CN102310596B - Method for producing reinforced wear resistance composite material by partially positioning of ceramic particles - Google Patents

Method for producing reinforced wear resistance composite material by partially positioning of ceramic particles Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102310596B
CN102310596B CN201110183449.2A CN201110183449A CN102310596B CN 102310596 B CN102310596 B CN 102310596B CN 201110183449 A CN201110183449 A CN 201110183449A CN 102310596 B CN102310596 B CN 102310596B
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ceramic particles
metal
hard ceramic
composite
manufacture
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CN201110183449.2A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN102310596A (en
Inventor
王娟
郑开宏
李林
赵散梅
陈亮
周楠
蔡畅
徐静
宋东福
戚文军
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广州有色金属研究院
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Abstract

The invention provides a method for producing reinforced wear resistance composite material by partially positioning of ceramic particles. The method comprises the following steps: preparing a plurality of porous carbide ceramic particles prefabricated bodies in advanced; then fixing each porous carbide ceramic particle prefabricated body in a partial position in a sand die at intervals;casting molten metal into the sand die finally, taking out after cooling to obtain the wear resistance composite material. The method for producing each porous carbide ceramic particles prefabricated body comprises the following steps: designing a metal shell at first, then filling the carbide ceramic particles into a metal shell to prepare the porous hard ceramic particles prefabricated body with the metal shell together. According to the wear resistance composite material of the invention, the carbide ceramic particles enables a good combination with an interface of a metal substrate, the combination strength is high which enables the wear resistance composite material to have good wear resistance and integral toughness, the service life of the wear resistance composite material is prolonged, and the carbide ceramic particles are especially suitable for using Al2O3 or ZTA ceramic particles, therefore the cost of the composite material can be reduced.

