates conditions, for Xinjiang high quality forage production and animal husbandry development provide technical support.
A kind of arid biogeographic zone salination of the present invention wasteland alfalfa planting and establishing method follows these steps to carry out:
A, choosing ground, whole ground
Experimental field selecting 0-30cm soil layer salt content is the moderate salty soils plot of 1.5-2.0%, ploughs, harrows operation before the sowing, makes topsoil smooth in small, broken bits;
Lay b, irrigate band
The hollow billet irrigate band is laid and is adopted " a pipe delegation " mode, drip irrigation pipe spacing 0.6-0.8m;
C, sowing
Be chosen in sowing time at the beginning of mid or late April to 5 month, surface layer 5cm ground temperature reaches 15 ℃ of sowings in time, and planting patterns is drilling; Suaeda salsa and alfalfa seed mixed mix fine sand and water is mixed to shot; Plant in the hollow billet two side areas,, form the wide sowing band of 40-60cm apart from 20-30cm;
D, irrigation
After planting promptly carry out drip irrigation, dripped once in 1 day, dripped back 1 day; Suaeda salsa begins to emerge, and alfalfa is emerged after 3-5 days, emerges to drip 1 time in back 3 days; When Suaeda salsa gets into the branch after date; With 0-30cm soil layer soil moisture content 12% is that moisturizing judges that late September stops to drip, and mends winter irrigation water until November.
The flow-control of step b drip emitter is at 1.8-3.0L/h.
Step c seeding quantity is controlled at alfalfa 22.5-30.0kg/hm 2, Suaeda salsa 12.0-18.0kg/hm 2
The steps d winter irrigation water yield is controlled at 150m 3/ hm 2
A kind of arid biogeographic zone salination of the present invention wasteland alfalfa planting and establishing method; In this method since the alfalfa salt resistance relatively a little less than; Will be at low relatively soil salt environment ability normal growth; The technical barrier that the present invention need solve is: carry out soil melioration, reduce the root region soil salt content, satisfy alfalfa normal growth demand.
The present invention is in the alfalfa planting process; Take into full account the arid biogeographic zone water salt characteristics of motion; Utilize the mode of pressurization drip irrigation to irrigate, helping at dropper band near zone is that required low-salt environment in seedling stage is created in the sowing division, alleviates salinity and coerces the influence to seed germination; Increase seed germination rate and seedling percent, realize seedling success planting.Adopt alfalfa and Suaeda salsa mixed seeding; Taken into full account Suaeda salsa growth rapidly, biomass is big and body in characteristics such as polysalt; The general time; Suaeda salsa gets into the branch phase after mid-May, and plant height can play the effect that the seedling-protection that shades improves the alfalfa seedling percent more than 50cm.By Suaeda salsa polysalt characteristics, the Suaeda salsa beginning gets into the phase of blossoming and bearing fruit and cradles at the beginning of late July to 8 month, takes a large amount of salinities out of, improves roots of alfalfa district soil environment.
