CN102310781A - 一种车辆 - Google Patents

一种车辆 Download PDF

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CN102310781A
CN102310781A CN2011101584374A CN201110158437A CN102310781A CN 102310781 A CN102310781 A CN 102310781A CN 2011101584374 A CN2011101584374 A CN 2011101584374A CN 201110158437 A CN201110158437 A CN 201110158437A CN 102310781 A CN102310781 A CN 102310781A
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battery
vehicle
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electrically connected
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法扎尔·阿拉曼·塞伊德
文卡塔帕斯·拉主·纳拉帕
沙雷斯·斯坎特·柯扎雷卡尔
迈克尔·爱德华·洛夫特斯
沙恩·舒尔兹
罗伯特·K·德纳卡
唐纳德·查尔斯·弗兰克斯
邝明朗
范卡特斯瓦·阿南德·塞恩凯伦
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Ford Global Technologies LLC
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L8/00Electric propulsion with power supply from forces of nature, e.g. sun or wind
    • B60L8/003Converting light into electric energy, e.g. by using photo-voltaic systems
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS IN VEHICLES
    • B60K16/00Arrangements in connection with power supply of propulsion units in vehicles from forces of nature, e.g. sun or wind
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L53/00Methods of charging batteries, specially adapted for electric vehicles; Charging stations or on-board charging equipment therefor; Exchange of energy storage elements in electric vehicles
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L53/00Methods of charging batteries, specially adapted for electric vehicles; Charging stations or on-board charging equipment therefor; Exchange of energy storage elements in electric vehicles
    • B60L53/50Charging stations characterised by energy-storage or power-generation means
    • B60L53/51Photovoltaic means
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L58/00Methods or circuit arrangements for monitoring or controlling batteries or fuel cells, specially adapted for electric vehicles
    • B60L58/10Methods or circuit arrangements for monitoring or controlling batteries or fuel cells, specially adapted for electric vehicles for monitoring or controlling batteries