Description

Ceramic granule partial location strengthens the manufacture method of wearing composite material
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of manufacture method of wearing composite material, particularly a kind of hard ceramic particles local positioning strengthens the manufacture method of wearing composite material.
Background technology
At present, the wearing piece using in the abrasive blast equipment of the industries such as metallurgy, mine, cement, coal and electric power, typically use the metal wear resistant material that austenite abrasion-proof manganese steel, Cr series white cast iron, austempered ductile iron series wear-resistant cast iron and middle low-alloy wear-resistant steel are made, and these metal wear resistant materials are being subject in the severe fretting wear situation such as high temperature, HI high impact, deep-etching, can lose efficacy rapidly, its economic loss causing is very huge.Therefore, wearing piece, in requiring to have higher wearability, also will have good overall mechanical properties and certain toughness, can bear strong impact wear.
For above-mentioned situation, someone proposes the ceramic particle of high rigidity to be compound in metallic matrix, forms the wearing composite material that ceramic particle combines with metallic matrix.This wearing composite material, the performance of ceramic phase and Metal Phase can both be retained that (ceramic phase has high temperature resistant conventionally, wear-resistant, corrosion-resistant, high strength, the features such as low-expansion coefficient, and metal material has high fracture toughness conventionally, shock-resistant, the features such as endurance), in the process using, after top layer metal is worn away, ceramic particle can be given prominence to gradually becomes main wearing and tearing contact phase, thereby slow down widely the speed of wearing and tearing, parent metal can play the effect of carrying and protection to ceramic particle simultaneously, prevent under the condition of HI high impact wearing and tearing, ceramic particle breaks or comes off.
At present, what study often is to utilize WC, SiC, the carbide ceramic particles such as TiC combine to manufacture wearing composite material with metal material, because WC, SiC, the carbide ceramic particles such as TiC and molten metal have good wetability, being beneficial to casting oozes, and all there is higher hardness, and interface is combined into metallurgical binding, bond strength is high, so can improve by a relatively large margin the overall wear resistance energy of wearing composite material, but because becoming whole layer in wearing composite material, ceramic particle distributes, thereby cause the toughness of wearing composite material lower, under high impact wear condition, this hard and crisp wearing composite material can be too early fracture, ceramic particle is easily cracked.Published patent CN1001112718A,, there is following drawback: first, WC cost is high in the composite wear-resistant part of having selected the WC particle preparation surface enhancing that hardness is high, wearability is good, be applicable in the manufacture of some high-end composite products, cost performance is still undesirable; Secondly, although WC is good with metal interface wetability, because the performance differences such as the thermal expansion of WC and metal are excessive, in actual production, can cause cooling rear interface position stress concentrated, occur the defects such as fine cracks, through long term wear, particle can occur to peel off; The 3rd, in sand mold, directly place WC particle, be unfavorable for that molten metal permeates completely, composite material surface castability is poor; The 4th, so simple laying particle, has limited and the working face that needs particle to strengthen can only have been designed to the lower surface at casting sand type.One is also disclosed in existing technology first by ceramic particle, organic binder bond and ordinary carbon steel base, heat-resisting base steel or nickel base powder mixing briquet, be placed in again the casting mold part of the foundry goods that needs strengthening, last casting metals liquid is manufactured the method for wearing composite material, but the membership that adds of the method binding agent produces the defects such as hole is loose in part, cause the overall performance of wearing composite material to decline, required metal dust amount is large in addition, and cost is higher.In addition, also disclosedly in existing technology a kind ofly by casting technique, SiC ceramics bracket and metallic matrix are cast into the method that is integrated to manufacture wearing composite material, SiC pottery local ceramic area in composite wear-resistant part is larger, easily cracked under intense impact abrasive conditions, come off, and SiC ceramics bracket complicated process of preparation, cycle is long, is not suitable for large-scale production.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is to for above-mentioned existing problems and deficiency, provide that a kind of technique is simple, low cost of manufacture, applied widely, ceramic granule partial location is flexible, can effectively improve anti-wear performance and the overall flexibility of wearing composite material, make the manufacture method of the ceramic granule partial location wearing composite material of the long service life of wearing composite material.
Technical scheme of the present invention is achieved in that
Ceramic granule partial of the present invention location strengthens the manufacture method of wearing composite material, comprises the steps:
A, first make several cellular hard ceramic particles precast bodies;
B, each cellular hard ceramic particles precast body compartment of terrain is fixed on to the local location in sand mo(u)ld;
C, molten metal is cast in sand mo(u)ld, takes out after cooling, obtain that hard ceramic particles-composite metal and metallic matrix distribute alternately and hard ceramic particles-composite metal is the wearing composite material of local positioning on metallic matrix;
Be characterized in above-mentioned steps a, preparation method and the step of each cellular hard ceramic particles precast body are:
A 1, first design a metal shell;
A 2, select hard ceramic particles: if select hard ceramic and molten metal wetability good, directly carry out step a 4; If hard ceramic particles and the molten metal wetability selected are bad, first carry out step a 3;
A 3, hard ceramic particles is carried out to pretreatment;
A 4, hard ceramic particles is filled in metal shell and makes cellular hard ceramic particles precast body together with metal shell.
Wherein, above-mentioned pretreated method can be both to plate the metal level with good wettability at the outer surface of hard ceramic particles, also can be that hard ceramic particles is mixed mutually with the metal dust with good wettability, and make metal dust be coated on equably the outer surface of hard ceramic particles by bond medium.
In order to make the cost of wearing composite material low, can be applicable to large batch of production, above-mentioned hard ceramic particles is particle diameter 4 order~14 object Al 2o 3or ZTA ceramic particle, and the addition of above-mentioned metal dust be this metal dust and hard ceramic particles mix mutually rear gross mass mark 5%~30%.
In order to ensure that metal shell can easily be fused in wearing composite material, metal shell can be both sheet steel pipe, can be also the thin-walled hollow housing that steel wire is made.
