In recent years, along with the development of sinking and drifting technology, anchor-net Shoring Technique has been widely used in coal mine roadway, the ground constructing tunnel.Construction country rock lithology directly affects the formulation of bolting with wire mesh measure, and construction safety, construction cost and efficiency of construction are played conclusive effect.If the small diameter hole that can utilize anchor cable hole and so on is (with roadway construction at the top, tunnel; General aperture 28mm or 32mm; Degree of depth 8m-20m) top, the tunnel lithology of continuous variation is surveyed; Can save construction surveys the cost of hole (need to arrange special power supply supply equipment, construct and bore nest, aperture greater than 45mm, cost height) specially and avoids consequent influence to normal roadway construction; For engineering construction important practical usage being arranged, also is still unsolved for many years technical barrier.
At present, in geological prospecting, formation lithology being carried out in routine boring, to survey conventional way one be to utilize the geophysical logging means, and become industry standard.The aperture of conventional geotechnical boring is generally greater than 45mm; Because its aperture can utilize multiple well logging means (poor like natural gamma, natural potential, density, apparent resistivity, two time receiving, hole diameter etc.) to survey more greatly, usually regulation must be more than four kinds the accurate judgement formation lithology of parameter.Yet; Lithology is carried out in extra small bore boring (aperture is less than 36mm) to be surveyed; Because the current techniques condition restriction, the instruments design size of most log parameters can not be designed into enough miniaturizations, and the detection method of the definite lithology of above-mentioned multiple parametric synthesis well logging just can not be realized.Another kind of boring lithology detection method is that drill bit installs core barrel coring (cost high, taked rate to limit) additional when drilling construction, and core barrel diameter can't be so far forth little for extra small bore boring for this, can not use this mode to realize its detection.
The video camera technology is a kind of new technique aspect bore detecting, has characteristics visual, directly perceived.Along with the microminiaturization of raising of shooting resolution ratio and picture pick-up device, what video camera was technological can use in extra small bore hole.But obvious weak point is being arranged aspect the lithology identification of rock stratum: (1) receives human eye recognition capability and drilling construction quality influence big (borehole wall smoothness, rock stratum soft or hard etc.), and only certificate sheet or video can not be distinguished close lithology well, like siltstone, mud stone.(2) receive shooting condition restriction (shooting angle, light, boring medium, boring are drenched and dripped), the interpretation difference of video or photo can be very big.Owing to receive above-mentioned restriction, only small diameter hole carried out lithology identification and can not realize with the quantitative accurately layering of thickness according to the video camera technology.
Summary of the invention
Technical problem to be solved by this invention provides a kind of extra small bore boring lithology detection system and method; Adopt natural gamma geophysical logging technology to gather rock stratum nuclear radioactive nature; And use the electric video camera technique to carry out the hole wall video record and take pictures; Carrying out the drilling depth synchrodata handles; And then these data comprehensively judge realization to the quantitative division of extra small bore boring lithology identification with depth of stratum, for well lane engineering and other application that utilizes extra small bore boring carrying out formation lithology to survey provide technological means.
For realizing above-mentioned purpose, the present invention adopts following technological means:
A kind of extra small bore boring lithology detection system comprises the borehole data acquisition module, and said borehole data acquisition module comprises the metal shell probe and is arranged at image unit and the natural gamma unit in the metal shell probe; Said image unit is arranged at the top of metal shell probe; Said image unit comprises the vertical camera that is arranged at metal shell probe top or side direction camera or the two combination that is arranged at metal shell probe sidewall.
The diameter of said metal shell probe is less than or equal to 26mm.
Said detection system also comprises: degree of depth counting and mechanical transmission module are used for the collection of deadline and degree of depth synchrodata, and accomplish the mechanical transport to the borehole data acquisition module; Data and lithology discrimination module, the collection of completion video, digital photos, natural gamma initial data is also synchronous with depth data, quantitatively divides with thickness through rock stratum lithology identification is accomplished in the interpretation of these data, draws, exports the boring lithological column.
Said detection system also comprises the power module to image unit and the power supply of natural gamma unit.