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J7/00Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries
    • H02J7/34Parallel operation in networks using both storage and other dc sources, e.g. providing buffering
    • H02J7/35Parallel operation in networks using both storage and other dc sources, e.g. providing buffering with light sensitive cells
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS IN VEHICLES
    • B60K16/00Arrangements in connection with power supply of propulsion units in vehicles from forces of nature, e.g. sun or wind
    • B60K2016/003Arrangements in connection with power supply of propulsion units in vehicles from forces of nature, e.g. sun or wind solar power driven
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS IN VEHICLES
    • B60K6/00Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00
    • B60K6/20Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00 the prime-movers consisting of electric motors and internal combustion engines, e.g. HEVs
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L2220/00Electrical machine types; Structures or applications thereof
    • B60L2220/10Electrical machine types
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/62Hybrid vehicles
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
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    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/70Energy storage systems for electromobility, e.g. batteries
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    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/7072Electromobility specific charging systems or methods for batteries, ultracapacitors, supercapacitors or double-layer capacitors
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
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    • Y02T10/80Technologies aiming to reduce greenhouse gasses emissions common to all road transportation technologies
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  • Life Sciences & Earth Sciences (AREA)
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  • Sustainable Energy (AREA)
  • Electric Propulsion And Braking For Vehicles (AREA)
  • Charge And Discharge Circuits For Batteries Or The Like (AREA)