The present invention is packed into hard ceramic particles in metal shell and makes cellular hard ceramic particles precast body together with metal shell owing to adopting, can realize easily the local positioning of hard ceramic particles by this cellular hard ceramic particles precast body, and hard ceramic particles is combined well with the interface of metallic matrix, bond strength is high, make wearing composite material there is good anti-wear performance and overall flexibility, thereby effectively extend the service life of wearing composite material, and be conducive to the large-scale mass production of wearing composite material, reduce manufacturing cost, this cellular hard ceramic particles precast body is in the time that molten metal is combined simultaneously, metal shell can fuse completely with molten metal, hard ceramic particles also there will not be defeated and dispersed phenomenon.The present invention has feature applied widely, is applicable to various hard ceramic particles and manufactures wearing composite material by this method, and especially applicable cheap, wide Al originates 2o 3or ZTA ceramic particle, in having ensured that wearing composite material has good anti-wear performance and overall flexibility, be more conducive to reduce the cost of wearing composite material like this.
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, the present invention is further illustrated.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is the end face structure schematic diagram of the present invention while manufacturing vertical cement mill grinding roller.
Fig. 2 is the cross-sectional view of Fig. 1 in A-A direction.
Fig. 3 is the end face structure schematic diagram of the present invention while manufacturing hammer head of hammer crusher.
Fig. 4 is the cross-sectional view of Fig. 3 in B-B direction.
Detailed description of the invention
Ceramic granule partial of the present invention location strengthens the manufacture method of wearing composite material, comprises the steps:
First, make several cellular hard ceramic particles precast bodies, the preparation method of each cellular hard ceramic particles precast body is: first design a metal shell, then select hard ceramic particles: if hard ceramic particles and the molten metal wetability selected are good, so directly hard ceramic particles are filled in metal shell and make cellular hard ceramic particles precast body together with metal shell; If hard ceramic particles and the molten metal wetability selected are bad, to first carry out pretreatment to hard ceramic particles so, pretreated method can be both to adopt the method for chemical plating or other method first to plate the good metal level of one deck wetability at the outer surface of hard ceramic particles, also can be that hard ceramic particles is mixed with the metal dust with good wettability of applicable kind and proportioning, and make metal dust be coated on equably the outer surface of hard ceramic particles by bond medium.If the outer surface of hard ceramic particles is coated with metal level, after so this hard ceramic particles is filled in metal shell and metal shell directly just formed cellular hard ceramic particles precast body; If the outer surface of hard ceramic particles is to be coated with metal dust, so this hard ceramic particles need to could form cellular hard ceramic particles precast body together with metal shell sintering after being filled in metal shell.Wherein, conventionally to adopt particle diameter be 4 order~14 object Al to hard ceramic particles 2o 3or ZTA ceramic particle, because Al 2o 3or ZTA ceramic particle cheap, source is wide, is conducive to reduce the cost of wearing composite material, in addition, also can adopt the ceramic particles such as WC, TiC, SiC; And metal level can be nickel dam, metal dust can be Co-based alloy powder, and addition is 5%~30% of hard ceramic particles gross mass mark; And metal shell can be both sheet steel pipe, also the thin-walled hollow housing that can make for steel wire etc., and thin-walled hollow housing can be arranged to square or strip or other shape, if hard ceramic particles is to be filled in sheet steel pipe, after filling so, the two ends of sheet steel pipe to be wrapped up with steel wire, be conducive to like this molten metal casting and ooze.And according to actual use needs, sheet steel pipe can be internal diameter 8mm~20mm, wall thickness 0.5mm~20mm, the stainless steel tube of high 10mm~30mm, the braided steel wire that steel wire is 0.8mm~2mm by diameter forms, and mesh diameter is less than the particle diameter of hard ceramic particles;
Then, each cellular hard ceramic particles precast body compartment of terrain is fixed on to the local location (namely forming the position of wearing composite material working face) in sand mo(u)ld, and be spaced apart 5mm~10mm between adjacent two cellular hard ceramic particles precast bodies, and cellular hard ceramic particles precast body is apart from sand mo(u)ld surface 5mm~10mm, be conducive to like this molten metal and cast and ooze more fully, and sand mo(u)ld can be according to being made into according to actual needs various shape;
Finally, molten metal is cast in sand mo(u)ld, molten metal infiltration cellular hard ceramic particles precast body, take out after cooling, obtain that hard ceramic particles-composite metal 1 distributes alternately with metallic matrix 2 and hard ceramic particles-composite metal 1 is the wearing composite material of local positioning on metallic matrix 2; Wherein, molten metal employing rich chromium cast iron or chromium nickel low-alloy cast iron or potassium steel or steel alloy or other metal material are made, and the temperature of molten metal casting is 1380 DEG C~1420 DEG C.
Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 are the structural representation of wearing composite material while being vertical cement mill grinding roller, and the concrete manufacture process of this vertical cement mill grinding roller is as follows:
First, be that 6~8 object ZTA ceramic particles mix with nickel-base alloy powder by particle diameter, Al in ZTA ceramic particle 2o 3mass fraction is 79.5%, ZrO 2+ Y 2o 3mass fraction is 20%, nickel-base alloy powder addition is 10% of ZTA ceramic particle gross mass mark, add a small amount of organic binder bond simultaneously, then mechanical agitation is mixed, and makes nickel-base alloy powder evenly be wrapped in ZTA ceramic grain surface, then mixture is filled into the long 100mm being converted into by steel wire, wide 40mm, in cube shell of high 20mm, through 1050 DEG C of vacuum-sinterings, form cellular ceramic particle precast body;
Then, according to grinding roller working face, multiple cellular ceramic particle precast bodies are to the cellular sand mo(u)ld surface that is fixed to, adjacent two cellular ceramic particle precast bodies be spaced apart 10mm;
Finally, matched moulds casting, molten metal is potassium steel, cast temperature is 1380~1420 DEG C, takes out after cooling, obtains the vertical cement mill grinding roller that working face wearing layer thickness is 20mm.
Fig. 3 and Fig. 4 are the structural representation of wearing composite material while being hammer head of hammer crusher, and the concrete manufacture process of this hammer head of hammer crusher is as follows:
First, by particle diameter be 4~6 object Al 2o 3ceramic particle plates one deck nickel by the method for chemical plating uniformly at particle surface, then by Al 2o 3it is 15mm that ceramic particle is filled into interior diameter, and wall thickness 1mm, in the stainless steel tube of high 25mm, then wraps up the two ends of stainless steel tube to form cellular ceramic particle precast body with steel wire;
Then, need by the wear surface of tup, multiple cellular ceramic particle precast bodies be correspondingly arranged in to sand mo(u)ld surface fixing, adjacent two cellular ceramic particle precast bodies be spaced apart 12mm;
Finally, matched moulds casting, molten metal is rich chromium cast iron, cast temperature is 1380 DEG C~1420 DEG C, takes out after cooling, obtains hammer head of hammer crusher.
The present invention describes by embodiment, but the present invention is not construed as limiting, with reference to description of the invention, other variations of the disclosed embodiments, as the professional person for this area easily expects, within such variation should belong to the scope of the claims in the present invention restriction.

