CN102305174B - Blade with constant cross section, forming method and horizontal axis wind turbine impeller comprising same - Google Patents

Blade with constant cross section, forming method and horizontal axis wind turbine impeller comprising same Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102305174B
CN102305174B CN 201110185669 CN201110185669A CN102305174B CN 102305174 B CN102305174 B CN 102305174B CN 201110185669 CN201110185669 CN 201110185669 CN 201110185669 A CN201110185669 A CN 201110185669A CN 102305174 B CN102305174 B CN 102305174B
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blade
mold cavity
structure
cross section
constant cross
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CN 201110185669
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Chinese (zh)
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CN102305174A (en )
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张向增
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张向增
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C70/00Shaping composites, i.e. plastics material comprising reinforcements, fillers or preformed parts, e.g. inserts
    • B29C70/04Shaping composites, i.e. plastics material comprising reinforcements, fillers or preformed parts, e.g. inserts comprising reinforcements only, e.g. self-reinforcing plastics
    • B29C70/28Shaping operations therefor
    • B29C70/40Shaping or impregnating by compression not applied
    • B29C70/50Shaping or impregnating by compression not applied for producing articles of indefinite length, e.g. prepregs, sheet moulding compounds [SMC] or cross moulding compounds [XMC]
    • B29C70/52Pultrusion, i.e. forming and compressing by continuously pulling through a die
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING WEIGHT AND MISCELLANEOUS MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER; OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03DWIND MOTORS
    • F03D1/00Wind motors with rotation axis substantially parallel to the air flow entering the rotor 
    • F03D1/06Rotors
    • F03D1/0608Rotors characterised by their form
    • F03D1/0633Rotors characterised by their form of the blades
    • F03D1/0641Rotors characterised by their form of the blades of the section profile of the blades
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING WEIGHT AND MISCELLANEOUS MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER; OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03DWIND MOTORS
    • F03D1/00Wind motors with rotation axis substantially parallel to the air flow entering the rotor 
    • F03D1/06Rotors
    • F03D1/065Rotors characterised by their construction, i.e. structural design details
    • F03D1/0658Fixing wind-engaging parts to rotor
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING WEIGHT AND MISCELLANEOUS MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER; OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03DWIND MOTORS
    • F03D1/00Wind motors with rotation axis substantially parallel to the air flow entering the rotor 
    • F03D1/06Rotors
    • F03D1/065Rotors characterised by their construction, i.e. structural design details
    • F03D1/0666Rotors characterised by their construction, i.e. structural design details of the whole rotor
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING WEIGHT AND MISCELLANEOUS MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER; OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03DWIND MOTORS
    • F03D1/00Wind motors with rotation axis substantially parallel to the air flow entering the rotor 
    • F03D1/06Rotors
    • F03D1/065Rotors characterised by their construction, i.e. structural design details
    • F03D1/0675Rotors characterised by their construction, i.e. structural design details of the blades
    • F03D1/0683Rotors characterised by their construction, i.e. structural design details of the blades of the section profile of the blades
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29DPRODUCING PARTICULAR ARTICLES FROM PLASTICS OR FROM SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE
    • B29D99/00Subject matter not provided for in other groups of this subclass
    • B29D99/0025Producing blades or the like, e.g. blades for turbines, propellers, or wings
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29LINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASS B29C, RELATING TO PARTICULAR ARTICLES
    • B29L2031/00Other particular articles
    • B29L2031/08Blades for rotors, stators, fans, turbines or the like, e.g. screw propellers
    • B29L2031/082Blades, e.g. for helicopters
    • B29L2031/085Wind turbine blades
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05BINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO MACHINES OR ENGINES OTHER THAN NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, TO WIND MOTORS, TO NON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS, AND TO GENERATING COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF HIGH PRESSURE OR HIGH VELOCITY
    • F05B2230/00Manufacture
    • F05B2230/50Building or constructing in particular ways
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05BINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO MACHINES OR ENGINES OTHER THAN NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, TO WIND MOTORS, TO NON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS, AND TO GENERATING COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF HIGH PRESSURE OR HIGH VELOCITY
    • F05B2250/00Geometry
    • F05B2250/30Arrangement of components
    • F05B2250/31Arrangement of components according to the direction of their main axis or their axis of rotation
    • F05B2250/314Arrangement of components according to the direction of their main axis or their axis of rotation the axes being inclined in relation to each other
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05BINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO MACHINES OR ENGINES OTHER THAN NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, TO WIND MOTORS, TO NON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS, AND TO GENERATING COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF HIGH PRESSURE OR HIGH VELOCITY
    • F05B2280/00Materials; Properties thereof
    • F05B2280/60Properties or characteristics given to material by treatment or manufacturing
    • F05B2280/6003Composites; e.g. fibre-reinforced
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/70Wind energy
    • Y02E10/72Wind turbines with rotation axis in wind direction
    • Y02E10/721Blades or rotors
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P70/00Climate change mitigation technologies in the production process for final industrial or consumer products
    • Y02P70/50Manufacturing or production processes characterised by the final manufactured product
    • Y02P70/52Manufacturing of products or systems for producing renewable energy
    • Y02P70/523Wind turbines

