(2) background technology
Battery is the device that chemical energy is changed into electric energy, and secondary cell is a rechargeable battery, also is storage battery, is the battery that can repeatedly charge and discharge and use, and commonly used have lead acid accumulator, Ni-MH battery, lithium ion battery, a ultracapacitor etc.These batteries in process of production; Generally all to change into and test; Change into is exactly after secondary cell (hereinafter to be referred as battery) assembling is accomplished; Charge the battery, with battery activated process; Test typically refers to change at battery and accomplishes the back and battery is charged and discharge, and whether reaches requirement with the capacity of checking battery, charge-discharge performance etc.
Conventional battery changes into or tests, and according to the difference of battery variety, method has a variety of, and equipment also has nothing in common with each other.Into or tested by a number of batteries, it can be divided into two categories: one category is once only into (or test) a single cell, the corresponding device as single cells into (or test) machines, such as lithium-ion into the battery, the general battery cycle life testing, the use of such methods and apparatus, the circuit shown in Figure 1, which usually contains charger C, discharger R (generally with variable resistor), the charging unit C from with the ammeter A, voltmeter V (both typically digital), an internal signal lines cl, the signal converter IC, the external signal line CL, computer 1, display 2, a keyboard 3, a mouse 4, single cells B, whole Machine (dashed box) through an internal signal line cl, signal converter IC, the external signal line CL 1 is connected with a computer (for ease of graphical observation, the internal signal line and signal converter IC cl connection between the omission does not draw, following the same ), and the whole computer 1 in order to achieve communication, programming control operation of the machine, access circuit current and voltage signals, rendering single battery charge and discharge curve B, to calculate the charge and discharge capacity, a machine can only into ( or test) a single cell B, but can have such a machine controlled by the same computer 1; another is a can into (or test) more than just single cells in series to form a battery group, the corresponding device the (series) into multiple cell (or test) machines, such as lead-acid battery formation, conventional battery testing, a large current, the use of such methods and apparatus, the circuit diagram shown in Figure 2 differs from Figure 1 C in its charger voltage generated is high, one can into (or test) n only single cells in series to form a battery group B1 --- Bn, in addition, since the high voltage of the battery in series, to facilitate the discharge power against becomes available to receive the AC power back to the grid, so it can be used only when the discharger variable resistor, the inverter can also be used with R * represents to show the difference.
The deficiency of its existence is: cell changes into (or test) method and equipment thereof; Owing to once can only change into (or test) cell; Production efficiency is too low; Need to use a lot of platform equipment in the production; Cost height and floor space are big; Monomer battery voltage is too low, but electric energy is difficult to inversion and feeds back to electrical network for the alternating current that power supply network receives during discharge; And existing many batteries change into (or test) method and equipment thereof; Generally cell is lacked effective supervisory circuit control; Be prone to cause cell to overcharge or overdischarge, thereby use inconvenience, generally only be applicable to overcharging resisting electricity battery; Like lead acid accumulator; For the storage battery of the electricity of overcharging resisting not, then use just very restricted, only if each monomer battery voltage of manual measurement; Find higher or on the low side i.e. disconnection, operate pretty troublesome, time-consuming and unreliable.