Table 1. Suaeda salsa output and desalination situation
Overground part dry matter production (kg/hm 2) Salinity (ash content %) Desalination amount (kg/hm 2)
2009 23193.0±1394.6 27.9±1.6 6468.9±406.2
2010 22828.4±1551.0 29.8±1.2 6811.4±672.2
Table 2. Suaeda salsa soil salt harvest time changes
Embodiment
Embodiment 1
2009,20 mu of demonstrations were used in big agriculture development zone, Kelamayi company of Konka saline land, 4 of experimental plots are set, sub-district area 225m 2(15m * 15m);
Choosing ground, whole ground
Experimental field selecting 0-30cm soil layer salt content is 1.59% moderate salty soils plot, ploughs, harrows operation before the sowing, makes topsoil smooth in small, broken bits;
Lay the irrigate band
" a pipe delegation " mode that adopts is laid in the hollow billet irrigate band, drip irrigation pipe spacing 0.6m, and the drip emitter flow-control is at 1.8L/h;
Sowing
At the beginning of being chosen in sowing time 5 months; Surface layer 5cm ground temperature reaches 15 ℃ of sowings in time, and planting patterns is drilling, Suaeda salsa and alfalfa seed is mixed mix fine sand and water is mixed to shot; Plant in the hollow billet two side areas; Apart from 20cm, form the wide sowing band of 40cm, the sowing quantity alfalfa is 22.5kg/hm 2, Suaeda salsa is 12.0kg/hm 2
Irrigate
After planting promptly carry out drip irrigation, seed germination phase drip irrigation is more frequent, drips once in 1 day, and alfalfa is avoided ponding; The drip irrigation degree gets final product with the moistening no open fire in the face of land, sowing division, drips back 1 day, and Suaeda salsa promptly begins to emerge, and alfalfa is emerged after 4 days; Emerge and dripped 1 time in back 3 days, Suaeda salsa gets into the branch after date, is that moisturizing is judged with 0-30cm soil layer soil moisture content 12%; Late September stops to drip, and mends winter irrigation water until November, and the winter irrigation water yield is controlled at 150m 3/ hm 2
Embodiment 2
2010 in the Kelamayi big agriculture development zone company of Konka saline land, use 30 mu of demonstrations, 4 of experimental plots are set, sub-district area 225m 2(15m * 15m);
Choosing ground, whole ground
Experimental field selecting 0-30cm soil layer salt content is 1.86% moderate salty soils plot, ploughs, harrows operation before the sowing, makes topsoil smooth in small, broken bits;
Lay the irrigate band
" a pipe delegation " mode that adopts is laid in the hollow billet irrigate band, drip irrigation pipe spacing 0.8m, and the drip emitter flow-control is at 2.5L/h;
Sowing
Be chosen in late April sowing time; Surface layer 5cm ground temperature reaches 15 ℃ of sowings in time, and planting patterns is drilling, Suaeda salsa and alfalfa seed is mixed mix fine sand and water is mixed to shot; Plant in the hollow billet two side areas; Apart from 25cm, form the wide sowing band of 50cm, the sowing quantity alfalfa is 25.0kg/hm 2, Suaeda salsa is 16.0kg/hm 2
Irrigate
After planting promptly carry out drip irrigation, seed germination phase drip irrigation is more frequent, drips once in 1 day, and alfalfa is avoided ponding; The drip irrigation degree gets final product with the moistening no open fire in the face of land, sowing division, drips back 1 day, and Suaeda salsa promptly begins to emerge, and alfalfa is emerged after 5 days; Emerge and dripped 1 time in back 3 days, Suaeda salsa gets into the branch after date, is that moisturizing is judged with 0-30cm soil layer soil moisture content 12%; Late September stops to drip, and mends winter irrigation water until November, and the winter irrigation water yield is controlled at 150m 3/ hm 2
Embodiment 3
For a short time turned the saline land, township in 2010 in the Kelamayi, use 30 mu of demonstrations, 4 of experimental plots are set, sub-district area 225m 2(15m * 15m);
A, choosing ground, whole ground
Experimental field selecting 0-30cm soil layer salt content is 2.0% moderate salty soils plot, ploughs, harrows operation before the sowing, makes topsoil smooth in small, broken bits;
Lay b, irrigate band
" a pipe delegation " mode that adopts is laid in the hollow billet irrigate band, drip irrigation pipe spacing 0.7m, and the drip emitter flow-control is at 3.0L/h;
C, sowing
