CN102381189A - 用于在危急的行驶状况中使机动车制动的方法 - Google Patents

用于在危急的行驶状况中使机动车制动的方法 Download PDF

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CN102381189A
CN102381189A CN2011102457431A CN201110245743A CN102381189A CN 102381189 A CN102381189 A CN 102381189A CN 2011102457431 A CN2011102457431 A CN 2011102457431A CN 201110245743 A CN201110245743 A CN 201110245743A CN 102381189 A CN102381189 A CN 102381189A
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self
propelled vehicle
braking
brake
making
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CN102381189B (zh
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P.弗吕
R.布吕格曼
A.赖策
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罗伯特·博世有限公司
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60TVEHICLE BRAKE CONTROL SYSTEMS OR PARTS THEREOF; BRAKE CONTROL SYSTEMS OR PARTS THEREOF, IN GENERAL; ARRANGEMENT OF BRAKING ELEMENTS ON VEHICLES IN GENERAL; PORTABLE DEVICES FOR PREVENTING UNWANTED MOVEMENT OF VEHICLES; VEHICLE MODIFICATIONS TO FACILITATE COOLING OF BRAKES
    • B60T8/00Arrangements for adjusting wheel-braking force to meet varying vehicular or ground-surface conditions, e.g. limiting or varying distribution of braking force
    • B60T8/32Arrangements for adjusting wheel-braking force to meet varying vehicular or ground-surface conditions, e.g. limiting or varying distribution of braking force responsive to a speed condition, e.g. acceleration or deceleration
    • B60T8/321Arrangements for adjusting wheel-braking force to meet varying vehicular or ground-surface conditions, e.g. limiting or varying distribution of braking force responsive to a speed condition, e.g. acceleration or deceleration deceleration
    • B60T8/3215Systems characterised by having means acting on components of the drive line, e.g. retarder, clutch or differential gear
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60TVEHICLE BRAKE CONTROL SYSTEMS OR PARTS THEREOF; BRAKE CONTROL SYSTEMS OR PARTS THEREOF, IN GENERAL; ARRANGEMENT OF BRAKING ELEMENTS ON VEHICLES IN GENERAL; PORTABLE DEVICES FOR PREVENTING UNWANTED MOVEMENT OF VEHICLES; VEHICLE MODIFICATIONS TO FACILITATE COOLING OF BRAKES
    • B60T13/00Transmitting braking action from initiating means to ultimate brake actuator with power assistance or drive; Brake systems incorporating such transmitting means, e.g. air-pressure brake systems
    • B60T13/10Transmitting braking action from initiating means to ultimate brake actuator with power assistance or drive; Brake systems incorporating such transmitting means, e.g. air-pressure brake systems with fluid assistance, drive, or release
    • B60T13/58Combined or convertible systems
    • B60T13/585Combined or convertible systems comprising friction brakes and retarders
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60TVEHICLE BRAKE CONTROL SYSTEMS OR PARTS THEREOF; BRAKE CONTROL SYSTEMS OR PARTS THEREOF, IN GENERAL; ARRANGEMENT OF BRAKING ELEMENTS ON VEHICLES IN GENERAL; PORTABLE DEVICES FOR PREVENTING UNWANTED MOVEMENT OF VEHICLES; VEHICLE MODIFICATIONS TO FACILITATE COOLING OF BRAKES
    • B60T7/00Brake-action initiating means
    • B60T7/12Brake-action initiating means for automatic initiation; for initiation not subject to will of driver or passenger
    • B60T7/22Brake-action initiating means for automatic initiation; for initiation not subject to will of driver or passenger initiated by contact of vehicle, e.g. bumper, with an external object, e.g. another vehicle, or by means of contactless obstacle detectors mounted on the vehicle
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60TVEHICLE BRAKE CONTROL SYSTEMS OR PARTS THEREOF; BRAKE CONTROL SYSTEMS OR PARTS THEREOF, IN GENERAL; ARRANGEMENT OF BRAKING ELEMENTS ON VEHICLES IN GENERAL; PORTABLE DEVICES FOR PREVENTING UNWANTED MOVEMENT OF VEHICLES; VEHICLE MODIFICATIONS TO FACILITATE COOLING OF BRAKES
    • B60T8/00Arrangements for adjusting wheel-braking force to meet varying vehicular or ground-surface conditions, e.g. limiting or varying distribution of braking force
    • B60T8/17Using electrical or electronic regulation means to control braking
    • B60T8/1755Brake regulation specially adapted to control the stability of the vehicle, e.g. taking into account yaw rate or transverse acceleration in a curve
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60TVEHICLE BRAKE CONTROL SYSTEMS OR PARTS THEREOF; BRAKE CONTROL SYSTEMS OR PARTS THEREOF, IN GENERAL; ARRANGEMENT OF BRAKING ELEMENTS ON VEHICLES IN GENERAL; PORTABLE DEVICES FOR PREVENTING UNWANTED MOVEMENT OF VEHICLES; VEHICLE MODIFICATIONS TO FACILITATE COOLING OF BRAKES