As shown in Figure 3; The present invention changes into the method for (or test) as a kind of battery; It comprises (or test) to be changed battery B1; B2; B3; Bn; By main charger C; The battery of compositions such as discharger R* changes into (or test) machine (in the frame of broken lines; Wherein contain the ammeter A that charger carries; Voltmeter V; Internal signal wire cl; Signal converter IC etc.); External signal line CL; Control computer 1; Display 2; Keyboard 3; Mouse 4 etc.; Be similar to Fig. 2; Complete machine is through internal signal wire cl; Signal converter IC; External signal line CL is connected with control computer 1; Control computer 1 with this and realize communication with complete machine; The operation of programming Control complete machine; The electric current of acquisition cuicuit; Voltage signal; Draw the charging and discharging curve of cell; Calculate its charge/discharge capacity; Its different characteristics is: it is with (or test) to be changed battery B1; B2; B3; Bn is cascaded and changes into (or test); Cell is connected with the voltage monitoring control circuit; Can monitor each monomer battery voltage; Prevent that it from overcharging and overdischarge; Sort circuit generally adopts the integrated circuit Knockdown block; But for the principle of the invention is described intuitively; This place adopts the digital voltmeter V1 of the band signal line cl of simulation; V2; V3; Vn representes (back together); Can monitor each monomer battery voltage; Voltage signal is passed through holding wire cl; Signal converter IC; External signal line CL is sent to control computer 1; Control computer 1 is monitored the complete machine operation in real time according to the program of setting in advance; In case too high or too low (surpassing setting) appears in certain monomer battery voltage; Promptly main charger C is made and reduce charging current or discharger R* made the corresponding adjustment that stops to discharge; The control monomer battery voltage is not too high or too low, prevents that cell from overcharging and overdischarge; Each cell also is connected with equalization charging circuit simultaneously; Can carry out equalizing charge to cell; This place adopts balance charger C1; C2; C3; Cn; The balance charger here; In fact be exactly that some can be to the small-sized charger of the independent charging of cell; Its voltage is lower; Usually can only be used for cell is charged; Its charging current is often also smaller; Be generally less than the charging current of main charger C; Its effect is: after main charger C is to basic completion of whole series battery B1---Bn charging; Each cell is replenished; To guarantee that each cell can both be full of electricity, promptly cell is carried out equalizing charge, change into the requirement of (or test) to satisfy battery.For satisfying the different equalizing charge requirements of variety classes battery, balance charger also should be the same with main charger, accomplishes charging voltage, electric current is adjustable, controlled computer program control.
Than Fig. 2; The present invention has increased monitoring and the control (comprising equilibrium) to every cell of series connection; Therefore the monitoring battery that is referred to as to connect changes into (or test) method; This equipment is called the series connection monitoring battery and changes into (or test) machine; Change into (or test) machine as a kind of battery; Comprise (or test) to be changed series battery B1---Bn; It has mainly comprised following characteristic: it comprises main charger C; Inverter R*; Monomer battery voltage observation circuit V1; V2; V3 ... Vn; Balance charger C1; C2; C3 ... Cn; Control computer 1 etc., main charger C; Inverter R* and to be changed
(or test) series battery B1---Bn connects; Main charger C can charge to series battery B1---Bn; But inverter R* can make the series battery discharge and change the direct current that it is emitted into alternating current that power supply network receives; The monomer battery voltage observation circuit; Balance charger is connected with each cell; The former can monitor each monomer battery voltage; The latter can carry out equalizing charge to each cell; Control computer 1 and main charger C; Inverter R*; The monomer battery voltage observation circuit; There is holding wire to connect between the balance charger; Can the operation of programming Control complete machine (comprise that the control monomer battery voltage is not too high or too low; Prevent that cell from overcharging and overdischarge); The voltage signal that obtains each cell of monomer battery voltage monitoring circuit monitors is (by digital voltmeter V1; V2; V3 ... Vn records and uploads through holding wire); The current signal of main charger and balance charger is (by its digital current Table A that respectively carries; A1; A2; A3 ... An records and uploads through holding wire); Circuit discharging current signal (record and upload) etc. through holding wire by the digital current Table A; Draw the charging and discharging curve of each cell, calculate the charge/discharge capacity of each cell.(certainly, be the guaranteed capacity certainty of measurement, should guarantee ammeter A, A1, A2, A3 ... An has corresponding precision)
Monomer battery voltage Monitoring and Controlling and equalization charging circuit can divide and be arranged; Also can merge setting; Because; Usually charger all carries voltmeter and ammeter; Therefore; When equalization charging circuit of the present invention adopt balance charger C1, C2, C3 ... In the time of Cn; The voltmeter that can utilize balance charger to carry is monitored each monomer battery voltage; And through its holding wire and control computer 1 communication enforcement voltage control, monomer battery voltage Monitoring and Controlling at this time of the present invention and equalization charging circuit all adopt balance charger.When so doing; Noting a bit, is exactly that the voltage measurement line of balance charger will be arranged with its charging wire branch and is connected to the battery two ends, because of charging wire will carry charging current; Wired pressure drop is also served as the accuracy that the voltage measurement line can influence voltage measurement with it.