Abstract

根据本发明提供一种车辆,该车辆包括牵引电池和太阳能板阵列。车辆还可包括电连接电池和阵列的电路。电路可包括至少一个开关的电路,其中,所述至少一个开关配置用于当由校准的最大维持功率驱动时闭合以允许能量从阵列流至电池。本发明的优点在于能够从太阳能板阵列取电从而减少与能量源相关的成本。

Description

一种车辆
技术领域
本发明涉及一种车辆,尤其涉及车辆的电力系统。
背景技术
可替代动力车辆(例如,混合动力电动车辆、插电式混合动力电动车辆和电池电动车辆)可使用电机以将存储在高压电池内的能量转换为驱动力。对于混合动力电动车辆,高压电池可存储由内燃发动机转换的能量或从再生制动事件捕获的能量。插电式混合动力电动车辆的高压电池可额外地存储从电网接收的能量。同样,电池电动车辆的高压电池可存储从电网接收的能量。
某些上述能量源可具有与它们相关的成本。例如,混合动力电动车辆的内燃发动机可燃烧汽油以转换能量用于高压电池存储。当然,必须购买这种汽油。同样,电网公司对它们供应的电能收费。相反,从再生制动事件捕获的能量不需要这种直接成本。在某种意义上,这是免费能量。因此,需要以不对驾驶员收取直接成本的能量来为可替代动力车辆的高压电池充电。
发明内容
根据本发明一方面,提供一种车辆,该车辆包括:配置用于产生用于车辆的动力的电机;配置用于提供电能至电机的牵引电池;太阳能板阵列;及电连接电池和阵列并且包括至少一个开关的电路,其中,所述至少一个开关配置用于当由不高于1瓦的最大维持功率驱动时闭合以允许能量从阵列流至电池。
根据本发明另一方面,提供一种车辆,该车辆包括:配置用于产生用于车辆的动力的电机;具有正极端子和负极端子,并且配置用于提供电能至电机的牵引电池;太阳能板阵列;及具有最大电流运载能力低于5安培并且电连接在阵列和电池的正极端子和负极端子中的一个之间的第一开关。
根据本发明的一个实施例,还包含具有最大电流运载能力低于5安培并且电连接在阵列和电池的正极端子和负极端子中的另一个之间的第二开关。
根据本发明的一个实施例,还包含电阻器和(i)电连接至牵引电池的正极端子和负极端子中的一个并且(ii)通过电阻器电连接至阵列的第三开关。
根据本发明的一个实施例,还包含电连接至第一和第二开关的电容器。
根据本发明的一个实施例,还包含电连接在阵列和第一及第二开关中的一个之间的二极管。
根据本发明的一个实施例,阵列包括输出端子,电路还包含电连接至输出端子的电容器。
根据本发明的一个实施例,电路还包含电连接至阵列的最大功率追踪器。
根据本发明再一方面,提供一种用于车辆的电源系统,该电源系统包括:牵引电池;配置用于将来自牵引电池的电能转换为机械能以移动车辆的电机;配置用于当闭合时电连接电池和电机的多个开关。该系统可进一步包括电源输出端子;及配置用于当闭合时电连接电池和电机的另外多个开关。
根据本发明的一个实施例,其中,该另外多个开关中的至少一个具有低于5安培的最大电流运载能力。
根据本发明的一个实施例,其中,该另外多个开关中的至少一个配置用于当由不高于1瓦的最大维持功率驱动时闭合。
附图说明
图1为可替代动力车辆的电力系统的实施例的框图;
图2为图1的太阳能板阵列的示意图;
图3为图1的电力系统的示意图。
具体实施方式
太阳能可经由太阳能电池捕获并且用于为可替代动力车辆的高压电池充电。通常,具有低压输出的太阳能电池设置在车辆外表上的重要位置。太阳能电池与将由太阳能电池输出的电压升压至接近高压电池充电的水平的DC/DC升压变换器电连接。高压总线电连接DC/DC升压变换器和高压电池。
DC/DC升压变换器可能低效率。因此,经由太阳能电池捕获的大部分能量会在升压过程中作为热量而损失。相对而言,太阳能电池仅可以捕获少量能量。在升压过程期间这种能量的损失会使得通过太阳能为高压电池充电变得不实用。
可替代动力车辆的高压电池和电机的电连接可通过一组接触器(主接触器)来实现。即,这些接触器可闭合以建立该电连接。主接触器通常具有一定大小以操作相对而言大量的电流(例如,100+A)。
通常,可替代动力车辆的太阳能电池通过主接触器与车辆的高压电池电连接。因为主接触器的大小,相对于经由太阳能电池捕获的能量的量,可需要大量能量(例如,12W吸持/稳态,240W峰值)以关闭主接触器。到这样的程度这会使得以太阳能为高压电池充电不实用。
本发明的某些实施例可提供可与高压电池电连接的太阳能板阵列。太阳能板阵列的输出电压可使得不需要DC/DC升压变换器升压太阳能板阵列的输出以便为高压电池涓流充电。如一个示例,阵列可具有在1000W/m2的标准太阳辐照度下至少200V的输出电压。因此,相对于那些包括DC/DC升压变换器的例子,在这种配置下较少能量作为热量损失。
本发明的某些实施例可提供电力结构以电连接太阳能板阵列与高压电池。相对于在主接触器闭合以建立连接的布置,该电力结构可要求较少的能量以建立阵列和电池之间的电连接。如一个示例,独立(更小)组的开关/接触器/继电器可闭合以电连接阵列和电池。结果,更多的能量可用于为电池充电。