    • B60T8/00Arrangements for adjusting wheel-braking force to meet varying vehicular or ground-surface conditions, e.g. limiting or varying distribution of braking force
    • B60T8/32Arrangements for adjusting wheel-braking force to meet varying vehicular or ground-surface conditions, e.g. limiting or varying distribution of braking force responsive to a speed condition, e.g. acceleration or deceleration
    • B60T8/34Arrangements for adjusting wheel-braking force to meet varying vehicular or ground-surface conditions, e.g. limiting or varying distribution of braking force responsive to a speed condition, e.g. acceleration or deceleration having a fluid pressure regulator responsive to a speed condition
    • B60T8/48Arrangements for adjusting wheel-braking force to meet varying vehicular or ground-surface conditions, e.g. limiting or varying distribution of braking force responsive to a speed condition, e.g. acceleration or deceleration having a fluid pressure regulator responsive to a speed condition connecting the brake actuator to an alternative or additional source of fluid pressure, e.g. traction control systems
    • B60T8/4809Traction control, stability control, using both the wheel brakes and other automatic braking systems
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W10/00Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function
    • B60W10/10Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function including control of change-speed gearings
    • B60W10/11Stepped gearings
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W10/00Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function
    • B60W10/18Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function including control of braking systems
    • B60W10/184Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function including control of braking systems with wheel brakes
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W10/00Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function
    • B60W10/18Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function including control of braking systems
    • B60W10/196Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function including control of braking systems acting within the driveline, e.g. retarders
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W10/00Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function
    • B60W10/30Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function including control of auxiliary equipment, e.g. air-conditioning compressors or oil pumps
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W30/00Purposes of road vehicle drive control systems not related to the control of a particular sub-unit, e.g. of systems using conjoint control of vehicle sub-units, or advanced driver assistance systems for ensuring comfort, stability and safety or drive control systems for propelling or retarding the vehicle
    • B60W30/18Propelling the vehicle
    • B60W30/18009Propelling the vehicle related to particular drive situations
    • B60W30/18109Braking
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W30/00Purposes of road vehicle drive control systems not related to the control of a particular sub-unit, e.g. of systems using conjoint control of vehicle sub-units, or advanced driver assistance systems for ensuring comfort, stability and safety or drive control systems for propelling or retarding the vehicle
    • B60W30/18Propelling the vehicle
    • B60W30/18009Propelling the vehicle related to particular drive situations
    • B60W30/18145Cornering
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60TVEHICLE BRAKE CONTROL SYSTEMS OR PARTS THEREOF; BRAKE CONTROL SYSTEMS OR PARTS THEREOF, IN GENERAL; ARRANGEMENT OF BRAKING ELEMENTS ON VEHICLES IN GENERAL; PORTABLE DEVICES FOR PREVENTING UNWANTED MOVEMENT OF VEHICLES; VEHICLE MODIFICATIONS TO FACILITATE COOLING OF BRAKES
    • B60T2260/00Interaction of vehicle brake system with other systems
    • B60T2260/04Automatic transmission
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T477/00Interrelated power delivery controls, including engine control
    • Y10T477/80Brake control
    • Y10T477/81Sensed condition responsive control of engine of brake
    • Y10T477/813Brake
    • Y10T477/814Brake and engine