During work; Main charger C at first starts to series battery B1---Bn and charges; Each monomer battery voltage of monomer battery voltage monitoring circuit monitors; Reach the charging voltage higher limit data upload control computer 1 of setting when certain monomer battery voltage after; Control computer 1 sends control signal; Main charger C transfers constant voltage charge to; While balance charger C1; C2; C3 ... Cn starts; (but the electric current sum of keeping main charger and balance charger equals the initiation of charge electric current of main charger to carry out equalizing charge for the cell that does not reach the charging voltage higher limit; Still be in the constant current charge state to keep these cells); Treat that monomer battery voltage reaches the charging voltage higher limit, corresponding balance charger also transfers constant voltage charge to.Equalizing charge first time when battery changes into; Usually the charging cut-off current of balance charger is set to battery constant voltage charge cut-off current; And be provided with the charging cut-off current of main charger slightly high; General main charger changes constant voltage charge pattern after-current decline meeting over to and arrives its charging cut-off current shutdown earlier during charging, and then balance charger continues to charge to the shutdown of battery constant voltage charge cut-off current.Shelve by official hour afterwards, again through inverter R* discharge, but the direct current that series battery is emitted during discharge converts the alternating current that power supply network receives into through inverter R*, and (through tuning after) feeds back to electrical network (or supplying inner electrical appliance use).Control computer 1 discharges and recharges the setting of program; Control; Each the monomer battery voltage signal that obtains the monomer battery voltage monitoring circuit monitors is (by digital voltmeter V1; V2; V3 ... Vn records and uploads through holding wire); The charging current signal of main charger and balance charger is (by its digital current Table A that respectively carries; A1; A2; A3 ... An records and uploads through holding wire); Circuit discharging current signal (record and upload) etc. through holding wire by the digital current Table A; Draw the charging and discharging curve of each cell, and calculate the charge/discharge capacity (attention: cell charging current=main charger charging current+balance charger charging current) of each cell.
Equalizing charge comes from the difference of battery capacity.For reducing the equalizing charge time, should adopt the battery of same capacity specifications to be composed in series one group, the battery capacity difference is with smaller in the group like this, and the equalizing charge time is just short.The equalizing charge time is also relevant with battery status; Same series battery; After carrying out for the first time the equalizing charge completion; Having put electricity together for whole group recharges; Belonging to the same of balancing battery puts with filling; Whole Battery pack should still be in the basis equalization state; Balance charger should change at main charger and restart (and just startup when main charger changes constant voltage charge the equalizing charge for the first time should not resemble above) after constant voltage charge to battery constant voltage charge cut-off current is shut down this moment, and the equalizing charge electric current should be very little, the time should be very short.
Based on above-mentioned principle; After battery changes into and tests completion, charge the battery or discharge in order to store, in the transportation; Advocate and adopt following method: for the battery of same capacity specifications; Control residual capacity (being uncharged capacity) numerical value equates, covolume such as Here it is so-called battery are stored conveying method.This method is very important in battery is paid, and it can guarantee that the battery of same capacity specifications when the payment user uses, is in the basis equalization state, and series connection can be full of electricity when using in groups simultaneously, is beneficial to battery and uses.Use the present invention and can in battery production, implement it easily: when the last charge-discharge test of series battery; The record discharge capacity; Like 301.29 ampere-hours; Equate that by control residual capacity (being uncharged capacity) numerical value the method for (like 180.00 ampere-hours) recharges (promptly replenishing) then; Promptly need recharge into 121.29 ampere-hours (remaining 180.00 ampere-hours); If discharge capacity is 298.63 ampere-hours during the last charge-discharge test of next Battery pack of same specification; Then need recharge into 118.63 ampere-hours (remaining 180.00 ampere-hours); The rest may be inferred; These can configure in computer program, and (special situation: all batteries are full of the electricity storage and transport promptly is residual capacity=0; But because of there is not uncharged capacity in it, therefore not as the related scope of this method).Certainly; It also can be implemented like this: earlier all batteries all are full of electricity and store a period of time, like two weeks, check that battery has no abnormal during this period; Unusual battery is chosen, and (before the transportation) is cascaded normal battery and emits equal electric weight (for transportation safety is considered).It is different from prior art; Prior art generally is to charge (as storing behind general provision battery charge 40% capacity and transportation) in identical capacity ratio; It can cause battery state when series connection is used in groups of same specification unbalanced, can not be full of simultaneously; The battery overcharge that has and the battery underfill that has electricity, it is unfavorable that this uses battery.