Abstract

本发明涉及一种拉挤成型的带扭角的恒定横截面纤维增强树脂复合材料叶片以及拉挤成型方法。 The present invention relates to a pultruded constant twist angle with a cross-section of the fiber and resin composite blade reinforced pultrusion process. 带扭角的拉挤叶片可以是多段拉挤成型的、每段具有特定弦长、特定扭角的叶片片段的组合结构;这种拉挤成型的叶片具有非常高的质量稳定性和高精度的外部几何型面;这种拉挤叶片的扭角的成型是通过模腔的每个微分截面连续扭转形成。 Pultruded with the blade twist angle may be multistage pultruded, each having a specific chord length, blade segments combined structure of a specific twist angle; pultruded blades have such a very high quality and high precision stability external geometric surface; such a pultrusion molding blade twist is a continuous twist angle is formed by the differential cross section of each mold cavity. 这种轻薄的叶片可以依靠一种拉索结构固定在叶轮的轮毂上,可构成定桨矩或变桨矩叶轮。 This relies on a thin blade may be fixed to the cable structure impeller hub, it may constitute a fixed or variable pitch impellers pitch. 本发明能够轻易地实现水平轴风力发电机需要的低成本大直径叶轮。 The present invention can be easily realized at low cost HAWT impeller diameter needed.

Description

带扭角恒定横截面拉挤复合材料叶片及其拉挤成型方法 Twist angle with a constant cross-section pultruded composite material blade and a pultrusion process

技术领域: FIELD:

[0001] 本发明涉及一种采用连续拉挤工艺成型的具有恒定横截面的纤维增强树脂复合材料叶片,这种轻薄的叶片依靠一种桁架结构或拉索结构固定,能够轻易地实现大型水平轴风力发电机需要的大直径叶轮,这种结构的叶轮极大地降低了风力机叶轮的成本。 [0001] The present invention relates to a constant cross-section of fiber-reinforced resin composite material of the blade, which relies on a thin blade structure or a truss structure of the fixed cable, it can be easily implemented to have a large horizontal axis using a continuous pultrusion molding large diameter wind turbines require an impeller of this structure greatly reduces the cost of the wind wheel.

[0002] 本发明属于复合材料叶片制造领域,或者水平轴风力发电机组制造领域。 [0002] The present invention belongs to the field of manufacturing composite blades, or a horizontal axis wind turbine manufacturing art.

[0003] 背景技术: [0003] BACKGROUND:

[0004] 现代水平轴风力发电机叶轮,无论采用单叶片、双叶片、还是三叶片构成的叶轮,由于每支叶片是一个独立变桨控制的悬臂安装的承载结构,所以,每支叶片从叶尖到叶根承受急剧增加的弯矩,因此从叶尖到叶根叶片型面的几何厚度增加,而且叶片的壁厚也迅速增加。 [0004] Modern horizontal axis wind turbine wheel, both single blade, double blade, or three-blade impeller constituted, Each blade is an independent pitch control is cantilevered bearing structure, therefore, each blade from the blade Ye Gencheng pointed to by a sharp increase in the bending moment, and therefore geometric thickness from the tip to the root of the blade profile is increased, and the thickness of the blade is also increasing rapidly. 因为受材料强度和模量的限制,叶片很难做到很长,即使采用比强度和比模量高的碳纤维材料,要实现大直径叶轮叶片都是非常的笨重,要消耗大量的材料。 Because the strength and modulus of the material is limited by the blade difficult to achieve a long, even with a high specific strength and specific modulus carbon fiber material, to achieve the large diameter of the impeller blades are very heavy, consumes a lot of material.