Claims (9)

1. ceramic granule partial location strengthens a manufacture method for wearing composite material, comprises the steps:
A, first make several cellular hard ceramic particles precast bodies;
B, each cellular hard ceramic particles precast body compartment of terrain is fixed on to the local location in sand mo(u)ld;
C, molten metal is cast in sand mo(u)ld, takes out after cooling, obtain that hard ceramic particles-composite metal and metallic matrix distribute alternately and hard ceramic particles-composite metal is the wearing composite material of local positioning on metallic matrix;
It is characterized in that in above-mentioned steps a, preparation method and the step of each cellular hard ceramic particles precast body are:
A 1, first design a metal shell;
A 2, select hard ceramic particles: if select hard ceramic and molten metal wetability good, directly carry out step a 4; If hard ceramic particles and the molten metal wetability selected are bad, first carry out step a 3;
A 3, hard ceramic particles is carried out to pretreatment;
A 4, hard ceramic particles is filled in metal shell and makes cellular hard ceramic particles precast body together with metal shell.
2. ceramic granule partial is located the manufacture method that strengthens wearing composite material according to claim 1, it is characterized in that above-mentioned pretreated method is to plate the metal level with good wettability at the outer surface of hard ceramic particles.
3. ceramic granule partial is located the manufacture method that strengthens wearing composite material according to claim 1, it is characterized in that above-mentioned pretreated method is that hard ceramic particles is mixed mutually with the metal dust with good wettability, and make metal dust be coated on equably the outer surface of hard ceramic particles by bond medium.
4. ceramic granule partial is located the manufacture method that strengthens wearing composite material according to claim 3, it is characterized in that above-mentioned hard ceramic particles is particle diameter 4 order~14 object Al 2o 3or ZTA ceramic particle, and the addition of above-mentioned metal dust be this metal dust and hard ceramic particles mix mutually rear gross mass mark 5%~30%.
5. ceramic granule partial is located the manufacture method that strengthens wearing composite material according to claim 1, it is characterized in that above-mentioned metal shell is sheet steel pipe.
6. ceramic granule partial is located the manufacture method that strengthens wearing composite material according to claim 1, it is characterized in that above-mentioned metal shell is the thin-walled hollow housing that steel wire is made.
7. ceramic granule partial is located the manufacture method that strengthens wearing composite material according to claim 5, it is characterized in that above-mentioned sheet steel pipe is internal diameter 8mm~20mm, wall thickness 0.5mm~20mm, the stainless steel tube of high 10mm~30mm.
8. ceramic granule partial is located the manufacture method that strengthens wearing composite material according to claim 6, it is characterized in that the braided steel wire that above-mentioned steel wire is 0.8mm~2mm by diameter forms, and mesh diameter is less than the particle diameter of hard ceramic particles.
9. ceramic granule partial is located the manufacture method that strengthens wearing composite material according to claim 1, it is characterized in that above-mentioned molten metal adopts rich chromium cast iron or chromium nickel low-alloy cast iron or potassium steel or steel alloy or other metal material to make, and the temperature of molten metal casting is 1380 DEG C~1420 DEG C.
CN201110183449.2A 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 Method for producing reinforced wear resistance composite material by partially positioning of ceramic particles CN102310596B (en)

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