A kind of detection method of extra small bore boring lithology detection system may further comprise the steps:
1) raw data acquisition: with mechanical moving device the borehole data acquisition module is sent in the small-diameter hole according to even velocity through degree of depth counting; Be provided with according to the synchronous acquisition time of setting, accomplish from the aperture to the hole at the bottom of vertical video/photo, side direction video/photo, natural gamma and the depth data collection of all drilled hole degree of depth;
2) data preliminary treatment: the data to step 1) is gathered are carried out the data collection through data and lithology discrimination module (3); Utilize depth data that vertical video/photo, side direction video/photo, the natural gamma data of step 1) collection are carried out the degree of depth, time synchronized, make video, photo, natural gamma and sampling depth, time corresponding;
3) lithology and lift height are confirmed: (1) utilizes natural gamma to mark off strata division, and judges its lithology jointly according to gamma ray curve and vertical video/photo, side direction video/photo, confirms its thickness; (2) to judging the layering result who accomplishes, proportionally chi is drawn boring lithology column.
Step 3) is further comprising the steps of: (3) are output into picture or CAD form with the lithology column.
In the step 3) each hierarchical synchronization play vertical, the side direction video/photo of even depth, utilize vertical video well radius variations simultaneously, combine natural gamma and sand mud, verify layering lithology correctness than curvilinear characteristic.
In the video if show that hole wall is comparatively neat, bulky grain is outstanding seldom or seldom, the thin layer in black helical form band, rock stratum that stays when having drill bit to creep into clearly; Can be judged as the aperture this moment and enlarge, can tentatively be judged as aleuritic texture mud stone, siltstone or mud stone thus; The video appearance is significantly rough and uneven in surface, bulky grain shape material occurs more for a long time and work as, and can be judged as the aperture is dwindling, and can tentatively be judged as sandstone, limestone lithology thus.
Imperfect and the black in color of the borehole wall is the coal seam, and the complete and gray of the borehole wall is a limestone, and the borehole wall obvious graininess occurs and is light gray or grey is a sandstone.
With regard to the current techniques condition, the design of miniature video camera that the present invention relates to and natural gamma device logger components and parts realizes, can satisfy the needs of extra small bore bore detecting.The basic principle of the inventive method is following:
At first, utilize the gamma ray log technology that lithology is carried out in most layers position of the boring rock stratum that discloses and confirm, quantitatively confirm lift height simultaneously.Natural gamma is a kind of important logging method in geological prospecting, belongs to one of radioactive logging method.Radioactive logging is the unique logging method that can confirm rock and pore-fluid chemical element content thereof.It confirms rock type according to the nuclear physics character of medium in rock and pore-fluid and the well, research drilling geology section.Natural gamma not only can but also can have been measured in cased well at open hole well; Measurement result does not receive the restriction of medium in the well.For sedimentary rock especially coal measure strata, natural gamma can perform well in distinguishing the accurately quantitative division of lithology, strata division thickness, the shale content of calculating formation (calculating " sand mud ratio ").The theoretical foundation of quantitative Analysis depth of stratum is that gamma ray curve has following characteristic: 1. when the contamination of country rock was identical up and down, curve was about stratum emphasis symmetry; 2. there is a maximum on the high radioactivity stratum to the landing surface center curve, and increases with the increase of formation thickness.Thickness is during greater than three times hole diameter, and maximum is constant, and only be directly proportional with the natural radioactivity intensity of rock this moment, and is true thickness by the definite formation thickness of the half range point of curve.
Secondly, in conjunction with the electro-photographic technology, confirm undistinguishable all the other the rock stratum lithology of natural gamma, and the two verifies and remedies the deficiency of monotechnics each other.As previously mentioned; Can not distinguish the close rock stratum lithology of some rerum naturas (but accurately layering, confirm bed thickness) even rely on single gamma ray log parameter; These rock stratum mainly be sandstone, coal seam, limestone they on curvilinear characteristic, all have low natural gamma; Rely on the natural gamma three not distinguish, need to cooperate other means further to confirm.The present invention utilizes the electro-photographic technology to cooperate with gamma ray log, can distinguish the rerum natura difference between the three, thereby differentiates lithology.The concrete application mechanism of electro-photographic technology is:
1) utilizes the high resolution micro camera (or video camera) that possesses the microspur effect, in boring, take hole wall video and photo along boring direction (being referred to as " vertical video ") and vertical drilling direction (being referred to as " side direction video " or " side direction photo ").Employing can effectively be avoided because of shooting angle, drench the influence to recognition effect of dripping and causing more than the shooting of a direction.
