CN102322888A - High-precision optical fiber grating sensing detection structure based on radio frequency optical modulation - Google Patents

High-precision optical fiber grating sensing detection structure based on radio frequency optical modulation Download PDF

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CN102322888A
CN102322888A CN201110252576A CN201110252576A CN102322888A CN 102322888 A CN102322888 A CN 102322888A CN 201110252576 A CN201110252576 A CN 201110252576A CN 201110252576 A CN201110252576 A CN 201110252576A CN 102322888 A CN102322888 A CN 102322888A
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optical
fiber grating
optical fiber
radio frequency
precision
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CN201110252576A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN102322888B (en
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宋牟平
沈逸铭
汤贇
张伟峰
励志成
谢杭
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杭州布里特威光电技术有限公司
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Abstract

The invention relates to a high-precision optical fiber grating sensing detection structure based on radio frequency optical modulation, which is characterized by comprising a wavelength-adjustable optical source, an optical coupler, a radio frequency optical modulator, a pulse optical modulator, a optical band pass filter, an optical amplifier, an optical circulator, an optical coupler, a photoelectric detector and an electronic processor in sequential connection, wherein the optical circulator is connected with an optical fiber. The high-precision optical fiber grating sensing detection structure has the advantages that: 1, because the radio frequency optical modulation is adopted for realizing the optical frequency shit so that the wavelength/frequency of the detected light is accurate to the level of an electronic oscillator, and the wavelength adjustable optical source can be added for expanding the wavelength/frequency moving range; 2, the optical incoherent detection can be conveniently added in the structure for improving the detection signal-to-noise ratio; and 3, the detection structure can adapt to various optical fiber grating arrays, such as optical fiber grating arrays with the characteristic that each grating in the optical fiber grating group can be low-reflectivity optical fiber grating with the same center frequency or different center frequencies.