Be chosen in late April sowing time; Surface layer 5cm ground temperature reaches 15 ℃ of sowings in time, and planting patterns is drilling, Suaeda salsa and alfalfa seed is mixed mix fine sand and water is mixed to shot; Plant in the hollow billet two side areas; Apart from 30cm, form the wide sowing band of 60cm, seeding quantity is controlled at alfalfa 30.0kg/hm 2, Suaeda salsa 18.0kg/hm 2
D, irrigation
After planting promptly carry out drip irrigation, seed germination phase drip irrigation is more frequent, drips once in 1 day, and alfalfa is avoided ponding; The drip irrigation degree gets final product with the moistening no open fire in the face of land, sowing division, drips back 1 day, and Suaeda salsa begins to emerge, and alfalfa is emerged after 5 days; Emerging and dripped 1 time in back 3 days, when Suaeda salsa gets into the branch after date, is that moisturizing is judged with 0-30cm soil layer soil moisture content 12%; Late September stops to drip, and mends winter irrigation water until November, and the winter irrigation water yield is controlled at 150m 3/ hm 2
Suaeda salsa has takes the photograph salt ability and collection salt characteristics significantly, under artificial planting, can obtain higher biomass.The Suaeda salsa content of ashes reaches more than 27%, and main component is the salt material, if replace salt content to calculate with ash content, the salt amount that Suaeda salsa is taken away surpasses 6000kg/hm 2Behind the plantation Suaeda salsa, soil salt content changes noticeably, and especially 0-30cm soil layer soil salt obviously descends, and this alfalfa late growing stage for planting is very favourable.The experiment and demonstration that accumulation in 2009,2010 2 years is 50 mu shows; Adopt method of the present invention miscegenation Suaeda salsa under the condition of drip irrigation of moderate salination wasteland to come the field planting alfalfa; The alfalfa seed germination rate reaches more than 80%, and seedling percent is more than 90%.(by the end of July to 8 months at the beginning of) alfalfa growing way is slim and frahile before the Suaeda salsa harvesting, and Suaeda salsa harvesting back alfalfa is then grown rapidly, can realize safe overwintering then.Harvested Suaeda salsa is higher because of salt content, can be used as auxiliary fodder and replenishes domestic animal salinity demand.
Adopt drip irrigation to meet the actual needs of arid biogeographic zone development water-saving agriculture, drip irrigation is the prerequisite that the present invention successfully carries out, and under dripping irrigation water salt regulating and controlling effect, formed low-salt environment is that condition has been created in plant seedlings sprouting field planting in the hollow billet both sides.The halophytes plantation is the environmental technical measures in improvement saline land, and salt-tolerant plant has shifted the alkaline land soil salinity, has improved soil quality.The mode that combines through drip irrigation and halophytes realizes that field planting and the Sustainable Production of moderate salination wasteland alfalfa facts have proved and can receive desirable effect.

Claims (4)

1. arid biogeographic zone salination wasteland alfalfa planting and establishing method is characterized in that following these steps to carrying out:
A, choosing ground, whole ground
Experimental field selecting 0-30cm soil layer salt content is the moderate salty soils plot of 1.5-2.0%, ploughs, harrows operation before the sowing, makes topsoil smooth in small, broken bits;
Lay b, irrigate band
The hollow billet irrigate band is laid and is adopted " a pipe delegation " mode, drip irrigation pipe spacing 0.6-0.8m;
C, sowing
Be chosen in sowing time at the beginning of mid or late April to 5 month, surface layer 5cm ground temperature reaches 15 ℃ of sowings in time, and planting patterns is drilling; Suaeda salsa and alfalfa seed mixed mix fine sand and water is mixed to shot; Plant in the hollow billet two side areas,, form the wide sowing band of 40-60cm apart from 20-30cm;
D, irrigation
After planting promptly carry out drip irrigation, dripped once in 1 day, dripped back 1 day; Suaeda salsa begins to emerge, and alfalfa is emerged after 3-5 days, emerges to drip 1 time in back 3 days; When Suaeda salsa gets into the branch after date; With 0-30cm soil layer soil moisture content 12% is that moisturizing judges that late September stops to drip, and mends winter irrigation water until November.
2. method according to claim 1 is characterized in that the flow-control of step b drip emitter is at 1.8-3.0L/h.