参考图1,可替代动力车辆10可包括高压牵引电池12(例如,在70%荷电状态(SOC)下为200+V)、电机14(例如,马达、发电机、逆变器等)、接触器16(主接触器)、牵引电池控制模块(TBCM)18和其它动力系组件20(例如,发动机、变速器等)。牵引电池12和电机14通过接触器16电连接。当如下所述由TBCM 18合适地闭合时,接触器16允许能量在牵引电池12和电机14之间流动。
电机14和动力系组件20机械连接。因此,电机14可将来自牵引电池12的电能转换为机械能用于动力系组件20,并且反之亦然。
车辆10可进一步包括高压太阳能板阵列22、输出端子(图3)、太阳能板阵列激活系统24、最大功率追踪器(multiple power point tracker,MPPT)26、和太阳能电池控制器(SCC)28。太阳能板阵列22、MPPT 26和SCC 28通过输出端子电连接。SCC 28可为独立的控制器或集成在车辆系统控制器、混合动力控制模块单元或动力控制模块等内。如在下面更详细地论述,激活系统24和MPPT 26在SCC 28的控制下允许来自太阳能板阵列22的能量为牵引电池12充电而不需要闭合任一个接触器16。当然,其它布置也是可能的。
在图1的实施例中,太阳能板阵列22包括电串联的多个相对较小(例如,50mm x 120mm)的太阳能电池30n(30a、30b等)。电池30n中的每一个均具有有效Vcell(例如,在1000W/m2的标准太阳辐照度下大约0.5V电压)输出和低电流(例如,150mA,应注意电流取决于电池面积)输出。电池30n的数目足够多,这样在1000W/m2的标准太阳辐照度下它们的累积输出至少等于在70%SOC下的牵引电池16的电压(例如,200V)。该布置允许太阳能板阵列22直接地电连接至牵引电池12(无论使不使用MPPT)。
图1中的MPPT 26可用于以任何合适的已知方式将太阳能板阵列22运转在其峰值效率下。例如,在图1中的实施例中,MPPT 26为高效率的DC/DC降压变换器,其可从太阳能板阵列22汲取最大功率。然而,其它合适/已知的MPPT配置也是可能的。
电池30n的数目n可基于下面的等式确定:
n = N HVBatCells ( V HVBatCEllOCV HiSOC + Δ V HVBatCellOCV HiSOC ) V i - - - ( 1 )
其中NHVBatCells为牵引电池12内的电池单元的数目,VHVBatCellOCVHiSOC为在高(或目标)SOC下的牵引电池单个电池单元开路电压(例如,SOC为70%,在该SOC处的开路电压大约为1.7V),ΔVHVBatCellOCVHiSOC为当少量的电荷电流通过单个电池单元时的牵引电池单个电池单元额外电压上升,Vi为在1000W/m2的标准太阳辐照度下的单个太阳能电池开路电压,并且i能够表达为如下:
i=1,2,…,k-1,k,k+1,…,m-1,m,m+1,…,n-1,n    (2)
则(1)可改写为:
n = V HVBatOCV HiSOC + Δ V HVBatOCV HiSOC V i - - - ( 3 )
其中VHVBatCellOCVHiSOC为在高(或目标)SOC下的牵引电池开路电压(例如,SOC为70%,而在该SOC下开路电压大约为270V,假定牵引电池12内的所有的单个电池单元是平衡的并且处于相同的SOC下),并且ΔVHVBatCellOCVHiSOC为当少量的电荷电流通过牵引电池12时的牵引电池额外电压上升。然而,任何合适的关系和/或技术可用于确定电池单元30n的数目n(或任何其它参数)。
参考图2,太阳能板阵列22包括串联以实现高压输出的n个单个太阳能电池单元30n。太阳能板阵列22的输出开路电压由下给出:
V s _ ocv = Σ i = 1 n V i - - - ( 4 )
假定每个太阳能电池单元30n的特性相似,(4)能够重新写为:
V s _ ocv = Σ i = 1 n V i = n V i - - - ( 5 )
将(3)代入(5)得出:
V s _ ocv = Σ i = 1 n V i = n V i = V HVBatOCV HiSOC + Δ V HVBatOCV HiSOC - - - ( 6 )
图2的实施例中的太阳能板阵列22还包括肖特基(Schottky)旁路二极管D1,D2,…,Dp,其可每隔k个太阳能电池单元放置以确保在例如电池单元被遮光状况下产生的最佳功率。因此,电池单元(其电流由于遮光而下降)可被旁通。
为了实现所需太阳能板阵列22的最大功率输出Ps,单个太阳能电池单元30n中的每一个的面积可基于Ps选择。即,太阳能板阵列22的Ps可用于确定太阳能板阵列的短路电流ISC和单个电池单元的短路电流Ii。随后Ii可用于确定单个太阳能电池单元30n中的每一个的面积,如下给出:
I sc = P s V s _ ocv - Δ V s _ ocv - - - ( 7 )
其中,ΔVS_OCV为在低于其时太阳能板阵列22的电流输出大约为常数或接近于ISC的电压。
因为单个太阳能电池单元30n为串联的,ISC与Ii相同。因此,对于单个太阳能电池单元30n,(7)能够改写为:
I i = I sc = P s V s _ ocv - Δ V s _ ocv = P s / n ( V s _ ocv - Δ V s _ ocv ) / n = P i V i - Δ V i - - - ( 8 )