Description

A kind of high precision optical fiber grating sensing detection structure based on the radio frequency optical modulation
Technical field
The present invention relates to optical fiber Bragg grating sensing, belong to technical field of optical fiber sensing.
Background technology
Because fiber grating has characteristics such as precision height, antijamming capability are strong, and good development has been arranged both at home and abroad.For example patent CN1384341A discloses the fiber-optic grating sensor that a kind of pressure and temperature detect simultaneously, and patent 1904658A discloses a kind of coherent multiplexing method and equipment thereof of fiber Bragg grating sensor.These open methods of well having introduced some optical fiber grating sensings; But it also has more restriction; For example be difficult to realize high-precision fiber grating measurement; Particularly adopt the fiber grating detection method of Wavelength tunable light source,, cause and adopt the fiber-optic grating sensor of this kind scheme to be difficult to realize high precision sensing detection fast because the wavelengthtunable light source is difficult to realize that accurate quick optical wavelength/frequency moves.Though adopt light lock phase light source can obtain high-precision optical wavelength/change of frequency, the hi-tech difficulty of its realization and cost are difficult to satisfy the needs of practical application.
Domestic have some patents also to disclose the method that fiber grating detects, and is to utilize tunable optical fiber filter modulated light source like one of disclosed its characteristic of distributed optical fiber grating temperature detection system of CN2760526Y; The disclosed a kind of high precision optical fiber grating wave length demodulation system of CN101586986A is characterized in that the combination of optical filter and photodetector; The disclosed optical fiber sensing wavelength tunable optical source of CN201656245 is through the light source of many centre wavelength different laser diodes and wave filter combination generation wavelengthtunable, but precision is not high.
The optical fiber sensing method that the microwave electrooptical modulation produces optical frequency shift also is suggested; (Song Mouping; The design and the realization of the Brillouin light domain reflectometer of 34km sensing length: Chinese journal of scientific instrument, 1155-1158,2005); Utilize the microwave electrooptic modulator that reference light is modulated the reference light that obtains the high precision wavelength, be used for the Brillouin scattering distributed fiberoptic sensor.
Summary of the invention
The objective of the invention is to propose a kind of high precision optical fiber grating sensing detection structure based on the radio frequency optical modulation.
Technical matters to be solved by this invention provides high precision optical fiber grating wave length demodulation (or sensing detection) structure that a kind of cost is low, be prone to realization; The frequency of general light signal is difficult to accurate control; The frequency of electric signal can realize high-precision control; Adopt the rf signal optical modulation to produce high-precision optical frequency shift,, can realize the high precision optical wavelength/frequency shifts of wide wavelength coverage in conjunction with the wavelengthtunable light source.Add easy introducing one road reference light, merge the light coherent detection technology, can improve detection signal-to-noise ratio.Thereby can realize the technical scheme of high performance-price ratio.
A kind of high precision optical fiber grating sensing detection structure of the present invention based on the radio frequency optical modulation; It is characterized in that comprising the Wavelength tunable light source, photo-coupler, radio frequency photomodulator, pulsed light modulator, optical band pass filter, image intensifer, optical circulator, photo-coupler, photoelectric detector, the electronic processors that link to each other successively, optical circulator is connected with optical fiber.
Preferably, optical circulator incoming fiber optic grating array.
Preferably, described optical fiber optical grating array, its structure can be single fiber grating, or multiple fiber grating, when the spectrum of each fiber grating in the array near the time, adopt the antiradar reflectivity fiber grating.
Preferably, the photo-coupler that links to each other with Wavelength tunable light source links to each other with optical polarization controller.
Preferably, the photo-coupler that links to each other with optical circulator links to each other with optical polarization controller.
Preferably, optical circulator is also replaceable is bidirectional coupler.
Wavelength tunable light source links to each other with photo-coupler; Producing the high precision light frequency through the radio frequency photomodulator moves; Through pulsed light modulator, BPF., image intensifer, optical circulator or bidirectional coupler incoming fiber optic grating array, survey another road light that comes out from light source in case of necessity through photo-coupler arrival photoelectric detector again from the flashlight that optical fiber optical grating array returns; After Polarization Controller and flashlight converge; Carry out the light Coherent Detection, utilize the light Coherent Detection to improve detection signal-to-noise ratio, photoelectric detector connects electronic processors.
In the above-mentioned optical fiber grating sensing detection architecture; Can adapt to multiple optical fiber optical grating array; For example each grating in the fiber grating group can be the consistent antiradar reflectivity fiber grating of centre frequency; This moment, the pulsed light modulator will carry out the light pulse that optical modulation generation sensing is used, and made when light pulse is transmitted in the optical fibre optical fibre array, can only cover a fiber grating in each light pulse constantly; The perhaps all different optical fiber optical grating array of centre frequency, this moment, the pulsed light modulator can not carry out optical modulation.
In the above-mentioned optical fiber grating sensing detection architecture, the radio frequency optical modulation makes the sensed light signal frequency/wavelength precisely arrive the electro coupled oscillator level, adds to use Wavelength tunable light source can expand the wavelength/frequency moving range.