[0005] 为了提高风机的风能利用率,现代风力发电机叶片都是采用变截面结构,从叶尖向叶根,叶片的弦长不断地增加,叶片的厚度也不断增加,这符合气动效率最大化和结构效率最大化相统一的设计原则。 [0005] In order to improve the utilization of wind energy turbine, the turbine blades of modern wind power are with variable cross-sectional configuration, the blade root, the chord length of the blade from the tip to the continuously increasing, also increasing the thickness of the blade, in line with the maximum aerodynamic efficiency design principles and structure to maximize the efficiency of unity.

[0006] 这是一种性能最大化导向的设计思想,为此,付出的成本代价将很高。 [0006] This is a performance-oriented design to maximize, to this end, to pay the cost of the price will be high.

[0007] 尽管有人提出在轮毂和叶片之间增加一个延伸段来变相加大叶轮直径。 [0007] Although it was suggested that an increase in extension between the hub and the impeller blades increase the diameter to disguise. 本质上没有解决以上阐述的问题。 It does not solve the problem set forth above nature.

[0008] 有不少设计者为降低叶轮成本,采用较少叶片(例如2片)和较高的尖速比。 [0008] There are many designers to reduce the cost of the impeller, with fewer blades (e.g. 2) and the high tip speed ratio. 这样做效果并不十分理想,原因是,尖速比太高必然带来对叶轮轴向推力的显著增加,叶片自身承受的弯矩增加,而且风塔承受的弯矩也将增加,为之要付出额外的补强成本。 Doing so the effect is not very good, because, tip speed ratio is too high will inevitably bring about a significant increase in the impeller axial thrust, increasing their blade bending moment, bending moment and wind towers will also increase, to whom pay extra reinforcement costs.

[0009] 不如变换一种思路,就是用较低的成本实现等同的功率,可以解释为:如果采用一种廉价的工艺制造等截面的叶片、并且用这种叶片配合轻巧的结构制造叶轮,虽然叶片的气动效率可能会少许降低,但是可以轻易地做到大直径叶轮,扫风面积的增加对功率的贡献远远弥补到效率降低导致的功率损失。 [0009] better to transform an idea is to use a lower cost of equivalent power, may be interpreted as follows: if a section of the blade manufacturing process of an inexpensive, lightweight construction and with this manufacturing an impeller blade, although aerodynamic efficiency of the blade may be a little lower, but can easily do the large diameter of the impeller, the contribution swept area of ​​increased power is much to make up for the power loss caused by reduced efficiency.

[0010]另外,当前叶片的成型都是在特定的模具中一片接一片地静态间歇式成型的。 [0010] Further, the current blade is molded piece after piece molded in a static batch particular mold. 这种工艺通常是:预成型主梁系统,预成型气动压力面,预成型气动吸附面,再将三者用结构月父粘接在一起。 This process is typically: system main beam preform, the preform pneumatic pressure surface, the preform pneumatic suction surface, and then bonded together by three months the parent structure. 最后,对I父接部位再手糊补强。 Finally, I pick the parent site and then hand lay reinforcement. 这种工艺成型的叶片,最多出现的缺陷在于:胶接不可靠+树脂浸润不良缺陷+铺层纤维方向偏差+铺层褶皱缺陷+固化不充分缺陷。 This leaves the molding process, most defects occur in that: gluing is not reliable + + resinated defective laid layer of fiber orientation bias ply corrugated defects + + insufficient curing defects. 这些缺陷的存在,就导致叶片运行的失效,可靠性不高。 The presence of these defects, has led to operation of the blade fails, reliability is not high. 而连续拉挤工艺成型的复合材料叶片必然能够克服所有这些缺点。 Composite blade while forming a continuous pultrusion process must be able to overcome all these drawbacks.

发明内容: SUMMARY:

[0011] 本发明的目的是实现一种廉价的、可靠的、水平轴风力发电机大直径叶轮制造技术。 [0011] The object of the present invention is to realize an inexpensive, reliable, large horizontal axis wind turbine manufacturing techniques diameter of the impeller.