Abstract

本发明涉及一种用于在相应的行驶状况中使机动车制动的方法,在所述行驶状况中自动的制动功能在起作用。制动调节设备的液压泵可以设计具有较小的尺寸并且以低廉的成本来设计,如果在危急的行驶状况中自动地接通额外的制动装置或者提高其制动功率,用于支持常用制动器并且额外地使机动车减速。

Description

用于在危急的行驶状况中使机动车制动的方法

技术领域

[0001] 本发明涉及一种用于在危急的行驶状况中使机动车制动的方法,在所述危急的行驶状况中自动的制动功能在起作用。

背景技术

[0002] 如果机动车以太高的速度驶入弯道,那么作用于该机动车的横向力就会如此之大,使得该机动车侧翻。这样的条件尤其经常在具有急转弯的高速公路出口处出现。如果机动车的转向角特性、偏转特性或者加速特性超过特定的阈值,那么行驶动力调节器就自动地对行驶运行进行干预并且使单个的车轮制动,用于又使机动车保持稳定。

[0003] 对于这样的自动的制动干预来说,触发液压泵,所述液压泵将制动流体朝车轮制动器的方向输送并且由此提高制动压力。对于具有允许的15吨以下的总重的以液压方式制动的营运汽车来说,为了产生比如IOObar的制动压力,必须将较大的高达12. 5 cm3的液压流体的量输送给每个单个车轮的车轮制动器。相反,传统的7. 5吨以下的营运汽车拥有每个车轮6cm3以下的输送量用于相应的压力形成。因此,对于15吨以下的营运汽车来说,制动设备的组件尤其液压泵的尺寸必须设计得大得多。因此它们也相应地比较昂贵。

发明内容

[0004] 因此,本发明的任务是,提供尤其用于具有允许的大于7. 5吨的总重的机动车的一种制动系统和一种制动方法,所述制动系统和制动方法能够给机动车配备安置在制动调节设备中的对于较轻的机动车等级来说常见的液压泵并且尽管如此能够使机动车保持足够的稳定。

[0005] 该任务按照本发明通过在权利要求1中所说明的特征得到解决。本发明的其它设计方案从从属权利要求中获得。

[0006] 按照本发明提出,在危急的行驶状况中借助于另外的制动装置来自动地使机动车制动,在所述危急的行驶状况中自动的制动功能比如ESP在起作用。所述另外的制动装置在这种情况下可以为此新转换,或者如果其已经在起作用则提高其制动力矩。在这种情况下,常用制动器与所述额外的制动装置一起起作用并且共同为机动车的减速作贡献。这样做的优点是,所述制动调节设备的液压泵可以保持较低的尺寸设计,因为其在危急的行驶状况中通过额外的制动装置得到支持。具有允许的15吨的总重的商用汽车由此比如可以具有为允许的7. 5吨的总重以下的机动车而设计的液压泵。在需要较高的泵输送功率的情况中常用制动设备得到所述额外的制动装置的支持。

[0007] 所述按本发明的方法或者说制动系统优选设置用在中等重量的具有允许的大于7. 5吨的总重的商用汽车上。通过本发明,可以给这样的机动车配备一般为7. 5吨以下的机动车设计的液压泵。

[0008] 所述额外的制动装置比如可以是自动变速器,将所述自动变速器自动地切换为较小的档位,用于提高牵弓I力矩并且额外地使机动车制动。[0009] 作为替代方案或者补充方案,也可以将车辆减速器用作制动装置。在这种情况下,在危急的行驶状况中自动地接通所述车辆减速器并且提高其制动力矩,用于额外地使机动车减速。

[0010] 此外,也可以接通发动机风扇或者其它机组以及比如电气负载,用于直接或者间接地通过发电机来施加牵引力矩,使得机动车额外地减速。合适的电气负载比如是空调压缩机或者座椅电热器等。