Above-mentioned optical fiber grating sensing detection architecture can also be drawn one road reference light from light source through photo-coupler, to photoelectric detector, realizes the light Coherent Detection through Polarization Controller, to improve detection signal-to-noise ratio.
The sensing detection that the present invention utilizes the centre wavelength of Fiber Bragg Grating FBG to carry out with the variation of extraneous sensing amount (like temperature, stress).
The light that Wavelength tunable light source produces gets into coupling mechanism and is divided into two-way; One the tunnel surveys light obtains the laser that accurate wavelength/frequency moves through the radio frequency photomodulator, can obtain light pulse through the pulsed light modulator, leaches required frequencies of light through BPF.; Get into bidirectional coupler through image intensifer again; The light signal that gets into from bidirectional coupler one end turns back to bidirectional coupler through the fiber grating reflection directly to optical fiber in optical fiber, go forward side by side into photoelectric detector; Another road light of the light source that photo-coupler comes out is gone into photoelectric detector through optical polarization controller adjustment is laggard, can realize the light Coherent Detection that needs.Utilize Coherent Detection to improve detection signal-to-noise ratio.Utilize following fiber grating frequency displacement formula
obtain the information that will measure.Wherein is Fiber Bragg Grating FBG reflection kernel wavelength; is the variation of reflection wavelength under ectocine; is effective elasto-optical coefficient of optical fiber; is the thermal expansivity of optical fiber; is the thermo-optical coeffecient of optical fiber, and is temperature variation.
Compared with prior art, the invention has the advantages that:
1, owing to used the radio frequency optical modulation to realize optical frequency shift, makes that surveying light wavelength/frequency precisely arrives the electro coupled oscillator level, can add Wavelength tunable light source, be used for enlarging the wavelength/frequency moving range; 2, can conveniently add the light inlet Coherent Detection in the structure, to improve detection signal-to-noise ratio; 3, detection architecture of the present invention can adapt to multiple optical fiber optical grating array, and for example each grating in the fiber grating group can be the consistent antiradar reflectivity fiber grating of centre frequency, the perhaps all different optical fiber optical grating array of centre frequency.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the synoptic diagram of a kind of high precision optical fiber grating sensing detection structure based on the radio frequency optical modulation of the present invention.
Among the figure: the 1st, Wavelength tunable light source 1,2 and 11 is photo-couplers, the 3rd, radio frequency photomodulator, the 4th, pulsed light modulator, the 5th, optical band pass filter, the 6th, image intensifer, the 7th, optical circulator, the 8th, optical fiber, the 9th, optical fiber optical grating array, the 10th, optical polarization controller, the 12nd, photoelectric detector, the 13rd, electronic processors.
Embodiment
With reference to Fig. 1, the present invention includes Wavelength tunable light source 1, photo-coupler 2, radio frequency photomodulator 3, pulsed light modulator 4, optical band pass filter 5, image intensifer 6, optical circulator 7, optical fiber optical grating array 9, optical polarization controller 10, optical fiber 8, photo-coupler 11, photoelectric detector 12, electronic processors 13.Wavelength tunable light source 1 links to each other with photo-coupler 2; Regulate optical wavelength/or frequency through radio frequency photomodulator 3; Through pulsed light modulator 4, optical band pass filter 5, image intensifer 6, optical circulator or light bidirectional coupler 7 incoming fiber optics, its reflected light gets into photo-coupler 11 to photoelectric detector 12 again, and photo-coupler 2 gets into photoelectric detector 12 through optical polarization controller 10 to photo-coupler 11; Can realize the light Coherent Detection, photoelectric detector 12 connects electronic processors 13.
The light that Wavelength tunable light source 1 produces gets into 2 fens two-way of photo-coupler, and one the tunnel surveys light obtains the wavelength accurate and adjustable through radio frequency photomodulator 3 laser.Survey light and can produce light pulse, get into optical circulator 7 through optical band pass filter 5, image intensifer 6 through pulsed light modulator 4.The light signal that gets into from optical circulator 7 one ends is surveyed light signal and is propagated along optical fiber 8 directly to the optical fiber that optical fiber optical grating array 9 is arranged 8, and optical fiber optical grating array 9 will be positioned at the light signal reflection of fiber grating spectrum, and arrival optical circulator 7 is gone forward side by side into photoelectric detector 12; Another road light that photo-coupler 2 comes out is gone into photoelectric detector 12 and is surveyed light and converge through optical polarization controller 10 adjustment is laggard, can realize the light Coherent Detection.
Difference according to optical fiber optical grating array 9 can be divided into several kinds of different operating modes: 1, when having the spectra overlapping situation in the optical fiber optical grating array; Need to adopt the Fiber Bragg Grating FBG of antiradar reflectivity; The pulsed light modulator is modulated the generation detecting optical pulses, thereby adopts time-multiplexed mode to distinguish each fiber grating signal; 2, under other situation; Be that the spectrum of each fiber grating is not when overlapping situation occurring; The pulsed light modulator can not modulated; Thereby adopt the mode of wavelength-division multiplex to separate each fiber grating signal, the pulsed light modulator also can be modulated the generation detecting optical pulses, thereby adopts the time-division to combine the mode of wavelength-division multiplex to separate each fiber grating signal.Which kind of working method no matter, at first the effect of the wavelength-tunable of wavelengthtunable light source 1 is the moving range that enlarges optical wavelength/frequency, the effect of radio frequency photomodulator 3 is that the high precision wavelength/frequency of carrying out light moves; And utilize photo-coupler 2 and 11, optical polarization controller 10, Photoelectric Detection 12 can carry out the light Coherent Detection, improving detection signal-to-noise ratio, thereby can realize the optical fiber grating sensing of high measurement accuracy.