3. method according to claim 2 is characterized in that step c seeding quantity is controlled at alfalfa 22.5-30.0kg/hm 2, Suaeda salsa 12.0-18.0kg/hm 2
4. method according to claim 3 is characterized in that the steps d winter irrigation water yield is controlled at 150m 3/ hm 2
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Cited By (12)

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CN102845204A (en) * 2012-09-07 2013-01-02 大连民族学院 Method for planting alfalfa in moderately severe carbonate saline-alkali soil on large scale
CN104145626A (en) * 2014-05-23 2014-11-19 中国农业科学院兰州畜牧与兽药研究所 Cultivation method for improving yield of alfalfa seeds in YLN (Yarlung Zangbo River, Lhasa River and Nien-chu River) region of Tibet
CN104429469A (en) * 2014-11-06 2015-03-25 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所 Saline land suaeda salsa and oil sunflower ridge intercropping method under condition of heavy saline-alkali soil
CN104938173A (en) * 2015-05-29 2015-09-30 新疆新绿农业开发有限责任公司 Method for planting sainfoin at saline-alkali slope wasteland of arid region
CN105027931A (en) * 2015-08-06 2015-11-11 中国农业科学院北京畜牧兽医研究所 Method for improving drought resistance of alfalfa
CN105075580A (en) * 2015-07-07 2015-11-25 中国科学院遗传与发育生物学研究所 Method for increasing output of summer corn by improving saline-alkali land based on plant symbiotic relationship
CN105580620A (en) * 2015-12-21 2016-05-18 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所 Afforestation method for arid region secondary salinization land
CN106233949A (en) * 2016-05-06 2016-12-21 石河子大学 A kind of alfalfa drip irrigation high yield cultivating method
CN108651205A (en) * 2018-03-27 2018-10-16 山东省农业可持续发展研究所 A kind of salt-soda soil clover planting and establishing method
CN111373973A (en) * 2020-05-08 2020-07-07 石河子大学 Construction method of agricultural and forestry composite protection forest in arid region
CN111386785A (en) * 2020-03-30 2020-07-10 山东胜伟盐碱地科技有限公司 Biological method for saline-alkali soil improvement
CN113973654A (en) * 2021-11-05 2022-01-28 宁夏农林科学院农业资源与环境研究所(宁夏土壤与植物营养重点实验室) Method for improving emergence rate of alfalfa planting in moderate saline-alkali soil in northern arid area

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Cited By (14)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102845204A (en) * 2012-09-07 2013-01-02 大连民族学院 Method for planting alfalfa in moderately severe carbonate saline-alkali soil on large scale
CN104145626A (en) * 2014-05-23 2014-11-19 中国农业科学院兰州畜牧与兽药研究所 Cultivation method for improving yield of alfalfa seeds in YLN (Yarlung Zangbo River, Lhasa River and Nien-chu River) region of Tibet
CN104429469A (en) * 2014-11-06 2015-03-25 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所 Saline land suaeda salsa and oil sunflower ridge intercropping method under condition of heavy saline-alkali soil
CN104429469B (en) * 2014-11-06 2016-08-24 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所 Suaeda salsa and oil certain herbaceous plants with big flowers ridge intercropping method under the conditions of a kind of heavy saline
CN104938173A (en) * 2015-05-29 2015-09-30 新疆新绿农业开发有限责任公司 Method for planting sainfoin at saline-alkali slope wasteland of arid region
CN105075580A (en) * 2015-07-07 2015-11-25 中国科学院遗传与发育生物学研究所 Method for increasing output of summer corn by improving saline-alkali land based on plant symbiotic relationship
CN105075580B (en) * 2015-07-07 2017-07-25 中国科学院遗传与发育生物学研究所 It is a kind of that the method that yield of Summer Corn is improved in salt-soda soil is improved by plants symbiotic relationship
CN105027931A (en) * 2015-08-06 2015-11-11 中国农业科学院北京畜牧兽医研究所 Method for improving drought resistance of alfalfa
CN105580620A (en) * 2015-12-21 2016-05-18 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所 Afforestation method for arid region secondary salinization land
CN106233949A (en) * 2016-05-06 2016-12-21 石河子大学 A kind of alfalfa drip irrigation high yield cultivating method
CN108651205A (en) * 2018-03-27 2018-10-16 山东省农业可持续发展研究所 A kind of salt-soda soil clover planting and establishing method
CN111386785A (en) * 2020-03-30 2020-07-10 山东胜伟盐碱地科技有限公司 Biological method for saline-alkali soil improvement
CN111373973A (en) * 2020-05-08 2020-07-07 石河子大学 Construction method of agricultural and forestry composite protection forest in arid region
CN113973654A (en) * 2021-11-05 2022-01-28 宁夏农林科学院农业资源与环境研究所(宁夏土壤与植物营养重点实验室) Method for improving emergence rate of alfalfa planting in moderate saline-alkali soil in northern arid area

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