通过从(6)中求解Vi并且代入至(8),我们发现:
I i = P i ( V HVBatOCV HiSOC + Δ V HVBatOCV HiSOC n ) - Δ V i - - - ( 9 )
(9)为所需的单个太阳能电池单元短路电流,其基本上与单个太阳能电池单元30n的面积成比例。因此,(9)能够用于确定单个太阳能电池单元30n中的每一个的面积。
参考图3,接触器16可包括负极端子主接触器32(与牵引电池12的负极端子电连接)、正极端子主接触器34(与牵引电池12的正极端子电连接)、预充电接触器36(电连接在牵引电池12的正极端子和逆变器14之间)、主电容器38(电连接在牵引电池12的正极端子和负极端子两端)和预充电电阻器40(电连接在牵引电池12的正极端子和逆变器14之间)。接触器32、34、36也与TBCM 18电连接或由TBCM 18控制。当然,其它布置也是可能的。例如,预充电接触器36可替代地电连接在牵引电池12的负极端子和逆变器14之间。
为了电连接牵引电池12和电机14,TBCM 18首先闭合负极端子主接触器32和预充电接触器36以便通过预充电电阻器40为主电容器38充电。一旦主电容器38被充电,TBCM 18闭合正极端子接触器34并且断开预充电接触器36。如下文(和下文)所述,需要大量的能量以闭合接触器32、34、36。
图3的实施例中的太阳能板激活系统24可包括正极端子开关/接触器/继电器42(与牵引电池12的正极端子电连接)、负极端子开关/接触器/继电器44(与牵引电池12的负极端子电连接)、预充电开关/接触器/继电器46(电连接牵引电池12的正极端子和MPPT 26)、电容器48、二极管50和电阻器52(在牵引电池12的正极端子和预充电接触器46之间电连接)。继电器42、44、46也与SCC 28电连接或由SCC 28控制。电容器48电连接在继电器42、44之间并且因此可用于过滤噪声尖峰。还电连接有二极管50,这样电流仅从太阳能板阵列22流至牵引电池12。
在其它实施例中,太阳能板激活系统24可包含单个开关。例如,牵引电池12的负极端子和正极端子中的一个可总是与太阳能板阵列22连接。牵引电池12的负极端子和正极端子中的另一个可经由开关与太阳能板阵列22连接。包括额外的开关、电容器和/或二极管、和/或缺少电容器和/或二极管的其它布置也是可能的。
继电器42、44、46的大小可比接触器32、34、36更小,因为它们处理较小的电流。例如,继电器42、44、46可处理类似于0.035A-1A(例如,高至5A)的电流,而接触器32、34、36可处理150A的电流。结果,会需要大约10mA-25mA的电流(或0.12W-0.3W的功率(例如,高至1W的处理功率))以闭合继电器42、44、46,而需要250mA-1A(峰值10A-20A)的电流(或3W-12W(120W-240W峰值功率))以闭合接触器32、34、36。考虑到太阳能板阵列22仅可收集5W-200W范围内的能量,这种能量消耗上的差别是非常显著的。
为了电连接牵引电池12和太阳能板阵列22(基于驾驶员和/或车辆输入),SCC 28可首先闭合继电器44、46以便通过电阻器52为电容器38软充电。一旦电容器38被充电,SCC 28可随后闭合继电器42并且断开继电器44。为了将牵引电池12与太阳能板阵列22断开,SCC 28可断开继电器42、44。当然,太阳能板激活系统24的其它配置可导致不同的策略用于电连接牵引电池12和太阳能板阵列22。
尽管已经说明并描述了本发明的实施例,但是并不意味着这些实施例说明并描述了本发明的所有可能形式。说明书中使用的词汇为说明性词汇而非限制,并且应该明白的是在不脱离本发明的实质和范围下可作多种改变。

Claims (7)

1.一种车辆,包含:
配置用于产生用于所述车辆的驱动力的电机;
配置用于提供电能至所述电机的牵引电池;
太阳能板阵列;
与所述牵引电池和太阳能板阵列电连接并且包括至少一个开关的电路,其中,所述至少一个开关配置用于当由不高于1瓦的最大维持功率驱动时闭合以允许能量从所述太阳能板阵列流至所述牵引电池。
2.如权利要求1所述的车辆,其特征在于,所述电路还包括配置用于当由不高于1瓦的最大维持功率驱动时闭合以允许能量从所述太阳能板阵列流至所述牵引电池的第二开关。
3.如权利要求2所述的车辆,其特征在于,所述电路还包括电阻器和通过电阻器电连接至所述牵引电池和所述太阳能板阵列的第三开关。
4.如权利要求2所述的车辆,其特征在于,所述电路还包含电连接至所述第一开关和第二开关的电容器。
5.如权利要求2所述的车辆,其特征在于,所述电路还包括电连接在所述第一开关及第二开关中的一个与所述太阳能板阵列之间的二极管。
6.如权利要求1所述的车辆,其特征在于,所述太阳能板阵列包括输出端子,所述电路还包含电连接至所述输出端子的电容器。
7.如权利要求1所述的车辆,其特征在于,所述电路还包含电连接至所述太阳能板阵列的最大功率追踪器。
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