The battery of same specification; Difference because of production process; Can cause its capacity slightly variant; Be cascaded with this battery and be full of when discharge electricity back; Arriving electric weight and be time of 0 also can be variant; So can cause puzzlement to the discharge capacity test; Can be by as follows the setting of discharge procedures being solved: discharge procedures be to two values of lower limit set of cell discharge voltage; One is the lower voltage limit value of calculated capacity; One is the lower voltage limit value of protection cell safety; The former is higher than the latter; During discharge such as a certain cell arrive earlier the lower voltage limit value of calculated capacity; Discharge process is proceeded; If middle all cells all arrive the lower voltage limit value of calculated capacity and do not have cell to arrive the lower voltage limit value of protection cell safety; Then discharge process finishes; Computer is with the discharge capacity of each cell of Time Calculation of the lower voltage limit value of each cell arrival calculated capacity; And if there is the lower voltage limit value of cell no show calculated capacity the centre and have the lower voltage limit value that cell arrives the protection cell safety; Then discharge process also finishes; Computer is with the discharge capacity of each cell of Time Calculation of the lower voltage limit value of each cell arrival calculated capacity; Cell (a lot of greatly because of its capacity usually) for the lower voltage limit value of no show calculated capacity still than other cell; Then calculate its residual capacity with the empirical equation that pretest records according to its ending discharge voltage etc.; Perhaps just as a reference with the cell of the last lower voltage limit value that arrives calculated capacity in this group; Arriving same electrical voltage point residual capacity with it, to account for total capacity percentage be benchmark; Calculate this battery remaining power in proportion; Add discharge capacity (discharge current * discharge time); As its discharge capacity; Perhaps provide suggestion; It (generally is not very necessary to measure its actual discharge capacity that this cell is replenished discharge separately; Because of the volume test of production process is the undemanding test of condition, only has a reference significance; And generally speaking error is little, precision is very high to adopt above method to calculate battery capacity; Battery capacity is bigger than normal favourable to the client again; This is enough, and big how many accurate values are not very important in fact).(discharge curve also can according to said method be drawn.In time replenish electricity promptly for after discharge finishes series battery, battery is caused adverse effect to prevent overdischarge.)
More than battery be cascaded change into (or test), can raise its discharge voltage, but inverter converts its direct current of emitting into alternating current that power supply network receives and feeds back to electrical network when being convenient to discharge, and realizes the energy feedback, promptly energy-conservation.But, problem is also arranged, at first; Inversion electrical waveform, phase place need meet the requirements; Promptly need carry out so-called " tuning ", secondly, the electric energy feedback also need be obtained the permission of power department; Therefore be actually a pretty troublesome thing; In addition, good inverter price is also very expensive, and inverter also has energy loss; Or the like ... In sum, said method still is necessary further improvement.
For this reason, further propose positive anti-series monitoring battery below and change into (or test) method:
Positive anti-series monitoring battery changes into (or test) method; Be that a kind of battery changes into the method for (or test); Comprise that battery, battery change into (or test) machine etc.; It is characterized in that: it is with battery to be charged and treat that the discharge battery differential concatenation changes into (or test) together; Cell is connected with the voltage monitoring control circuit; Can monitor each monomer battery voltage; Prevent that cell from overcharging and overdischarge; Battery to be charged also is connected with equalization charging circuit, can carry out equalizing charge to it.