2) depth data that utilizes " degree of depth counting and mechanical transmission module " to gather carries out the degree of depth, time data identification process to video and photo, as on video, photo, identifying current drilling depth.
3) video/photo and gamma ray curve are compared with depth data: the layer position lithology for natural gamma is confirmed can further be confirmed and checking at video or the enterprising row of photo; Differentiation to above-mentioned three kinds of lithology that are not easily distinguishable can be observed video or photo with the degree of depth in possible coal seam, limestone, sand layers position on log; The three has tangible vision difference: the coal seam black in color and the borehole wall are imperfect; The limestone gray and the borehole wall are complete, and sandstone is light gray or grey and the borehole wall and obvious graininess occurs.Thereby can tell the part lithology that natural gamma can not be discerned.On the basis of confirming lithology, utilize natural gamma accurately to mark off depth of stratum.
4) vertical video can reflect that boring " hole diameter " changes.Similar with routine boring, in the extra small bore drilling construction, when bit drills entered hard rock stratum (like sandstone, limestone, igneous rock), the aperture can dwindle; And when drill bit ran into incompetent bed (like mud stone, aleuritic texture mud stone, coal seam), it is big that the aperture will become; Often hole diameter can change at the variation of lithological place.
5) judge that " hole diameter " changes; In the video if show that hole wall is comparatively neat, bulky grain is outstanding seldom or seldom, the thin layer in black helical form band, rock stratum that stays when having drill bit to creep into clearly; Can be judged as the aperture this moment and enlarge (vision also can be experienced the aperture and enlarge), can tentatively be judged as aleuritic texture mud stone, siltstone or mud stone thus; The video appearance is significantly rough and uneven in surface, bulky grain shape material occurs more for a long time and work as, and can be judged as the aperture is dwindling (vision also can be experienced the aperture and dwindle), can tentatively be judged as sandstone, limestone lithology thus.Like this, cooperate the deficiency on checking each other and the remedy technology means with gamma ray curve, can solve the extra small bore lithology detection problem of holing basically.
Utilize the video camera technology can solve small diameter hole lithology detection problem basically with the mode that the natural gamma Detection Techniques of one of conventional main logging technique combine.It is to utilize natural gamma quantitatively to divide depth of stratum, distinguishing visual, the next common quantitative identification that realizes the rock stratum lithology of intuitive that main lithology (sandstone class, mud stone class) combines the video camera technology.
Extra small bore boring lithology detection system of the present invention and method have the following advantages at least: the present invention is to extra small bore bore detecting lithology and lift height; Mainly be to common sedimentary rock stratum, can distinguish lithology and lift heights thereof such as main lithology such as the gritstone of sedimentary formation, middle sandstone, packsand, siltstone, chiltern mud stone, mud stone, alum clay mud stone, carbonaceous mudstone, coal seam, limestone, igneous rock.If the record that can cooperate the geologic prospect boring (get core, the aperture is greater than 45mm) of a close region or disclose can be distinguished more rock stratum lithology as the canonical reference of lithology identification, effect will be more accurate also.
The specific embodiment
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing extra small bore boring lithology detection system of the present invention and method are done detailed description:
Detection system structure design of the present invention can be with reference to the mechanism of conventional logging instrument; General arrangement can be adopted " memory-type ", and (instrument does not does not process and display data when image data; Data have special procedure to handle after gather accomplishing in addition), " direct-reading " (instrument possess simultaneously gather and handle the initial data function, can see the result at the scene) or the two mixed mode.The present invention is " memory-type " at the system drawing that this provides, and is as shown in Figure 1, and system comprises: borehole data acquisition module 1, degree of depth counting are formed with mechanical transmission module 2, data and lithology discrimination module 3 three parts.Wherein:
Borehole data acquisition module 1: integrated electric video image unit 11, natural gamma collecting unit 13, control module 15, power subsystem 17 (the placement order of each unit can be adjusted as required); Design is enough to get in the metal shell probe (probe diameter of surveying the anchor cable hole is generally less than 26mm) of extra small bore boring at a diameter, is used to accomplish the collection to boring borehole wall video, digital photos and stratum natural gamma data.This module further specifies as follows:
1) probe diameter of the extra small bore boring of detection generally is less than more than the extra small bore bore diameter 2mm, so that can pass in and out smoothly;
2) image unit generally adopts vertical, side direction two-way design (at least one road video).Vertical video can omnibearing observation borehole wall lithology situation, and reflection " hole diameter " changes.Image data can centralized stores to a memory or storage respectively.If adopt " direct-reading " or composite design, in probe, camera can only be installed, shooting can be placed in degree of depth counting and the mechanical transmission module 2 with display control circuit.