[0011] 按照本发明的一种优选的实施方式,设置了一种算法,该算法在危急的行驶状况中计算额定制动力矩或者其它的制动所专有的参量比如制动力或者制动力梯度。如果所述液压的常用制动器的功率不足以用于根据额定要求使机动车制动,那就自动地接通至少另一个装置或者说提高其制动作用。如果相反所述液压的常用制动器的制动力矩或者说制动力矩梯度足够大,那就优选不接通任何另外的制动装置并且纯粹以液压方式进行制动。

附图说明

[0012] 下面借助于附图示范性地对本发明进行详细解释。附图示出如下:图1是用于在危急的行驶状况中使机动车制动的方法的示意性的方框图。

具体实施方式

[0013] 图1示出了用于在危急的行驶状况中使机动车制动的方法的示意性的方框图,在所述危急的行驶状况中行驶动态调节器在起作用。在所示出的方法中,在步骤1中首先在危急的行驶状况方面对行驶运行进行监控,在所述危急的行驶状况中机动车比如过控制或者控制不足或者面临倾翻的危险。这比如借助于传统的ESP传感装置来进行。在这里的情况中,测量转向角Sy横向加速度〜、偏转比率ψ和车轮转速并且对其进行分析。但是,危急的行驶状况也会在直行时出现,比如在机动车的前面有障碍物并且面临与障碍物碰撞的危险。

[0014] 只要在方框1中识别出危急的行驶状况,那就在方框2中计算额定制动力矩或者与其成比例的参量比如制动力,在相应的情况中需要所述参量用于使机动车稳定或者防止碰撞。在方框3中询问,由所述液压的制动设备提供的制动力矩是否大到足以根据额定设定值来使机动车减速。如果所述常用制动器的制动功率太小,那就自动地接通额外的制动装置或者提高其制动力矩,用于支持常用制动器并且额外地使机动车减速。否则纯粹以液压方式使机动车制动(方框6)。

[0015] 作为额外的制动装置,比如可以使用自动变速器,在此将该自动变速器切换为较小的档位。由此提高牵引力矩并且额外地使机动车制动。作为替代方案或者补充方案,也可以将车辆减速器用作额外的制动装置,用于额外地使机动车制动。除此以外,也可以将发动机风扇或者其它辅助机组以及具有较高的额定功率的电气负载用作额外的制动装置。所提到的元件在运行中产生牵引力矩,该牵引力矩通过内燃机和动力传动系反作用于机动车的车轮并且额外地使机动车制动。

[0016] 所述按本发明的方法优选用在中等重量的具有允许的大于7. 5吨的总重的商用汽车上。通过本发明可以给这样的机动车配备安置在制动设备中的为7. 5吨以下的机动车设计的液压泵。

Claims (6)

1.用于在行驶状况中使机动车制动的方法,在所述行驶状况中自动的制动功能在起作用,其特征在于,自动地接通另外的制动装置,或者如果其已经在起作用则自动地提高其制动作用,用于额外地使机动车减速。
2.按权利要求1所述的方法,其特征在于,将自动变速器用作另外的制动装置,并且将该自动变速器切换为较小的档位,用于提高牵引力矩并且额外地使机动车减速。
3.按权利要求1或2所述的方法,其特征在于,将车辆减速器用作另外的制动装置并且接通该车辆减速器或者说提高其制动力矩,用于额外地使机动车减速。
4.按前述权利要求中任一项所述的方法,其特征在于,接通发动机风扇和/或电气负载,用于额外地使机动车制动。
5.按前述权利要求中任一项所述的方法,其特征在于,计算必要的额定制动力矩或者与其成比例的参量,并且在所述必要的额定制动力矩大于由所述常用制动器提供的制动力矩时,自动地接通所述另外的制动装置或者说提高其制动力矩。
6.控制仪,包括用于实施前面要求权利的方法之一的机构。
CN201110245743.1A 2010-08-25 2011-08-24 用于在危急的行驶状况中使机动车制动的方法 CN102381189B (zh)

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