Fig. 4 is its circuit diagram; Compare with Fig. 3; It has mainly increased in the battery series circuit exactly treats discharge battery B1 '; B2 '; B3 '; Bn '; Certainly also has its electric voltage observation circuit; This place (simulation) adopts the digital voltmeter V1 ' of band signal line; V2 '; V3 '; Vn '; Treat discharge battery B1 '; B2 '; B3 '; Bn ' and battery B1 to be charged; B2; B3; The Bn differential concatenation changes into (or test) together; Will make when treating the rechargeable battery charging and treat the discharge battery discharge; Effectively reduce charging voltage like this; Be equivalent to treat that the direct current that discharge battery is emitted directly is used to fill to battery to be charged; Avoided energy dissipation, thereby realized more efficiently energy-conservation.
Nature; The equipment of realizing this method is called positive anti-series monitoring battery and changes into (or test) machine; It is that a kind of battery changes into (or test) machine; Comprise (or test) to be changed series battery; Be divided into battery pack B1---Bn to be charged and treat discharge battery group B1 '---Bn '; On scheming, can find out; It mainly comprises following characteristics: it comprises main charger C; Monomer battery voltage observation circuit (the digital voltmeter V1 of band signal line; V2; V3; Vn and V1 '; V2 '; V3 '; Vn '); Balance charger C1; C2; C3; Cn; Control computer 1 etc.; Battery pack B1---Bn to be charged with treat discharge battery group B1 '---Bn ' differential concatenation; And be connected on the main charger C; Main charger C can treat rechargeable battery set B1---Bn charging and make and treat discharge battery group B1 '---Bn ' discharge; The monomer battery voltage observation circuit is connected with each cell; Can monitor each monomer battery voltage; Balance charger C1; C2; C3; Each cell B1 of Cn and battery pack to be charged; B2; B3; Bn connects; Can treat each cell B1 of rechargeable battery set; B2; B3; Bn carries out equalizing charge; Control computer 1 and main charger C; The monomer battery voltage observation circuit; There is holding wire to connect between the balance charger; Can the operation of programming Control complete machine (comprise that the control monomer battery voltage is not too high or too low; Prevent that cell from overcharging and overdischarge); The voltage signal that obtains each cell of monomer battery voltage monitoring circuit monitors is (by digital voltmeter V1; V2; V3 ... Vn and V1 '; V2 '; V3 '; Vn ' records and uploads through holding wire); The current signal of main charger and balance charger is (by its digital current Table A that respectively carries; A1; A2; A3 ... An records and uploads through holding wire); Circuit discharging current signal (record and upload) etc. through holding wire by the digital current Table A; Draw the charging and discharging curve of each cell, calculate the charge/discharge capacity of each cell and (note: cell charging current=main charger charging current+balance charger charging current).In addition, complete machine also is furnished with grammed switch K1, K2, K3, K4, can switch separately for battery pack B1---Bn charging to be charged or separately for treating discharge battery group B1 '---Bn ' discharge.The effect of She Zhiing is like this: though battery pack B1---Bn to be charged with treat that discharge battery group B1 '---Bn ' is cascaded; Latter's discharge in the time of the former charging; But the two is " synchronously " just; Be that the former charges and accomplishes and latter's completion of just discharging; Under the two situation that " synchronously " promptly do not accomplished simultaneously, switch separately for the former boost charge or for the latter replenishes through grammed switch K1, K2, K3, K4 and to discharge.The switch switch mode is following: switch is off-state all the time under the idle situation of machine, only allows maximum two switches closed simultaneously under the situation of work all the time; K1, K4 closure and K2, K3 break off, and machine is given battery pack B1---Bn charging to be charged and made and treat discharge battery group B1 '---Bn ' discharge; K1, K3 closure and K2, K4 break off, and machine is given battery pack B1---Bn charging to be charged separately; K2, K4 closure and K1, K3 break off, and machine is given separately and treated discharge battery group B1 '--and-Bn ' discharge, discharger R* can adopt variable resistor, had better adopt inverter, though at this time use the inverter chance will lack much than Fig. 3.Certainly, K1, K2 do not allow closed simultaneously, otherwise can cause battery pack B1---Bn short circuit to be charged; Equally, K3, K4 do not allow closed simultaneously, treat discharge battery group B1 '---Bn ' short circuit otherwise can cause; K2, K3 do not allow closed simultaneously yet, otherwise can cause charger C short circuit; For preventing contingency, increase installation insurance F at circuit.