3) have only the design of one tunnel vertical shoot function to drip influence in being holed easily and fall flat, the video of vertical shooting or photograph taking angle on the other hand do not meet people's visual observation custom.
4) the side direction video then can effectively prevent the influence of dripping in the boring, and intuitively reflects borehole wall variation of lithological, meets people's visual custom.The side direction video acquisition also can change the side direction digital photos into and take, and the two selects one.
5) the natural gamma unit is used to gather stratum natural gamma radioactivity data.Image data can store separately also can with above-mentioned video data storage and uniform.
6) control module is used for the circuit control to the operation of whole probe, like total power switch etc.If adopt " direct-reading " or composite design, control module can comprehensive Design in degree of depth counting and mechanical transmission module 2.
7) power module is responsible for the circuit supply to probe segment, if adopt " direct-reading " or composite design, power supply can design in degree of depth counting and mechanical transmission module 2.
Degree of depth counting and mechanical transmission module 2: use the collection of ripe depth data acquisition technique (like horse dish counter) deadline and degree of depth synchrodata, and accomplish mechanical transport to the data acquisition module; If adopt " direct-reading " or composite design, this module can integrated data shows functions such as (like display video/photo), overall control circuit unit (as beginning, reset etc.), centralized stores unit, centrally connected power supply unit.
Data and lithology discrimination module 3: the collection of completion video, digital photos, natural gamma initial data is also synchronous with depth data; Calculate sand mud ratio; Quantitatively divide output boring lithological column function on this basis with thickness according to accomplishing rock stratum lithology identification.
As shown in Figure 2, the present invention comprises the steps: extra small bore boring lithology detection system
1) on-site data gathering: with mechanical moving device 2 borehole data acquisition module 1 (being instrument probe) is sent in the small-diameter hole according to basic even velocity through degree of depth counting; Be provided with according to the synchronous acquisition time of setting, accomplish from the aperture to the hole at the bottom of vertical video, side direction video/photo, natural gamma and the depth data collection of all drilled hole degree of depth; Image data can centralized stores to a memory cell, or stores respectively.
2) data preliminary treatment: the data of gathering are carried out data through data and lithology discrimination module 3 collect, the data that need to handle comprise degree of depth synchrodata, side direction/vertical video, side direction digital photos, natural gamma.Contents processing comprises: utilize depth data that video/photo, natural gamma are carried out degree of depth time synchronized (in logging technique, often being referred to as " data scale "); Make video, photo, natural gamma and degree of depth time that accurate corresponding relation arranged, video, photo carry out suitable montage in case of necessity.If what the side direction shooting was obtained is photo, can splice by the photo that each deep calibration is corresponding, produce a long photo of the complete borehole wall.
3) lithology and lift height are confirmed: at first utilize the natural gamma data to generate gamma ray curve to the above-mentioned data that dispose, utilize this curve and combine video to carry out comprehensive distinguishing, draw out the lithology columnar section.Lithology and lift height interpretation process are following: (1) utilizes natural gamma; Mark off strata division and preliminary its lithology of judgement,, utilize vertical video can judge that roughly " hole diameter " changes simultaneously vertical, the side direction video (photo) of each hierarchical synchronization broadcast even depth; The binding curve characteristic; Checking layering lithology correctness after the correct judgement of definite lithology, is confirmed its thickness.(2) lift height of above-mentioned judgement being accomplished, proportionally chi (as 1: 200/1: 500) is drawn boring lithology column.(3) the lithology column is output into picture (bitmap, jpg) if needed preserves or export the CAD form.
The above is merely one embodiment of the present invention; It or not whole or unique embodiment; The conversion of any equivalence that those of ordinary skills take technical scheme of the present invention through reading manual of the present invention is claim of the present invention and contains.