[0012] 所谓大直径叶轮,可以理解为直径在80m以上的叶轮。 [0012] The so-called large-diameter impeller, the impeller can be understood as the diameter of 80m or more.

[0013] 本发明的思路就是利用纤维增强树脂复合材料的连续拉挤成型工艺制造一种具有恒定横截面的叶片,这种叶片因为结构轻薄,不足以独立抵抗大的弯矩和扭矩,所以,在叶轮上必须设置有桁架结构或拉索结构才能固定叶片并保持运行受力的稳定。 [0013] The idea of ​​the invention is the use of a continuous fiber-reinforced pultrusion process for producing a resin composite material having a constant cross-section of the blade, such as blade structure thin enough to separate large bending moment and torque resistance, therefore, It must be provided with the impeller cable structure or a truss structure and to the fixed vane holding force running stability.

[0014] 廉价的叶片和廉价的拉索结构,使得叶轮的造价大幅度降低。 [0014] blade cheap and inexpensive cable structure, such that a significant reduction in the cost of the impeller.

[0015] 但是,每支叶片必须能够实现独立变桨控制,这是现代水平轴风机必须具备的能力。 [0015] However, each vane must be able to independently control the pitch, which is the ability of modern wind turbine must have a horizontal axis. 要实现这点,叶片和连结结构之间必须通过轴承连接。 To achieve this, the bearings must be connected by a coupling structure between the blade and the.

[0016] 首先来阐述叶片结构及其成型方法。 [0016] First, to illustrate the blade structure and its molding method.

[0017] 拉挤工艺成型连续的复合材料型材是一种成熟的工艺。 [0017] Continuous pultrusion molding composite material profile is a mature technology. 一种纤维增强树脂复合材料叶片,具有典型的空气动力学结构特征的外形轮廓,由树脂和纤维组成,完全可以通过拉挤成型方法实现,结果当然是制成具有恒定的横截面的叶片片段。 A fiber-reinforced resin composite material of the blade, having a contour characteristic of the typical aerodynamic structure, a resin and fibers, can be implemented by a pultrusion process, the result is of course made of blade segments having a constant cross-section.

[0018] 一支全尺寸的叶片,从叶尖到叶根可以由数段弦长不同的叶片片段组成,每段叶片片段都是拉挤成型的具有恒定横截面的片段。 [0018] a full-size blade chord length segments may be formed from a number of different fragments from blade tip to blade root, each blade segment is pultruded fragment having a constant cross section. 当然,最简化的一种组合就是从叶尖到叶根叶片的弦长不变而且具有恒定横截面。 Of course, the simplest is a composition unchanged from the tip to the root of the blade chord and has a constant cross-section. 如果是多段片段对接组成的叶片,叶片片段之间最好是通过连接法兰和螺栓结构连接,这便于维修替换。 If the flange is preferably connected by a connection structure between the blade and the bolt, blade segments multistage fragment consisting of docking, which facilitates maintenance replacement.

[0019] 由于叶片要承受扭矩作用,只有纵向连续纤维的叶片不能满足强度的要求,可以在拉挤工艺中引入具有横向纤维分布的布或毡。 [0019] Since the blade is subjected to a torque acts only longitudinally continuous fibers can not meet the required strength of the blade, fabric or felt may be introduced having a fiber distribution in the transverse pultrusion process. 其结果是叶片由纵向纤维和横向纤维的搭配构成的复合结构。 The result is a composite structure of the blade composed of longitudinal fibers and transverse fibers in the mix. 当然,横向纤维包括和纵向成一定角度铺放的斜纤维。 Of course, the longitudinal and transverse fibers comprising fibers inclined at an angle to the placement. 这些可以通过多轴向纤维布实现。 These can be achieved by a multi-axial fiber fabric.

[0020] 为提高叶片的纵向压缩稳定性,叶片的壁板中可以引入固体泡沫夹心材料。 [0020] In order to improve the stability of longitudinal compression of the blade, the blade may be introduced into the wall of solid foam sandwich material.