The general procedures are as follows: Main charger C first start to be charged rechargeable battery pack B1 --- Bn leaving until discharged battery pack B1' --- Bn 'discharge, in the middle if the battery pack to be charged only a single cell voltage the charging voltage reaches the set limit value and the battery pack is not to be discharged to protect the battery reaches the lower limit voltage of the battery safety, the machine switches separately for the battery pack to be charged, the charging process control monitors the battery in series with the above into (or test ) machine (Figure 3), and then discharging the battery to be switched to a single group, the discharge process control monitors the battery likewise the above-described series into (or test) machine that controls the computer after each cell during charging and discharging of the accumulated data, rendering each cell charge and discharge curve is calculated for each cell charge and discharge capacity; if the battery has a battery to be discharged to protect the first to reach the lower limit voltage of the battery safety, the machine discharge end of the discharge of the battery pack, switch separately for the battery pack continues to be charged, the charging process control as above, the control computer drawn directly discharged battery B1' --- Bn 'each cell discharge curve, calculate the discharge capacity of each cell, but will be charged before the charging process battery charging data of each single cell accumulated draw rechargeable battery B1 --- Bn each cell charging curve, calculate the charge capacity of each cell.
When using this method; Select suitable battery pack to be charged for use and treat that the discharge battery group carries out " pairing " and promptly combine differential concatenation; The principle of pairing generally is: two Battery pack specifications and models are identical; Cell quantity equates that (quantity does not wait good; But have energy dissipation); (or test) the former charging current of process that changes into of carrying out equates (run into the close and unequal situation of both electric currents, should be adjusted to equal as far as possible) with the latter's discharging current numerical value.
For example; If certain battery in process of production; Successively will be with I1; I2; Three kinds of electric currents of I3 charge and discharge; Can carry out like this: earlier first is assumed to be n battery and is cascaded; Being connected operating current is first machine left side of I1; It is full of; Then this n battery is transferred to machine the right, the left side connect again n only same treat second batch of battery with the I1 charging, only be full of electricity with the right n and treated that the reverse battery of I1 discharge is cascaded; Will be when starting the machine to the right n battery discharge, on working procedure is seen to left side n battery charge; After process is accomplished, this Battery pack of the right pulled down transfer to second machine left side charging that operating current is I2, and left side battery is transferred to the right, the left side connects the 3rd batch of battery of treating with the I1 charging again, continues above-mentioned working procedure; After process is accomplished, second machine left side battery (first) transferred to its right, first machine the right battery (second batch) transferred to second machine left side; First machine left side battery (the 3rd batch) transferred to its right, and the 4th batch of battery inserted on the left side again ... The rest may be inferred.
It is thus clear that above method exists " circulation " problem of battery when using, for adapting to this need of work, should the different working district be set according to charging and discharging current different.For example can be provided with like this: battery changes into district, volume test district, cranking test district, returns charging zone, " circulation " that the spatial arrangement mode in zone should adapt to battery in proper order.In addition because battery is in " circulation " in groups in groups, at every turn again action such as recording cell number information repeat, unnecessary, the control computer that the different operating district can be set is realized data sharing at same message context.
Adopt the series connection monitoring battery to change into (or test) method; Also exist " circulation " problem of battery; Only its " circulation " is so not frequent; Because its charging and discharge with the same electric current of a collection of battery can directly be accomplished on same machine; And need not change to the right from the left side; Therefore operation is simple relatively; Required manual work, place are less relatively; But its charging voltage is higher relatively, charger works together, and consumed power is relatively large; Inverter work is more frequent, must obtain power department permission etc.How two kinds of methods are selected for use, must take all factors into consideration above-mentioned factor.
When selecting method and Machine Type, should note a bit: positive anti-series monitoring battery (or test) machine that changes into changes the series connection monitoring battery into and changes into (or test) machine under the obsolete situation of the right machine using inverter.Be that the former can change the latter into, but the latter then can not be changed the former into.Therefore when the machine type selecting, preferably select for use positive anti-series monitoring battery to change into (or test) machine, to strengthen its adaptability.