Claims (6)

1. high precision optical fiber grating sensing detection structure based on the radio frequency optical modulation; It is characterized in that comprising the Wavelength tunable light source, photo-coupler, radio frequency photomodulator, pulsed light modulator, optical band pass filter, image intensifer, optical circulator, photo-coupler, photoelectric detector, the electronic processors that link to each other successively, optical circulator is connected with optical fiber.
2. a kind of high precision optical fiber grating sensing detection structure based on the radio frequency optical modulation according to claim 1 is characterized in that optical circulator incoming fiber optic grating array.
3. a kind of high precision optical fiber grating sensing detection structure according to claim 1 based on the radio frequency optical modulation; It is characterized in that described optical fiber optical grating array; Its structure can be single fiber grating; Or multiple fiber grating, when the spectrum of each fiber grating in the array near the time, adopt the antiradar reflectivity fiber grating.
4. a kind of high precision optical fiber grating sensing detection structure based on the radio frequency optical modulation according to claim 1 is characterized in that the photo-coupler that links to each other with Wavelength tunable light source links to each other with optical polarization controller.
5. a kind of high precision optical fiber grating sensing detection structure based on the radio frequency optical modulation according to claim 4 is characterized in that the photo-coupler that links to each other with optical circulator links to each other with optical polarization controller.
6. a kind of high precision optical fiber grating sensing detection structure based on the radio frequency optical modulation according to claim 1 is characterized in that optical circulator is also replaceable for bidirectional coupler.
CN201110252576.3A 2011-08-30 A kind of high precision optical fiber grating sensing detection structure based on radio frequency optical modulation CN102322888B (en)

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CN103471812A (en) * 2013-07-15 2013-12-25 武汉理工大学 Weak-grating detection device and detection method thereof
WO2015103887A1 (en) * 2014-01-10 2015-07-16 江苏昂德光电科技有限公司 3d matrix-type multichannel optical fiber sensing demodulation system
CN105181111A (en) * 2015-09-21 2015-12-23 电子科技大学 Ultraweak fiber bragg grating array and Phi-OTDR combined optical fiber vibration sensing system
CN105698831A (en) * 2016-01-26 2016-06-22 武汉理工大学 Double-core FBG (fiber bragg grating) array sensing network and distributed sensing information obtaining method
WO2020102995A1 (en) * 2018-11-20 2020-05-28 深圳市大耳马科技有限公司 Adaptive adjustment method, device and system for optical fiber sensor

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EP1369742A1 (en) * 2002-06-03 2003-12-10 Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation Standard radio frequency signal generating method and device
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CN105698831A (en) * 2016-01-26 2016-06-22 武汉理工大学 Double-core FBG (fiber bragg grating) array sensing network and distributed sensing information obtaining method
CN105698831B (en) * 2016-01-26 2017-11-28 武汉理工大学 Twin-core fiber grating array sensing network and distributed sensing information acquisition method
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