[0021] 高速运动的风力发电机组叶片必须是具有特定几何翼型的叶片实现高效的升阻比气动性能。 [0021] The wind turbine blade is a blade speed motion must have a specific geometry of the airfoil lift to drag ratio for efficient aerodynamic performance. 而且,由于从叶尖到叶根的运动线速度差异,要实现叶片长度上所有叶素(叶片微元片段)有理想的气动攻角,必然是叶片片段的恒定横截面要沿叶片长度方向有理想的扭转角度。 Further, since the difference in linear velocity of the movement from the tip to the root, to implement all vasopressin (blade infinitesimal segment) lengths over the blade aerodynamic angle of attack, the cross section must be constant along the blade fragment to the longitudinal direction of the blade ideal twist angle. 这种扭转是叶片横截面围绕叶片变桨中心轴的一种定型扭转。 This twisting is a cross section of the blade about the central axis A blade pitch setting of the twist. 这种扭转角度固化在叶片的几何形状中。 This twisting of the blade angle cured geometry.

[0022] 这种复合材料叶片的纤维可以是碳纤维、玻璃纤维、有机纤维等,或者它们的组合。 [0022] Such composite blades fibers may be carbon fibers, glass fibers, organic fibers or the like, or combinations thereof. 树脂可以是聚酯树脂、环氧树脂、环氧乙烯基树脂等。 Resin may be a polyester resin, an epoxy resin, epoxy vinyl resin or the like.

[0023] 这样,有特定横截面和特定扭转角度的纤维增强树脂复合材料叶片是通过以下描述的工艺实现的: [0023] Thus, the particular cross-section and has a particular angle of twist of the fiber-reinforced resin composite material of the blade is achieved by the process described below:

[0024] 连续的纤维经过树脂浸润后汇集,进入一个加热的模具型腔,在牵引机构的连续拉伸力作用下,浸润树脂的纤维在模具中持续行走并经过化学反应而硬化后移出模具型腔,通过冷却后就获得具有特定弦长的恒定横截面的复合材料叶片片段。 [0024] The continuous fibers together after resin infiltration into a heated mold cavity under continuous traction mechanism acting tensile force, continued infiltration of the resin fibers traveling in a mold and subjected to a chemical reaction and removed from the mold after hardening type chamber, to achieve a constant cross section having a specific chord length after cooling by a composite material blade segments. 这就是拉挤成型复合材料叶片。 This is pultruded composite blade.

[0025] 树脂浸润纵向连续纤维汇集在一起时又辅以铺放横向取向的纤维布(多轴向布、方格布等)或纤维毡,连续通过加热的模具型腔,反应固化并移出模具,冷却后就获得具有特定弦长的恒定横截面的复合材料叶片片段。 [0025] The resin infiltration time and brought together the longitudinal continuous fibers laid transversely oriented fibers combined with fabric (multiaxial fabric, woven roving, etc.) or a fiber mat, continuously passed through a heated mold cavity, the mold was removed and the reaction curing , after cooling to obtain a constant cross-section having a particular chord blade segments of a composite material. 横向纤维的引入会增强叶片壳板的抗剪切强度。 Introduction of transverse fibers will enhance the shear strength of the blade shell plate.

[0026] 树脂浸润纵向连续纤维汇集在一起时又辅以连续铺放固体泡沫芯材,连续通过加热的模具型腔,反应固化并移出模具,冷却后就获得具有特定弦长的恒定横截面的复合材料叶片片段。 [0026] The resinated fibers brought together longitudinally continuous time and supplemented continuously depositing a solid foam core, continuously passed through a heated mold cavity, the reaction solidified and removed from the mold, after cooling to obtain a constant cross-section having a chord length of a particular composite blade segments. 这样,夹心材料的引入会大大增加叶片的抵抗压缩受力时的抗屈曲能力。 Thus, the introduction of the sandwich material will greatly increase the ability of anti-buckling resistance of the compression force leaves.

[0027] 当模具的型腔具有足够的长度,并且模具型腔的横截面连续向一个方向扭转,当树脂经历在型腔中移动硬化的反应历程后,获得恒定截面的扭转定型。 [0027] When the mold cavity has a sufficient length and cross-section of the mold cavity is continuously twisted in one direction, the course of the reaction when the resin undergoes curing in the mold cavity moving, twisted shape to obtain a constant cross section. 这样,实现了对于每段恒定横截面的叶片片段,从叶片的叶根向叶尖方向,每个微分横截面绕变桨中心轴连续 Thus, to achieve a constant cross-section for each piece of blade segments, the direction of the tip, the differential cross section of each pitch around the central axis from the root of the blade is continuously

扭转一定角度。 Reverse angle.