Cell is cascaded and changes into or test; Cannot say for sure wherein indivedual problematic batteries change into or test process in internal short-circuit takes place and generate heat even melt; Bring disaster to adjacent cells; Also there are this problem in battery serial or parallel connection or series-parallel connection (existing series connection has parallel connection again) when using in groups; Therefore suggestion; Between the cell of the battery pack of serial or parallel connection or series-parallel connection, thermal insulation board is installed, the generation of this to prevent " chain " accident.Material high temperature resistant, heat insulation, that do not fire that thermal insulation board can be used is like thin asbestos board etc.
Present widely used what is called " battery management system (BMS) " in the lithium ion battery series circuit with functions such as monitoring monomer battery voltage, temperature, operating currents; Have the voltage monitoring controlled function, can be used as voltage monitoring control circuit of the present invention.
Equalization charging circuit used in the present invention; Except that adopting balance charger; Also can form by switch electronic element or circuit, the discharge resistance etc. of deciding the voltage connection; Like Fig. 3, shown in Figure 4; Adopt and decide switch electronic element---voltage stabilizing didoe Dn, the discharge resistance Rn that voltage is communicated with; Can replace balance charger Cn, other balance charger C1, C2, C3 ... Also can carry out similar replacement.Control method changes to some extent after the replacement; But still can realize the equalizaing charge function: main charger C is to series battery charge; Arrive the higher limit of charging voltage to a certain battery after; Main charger C does not change constant-voltage charge immediately over to; But proceed constant-current charge; All arrive the higher limit of charging voltage until all batteries after; Main charger C just changes constant-voltage charge over to; Reverse " puncture " voltage of Zener diode is the higher limit of cell charging voltage; The middle cell that arrives the charging voltage higher limit earlier discharges with " puncture " Zener diode and by discharge resistance; Shunt a part " surplus " charging current with this; Thereby controlling this cell does not overcharge; The one part of current of telling will by corresponding ammeter record and through holding wire pass to control computer 1; This moment cell the discharge current of charging current=main charger C charging current-corresponding discharge resistance; All reach the lower limit of cell charging current to the charging current of all cells; Main charger C just stops charging; Reach the equalizaing charge first time with this to each cell; After equalizaing charge is for the first time accomplished; The interior battery of the operation battery pack of back is basis equalization, and main charger can change constant-voltage charge over to when certain cell one gets into the charging voltage higher limit.Adopting the switch electronic circuit of deciding the voltage connection to replace voltage stabilizing didoe is as a same reason.
Balance charger is different with adopting; Adopt decide switch electronic element that voltage is communicated with or circuit, discharge resistance realize the process of equalizing charge actual be to discharge; Though therefore this method equipment cost is much lower possibly; Bleed off in vain through resistance but have a spot of electric energy when using, have certain waste of energy.
Equalizing charge is not only very important in above-mentioned battery production process; Also very important when battery serial or parallel connection or the use of series-parallel connection (existing series connection has parallel connection again) one-tenth battery pack; Because general battery all should not overcharge; Overcharge in other words and be prone to send a telegraph the pond damage; And equalizing charge both can guarantee that battery was full of electricity and can prevents battery overcharge, and was therefore very important.In above-mentioned battery production process; Can adopt balance charger to realize it; But when battery serial or parallel connection or series-parallel connection become battery pack to use; Use balance charger to bother very much; And not very necessary; Because store conveying method by covolume such as above-mentioned battery, basis equalization when battery dispatches from the factory at this time should connect the switch electronic element of deciding the voltage connection or circuit, discharge resistance is realized equalizing charge on the monomer whose battery.
The present invention is cascaded battery and changes into and test, and not only is convenient to energy-conservationly, also makes this work become more regular, is convenient to realize standardization, the simplification operated improve work efficiency.For example; Being connected between battery and charger can be carried out following standardization and simplification: changing in (or test); Battery is placed on the template of regulation; The battery that constitutes regulation is put module; Between the control of connection between the monomer whose battery and cell and voltage monitoring and the equalization charging circuit be connected employing and battery is put the terminal block of template matches; Terminal block and battery are put corresponding guide pillar are set between the template, can guide the correct connection of the two.