[0028] 由于叶片是中空的结构,拉挤成型时必然存在一个模具的型腔外模和型腔内模两部分,这两部分限定了拉制成的中空叶片的形状。 [0028] Since the vane is a hollow structure, there must be a pultrusion mold cavity when the cavity mold and an outer mold in two parts, these two parts defining a shape of a hollow blade pull made. 又由于大型叶片的蒙皮结构中必然有横向纤维存在,传统的拉挤设备中在型腔内部、内模部分依靠外模支撑固定的技术方案就不能采用。 Also, because the skin structure of the blade must have a large transverse fibers are present, conventional pultrusion apparatus in the interior of the cavity, the inner mold part, on the outer mold supporting and fixing the technical solution can not be employed. 本发明采用在模具的入料口有延伸出模具型腔外部的悬臂支撑结构来支撑型腔内模,使得型腔内模能够悬浮在型腔外模中。 The present invention employs a mold with a feeding inlet cantilevered support structure extends outside the mold cavity to the mold cavity of the support, so that the mold cavity can be suspended in an outer mold cavity.

[0029] 当硬化定型后移出模腔的叶片片段,和牵引机构的行走速度同步,设置一个同步的表面粗化处理机构和一个同步的涂层涂覆机构,就可以完成叶片外防护涂层的自动化连 [0029] When curing of the mold cavity shape after removal blade segments, and the traction mechanism running speed synchronization, the synchronization is provided a surface roughening processing means and a synchronization means of coating applied can be completed blade outer protective coating even automation

续施工。 Continued construction.

[0030] 由于在叶片翼型的前缘和后缘以及梁帽和腹板之间的部位都可以有纵向和横向的连续纤维,而且没有传统工艺中两个半壳之间的胶接结合面。 [0030] Since the blade portion of the airfoil between the leading and trailing edges, and the spar cap and webs can have continuous longitudinal and transverse fibers, and there is no adhesive between the two half-shells in the conventional process contact surface binding . 传统叶片中这种胶接结合面通常是最容易出现缺陷而导致叶片受力折断的。 In this conventional blade glued joint surface defects are generally most likely to result in the broken blade force. 另外,由于每根纤维经过预浸后汇集成型,充分保证了纤维的良好浸润性和均匀的树脂含量,避免了当前真空导流工艺成型叶片中存在的容易形成包抄白斑等严重缺陷。 Further, since each fiber prepreg together after molding, sufficient to ensure a good wettability of the fibers and a uniform resin content, avoiding the serious defects easily formed like current envelop white vane vacuum infusion molding processes exist. 还有,由于每根纤维永远是纵向严格拉伸的,不会有多轴向编织布存在的纤维弯曲导致的模量和强度损失。 Further, since each fiber is always strictly stretched longitudinally, not how there is a loss modulus and strength in the axial direction of the woven fiber to bending.

[0031] 对完整的叶片,叶片的根部自然要有一个和轮毂连接的过渡结构,叶尖自然要有减少叶尖涡流损失和防雷功能的尖锐结构。 [0031] The complete blade, the blade root and hub to have a natural transition structure connecting tip natural to have reduced eddy current losses and lightning protection tip sharp configuration. 所有这些叶尖和叶根异形结构,以及不同弦长叶片片段之间的过渡结构,都不影响本发明阐述的拉挤成型恒定横截面叶片的本质特征。 All of these shaped tip and the blade root structure, and a transition structure between different chord blade segments, the present invention is set forth not affect the essential characteristics of the pultrusion constant cross-section of the blade.

[0032] 本发明涉及的恒定横截面叶片,也可以采用传统的真空导流工艺成型,或者手糊成型。 [0032] The constant cross section of the blade according to the present invention, may be used a conventional vacuum infusion molding process or hand lay. 但是最适宜的还是连续拉挤工艺成型。 But the most appropriate or pultrusion molding process.

[0033] 以上描述了叶片结构特征及其成型工艺特征,下面,来阐述由这种叶片组成的叶轮是什么样的一种技术特征。 [0033] The structural characteristics described above the blade and molding characteristics, below, to explain the impeller blades of this kind is composed of a technical features.

[0034] 用本发明阐述的叶片可以组装两种运行模式的叶轮。 [0034] The present invention describes a blade impeller may be assembled in the two operating modes. 一种是早期的定桨矩风机叶轮,一种是当代变桨矩风机叶轮。 One is given early pitch fan impeller A contemporary variable pitch fan wheel. 定桨矩风机叶轮简单定义为叶片的主体部分是固定连接在轮毂上,而只有叶尖一个小段部分可以转动,转到部分起到调整功率和停车时的气动刹车的作用。 Fixed pitch fan impeller blades simply defined as a body portion is fixedly connected to the hub, and only a tip portion of the small pieces can be rotated to play the part of a pneumatic brake and a parking time of the power adjustment action. 变桨矩风机叶轮简单解释为整个叶片可以在叶根转动实现叶片迎风角调整,可以实现停车时刹车顺桨。 Variable pitch fan impeller Simple Explanation of the entire blade may rotate the wind vane angle adjustment to achieve the blade root may be achieved feathered parking brake.

[0035] 无论哪种叶轮,因为叶片的结构过于轻薄,无法实现独立悬臂安装时独立支撑自身的弯曲受力。 [0035] Either of the impeller, because the structure of the blade is too thin, it can not support its own independence independent cantilever bending force during installation. 因此,需要有桁架支撑或者拉索结构紧固支持。 Accordingly, there is need or cable truss support structure is fastened. 引入这些连接结构后,叶片由原来的主要受弯曲应力作用变为弯曲和轴向压缩力并存的状态。 After introduction of these connecting structure, the blade is changed from the original bending and axial compression forces state of coexistence is mainly affected by bending stress. 当然,对于有一定厚度的叶片以及多点支撑的叶片,叶片的纵向压缩稳定性还是足够的。 Of course, for a certain blade thickness, and multi-point support of the blade, the blade longitudinal compression stability is sufficient. 叶轮转动产生的离心力的作用会抵消一部分轴向压缩力。 Rotation of the impeller of the centrifugal force acting partly offset axial compression forces. 而叶片片段承受弯曲应力大小自然和叶片支撑点之间的跨距有关。 For the span between the blade segments bear the bending stress and the size of the natural support points blade. 这种跨距通常可以在IOm至30m范围设计。 This may generally span the range IOm designed to 30m.

[0036] 至此,我们可以总结出这样一种叶轮,一种由恒定截面复合材料叶片构成的水平轴风力发电机组的叶轮,由叶片、叶片固定机构、叶片变桨机构、轮毂组成,其特征在于:叶轮至少含有3支叶片;沿每支叶片纵向长度上至少含有一段恒定横截面的片段;叶片之间有通过叶轮前端公共支撑点联系在一起的前端轴向连结结构,尽管是一种斜拉结构,可以承载叶片的轴向受力,约束叶片的变形挠度,叶片之间有位于叶片回转面内的横向连结结构,用于承载叶片之间传递的横向受力;这些连结结构和叶片之间形成的连结点位于叶片的叶根和叶尖之间的气动工作段,这有区别于现有技术的在叶根和轮毂之间构筑的桁架结构。 [0036] At this point, we can conclude that a an impeller horizontal axis wind turbine blade made of a composite material of constant cross-section, by the blades, blade attachment, the blade pitch mechanism, consisting of a hub, characterized in that : at least three blade impeller; Each blade along the longitudinal length of the section of constant cross-section comprising at least a fragment; linked together by a common support point distal the distal end of the impeller axial coupling structure between the blades, although a cable-stayed structure, the blade can carry the axial force constraints that the deflection of the blade, the transverse connecting structure is located between the blades of the blade surface of revolution, for carrying the transverse force transfer between the blade; link structure between the blade and pneumatic working section formed between the connection point located on the blade root and tip, which has a truss structure between the root and the hub constructed distinguished from the prior art.