Battery is put formwork structure can be very simple, it can be exactly when changing into (or test), in the setting-out on the table top of putting of battery, the regulation battery put shape, the position gets final product.It is schemed temporary omission and is not drawn.Introduce terminal block below.
As shown in Figure 5, be the structural representation of this terminal block, it and battery are put template (figure is slightly) coupling and are used.Whole terminal block 5 mainly (indicates voltage 1 by voltage monitoring connector 6; Voltage 2); Equalizing charge connector 7 (indicates electric current 1; Electric current 2; Electric current 6); Cell connector 10; With cell connector 10 and voltage and current connector 6; 7 compositions such as lead 9 devices such as grade that link to each other (are observed for ease of figure; The connection of lead is omitted and is not drawn); These devices are installed in up and down on the two-layer insulated substrate; Substrate is made with high-temperature flame-retardant plastic; Connect with screw 11 between the two-layer substrate; Wherein have through hole 8; For settling and observe the usefulness of cell safety valve port; And guide pillar hole 12 (totally four), for putting the supporting use of guide pillar of template with battery.Shown in Figure 5 is a kind of and battery 15*4 is put the terminal plate that template is complementary; So-called 15*4 battery is put template; Just be meant when changing into (or test); With battery by 15 of every row, the shape of totally 4 row regulations and the template that put the position; Put module with this 15*4 battery that constitutes regulation; This terminal plate 5 that is complementary with it is adopted in being connected between the control of connection between the monomer whose battery and cell and voltage monitoring and the equalization charging circuit; Connection work is greatly simplified: can put at terminal plate and battery corresponding guide pillar is set between the template; To guide the correct connection of the two; Only the guide pillar hole of terminal plate 12 need be aimed at batteries during use and put that corresponding guide column sleeve gets on the template; And then each battery electrode column screw 13 is locked on each battery electrode column screw thread, even if putting the inside of module, battery connects basic the completion.Take turns to when machine changes on this Battery pack (or test); Only two terminals about it need be connected to battery and change on (or test) machine, the corresponding connectors that battery is changed on voltage monitoring connector, equalizing charge connector and this terminal block of (or test) machine gets final product by the numbering grafting.Pole screw 13 can be pre-installed in the hole of cell connector 10, terminal block at ordinary times not the time spent can lie in the special-purpose dolly, the time spent just extracts out from dolly and directly loads onto, and connection work is greatly simplified.
By contrast; If adopt existing method; Packed battery intercell connector (totally 61) one by one; One one ground packed battery voltage monitoring line (totally 61), cell equalizing charge line (totally 61); That work will become is incomparably loaded down with trivial details, can't imagine, large-scale production even at all can't carry out!
Positive anti-series monitoring battery shown in Figure 4 changes into (or test) machine; If it is treated that the discharge battery group also connects equalization charging circuit and (can adopt balance charger C1 '; C2 '; C3 ' ... Cn '; Perhaps balance charger replaces with decide switch electronic element that voltage is communicated with or circuit (Dn ') and discharge resistance (Rn '); And the digital ammeter A1 ' of connecting band holding wire; A2 '; A3 ' ... An '); And its main charger is provided with electric current exports reverse commutation circuit and (adopt grammed switch K1 ' among the figure; K2 '; K3 '; K4 '; K1 ' wherein; K2 ' closure and K3 '; K4 ' breaks off; The electric current outbound course is a forward; Otherwise; K1 '; K2 ' breaks off and K3 '; K4 ' closure; The electric current outbound course is reverse); Perhaps adopt two (C; C ') but the output current direction is opposite, just can realize the charge and discharge of positive and negative both direction to external connection battery.Its meaning is: it can be used as a kind of novel battery cycle life test machine and uses, if with battery in couples differential concatenation be placed on such machine and do cycling life test, can save the substantive test electric energy.