[0037] 这种结构,完全可以承受来自叶轮前方的风力作用,而且本发明推崇使用拉索结构,这样可以使得叶轮非常轻巧。 [0037] This structure can withstand the action of the wind from the front of the impeller, and the use of the present invention is respected cable structure, so that the impeller can be very lightweight. 然而,最大的问题在于不能承受某些条件下后方吹来的风力作用。 However, the biggest problem is that the wind can not withstand the action of the rear blowing under certain conditions. 为此,可以设计一种导变结构,就是叶片安装成一定倾斜角度的叶轮结构。 For this purpose, it is possible to design a guide variable structure, the blade is mounted to an angle of inclination of the wheel structure. 每支叶片变桨轴线和叶轮回转轴线形成一个大于90度的夹角,叶片后掠姿态安装,叶片之间有通过叶轮后端公共支撑点联系在一起的后端轴向连结结构。 Each impeller blade pitch axis and a pivot axis forming an angle greater than 90 degrees, the posture swept blade is mounted, linked together by a common rear wheel supporting point between the rear end of the axial blade coupling structure.

[0038] 至此,总结出一种定桨矩结构叶轮,横向连结结构和叶片之间、前端轴向连结结构和叶片之间、后端轴向连结结构和叶片之间均为固定连结,这种固定结构约束叶片长度的80%以上,位于叶片尖端的一段、占叶片长度20%以下的这部分叶片片段悬臂安装,该安装点有一支撑叶尖片段转动的回转机构。 [0038] Thus, summed with fixed-pitch structure of the impeller, and the link structure between the lateral blades, the front end of the axial coupling between the structure and the blade, are fixed to the rear end of the axial coupling between the coupling structure and the blade, which 80% or more fixing structure constraint length of the blade located at the tip of the blade section, accounting for 20% of the length of the blade which is cantilevered portion of the blade segment, the mounting point has a rotating mechanism rotatably supporting the tip segment.

[0039] 至此,总结出一种变桨矩结构叶轮,横向连结结构和叶片之间、前端轴向连结结构和叶片之间、后端轴向连结结构和叶片之间均通过轴承活动连结。 [0039] Thus, a variation summed pitch structure of the impeller, and the link structure between the lateral blades, the front end of the axial coupling between the structure and the blade, and the rear end of the blade axially between the coupling structures are coupled through a bearing activities.

[0040] 对于轴承连结结构,最理想的轴承是一种非金属全密封轴承,要防尘防腐蚀,耐老化,而且还应该是一种推力轴承。 [0040] coupled to the bearing structure, and most preferably a non-metallic bearing is sealed bearings, dust to corrosion, anti-aging, but also should be a thrust bearing. 由于轴承的受力不是很大,所以,类似聚四氟乙烯类自润滑耐磨轴承就可以满足要求。 Since the bearing of discontinuity is big, so, similar to a Teflon-based self-lubricating wear-resistant bearings to meet the requirements.

[0041] 从本文的阐述可以发现,采用拉挤工艺制造恒定横截面复合材料叶片,叶片本身具有廉价、高可靠性的优势。 [0041] From the set forth herein can be found using pultrusion process for producing a constant cross-section of a composite material of the blade, the blade itself has a low cost, high reliability advantages. 而其不足有二,一是过于轻薄,独立抵抗弯曲载荷的能力有限,不能全尺寸叶片悬臂安装,这可以在叶片上施加桁架结构或拉索结构得以补偿;二是由于恒定截面,气动效率低于目前的复杂形状的变截面叶片,这可以轻易通过增加叶片长度(增加叶轮直径)的方法弥补功率的缺失。 While the lack of two, one is too thin, the limited ability to resist bending load independent, not full-size blade is cantilevered, it may be applied on the blade cable structure or truss structure is compensated; second is due to the constant cross-section, low aerodynamic efficiency to the current section of the blade becomes a complicated shape, which can be easily by increasing the length of the blade (increasing impeller diameter) methods compensate for the lack of power.

[0042] 传统机型设计中,为降低叶轮成本采用两叶片叶轮,为获得一定的叶轮实度,必然要很高的尖速比,太高的尖速比必然带来对叶轮轴向推力的显著增加,叶片自身承受的弯矩显著增加,而且风塔承受的弯矩也将显著增加,为之要付出额外的补强成本。 [0042] Traditional models of designs, to reduce the cost of using two impeller blades of the impeller, the impeller, for a certain degree of real, bound to a high tip speed ratio, the high tip speed ratio will inevitably bring about an axial thrust on the impeller a significant increase in the blade itself significant increase in bending moment, bending moment and wind towers will increase significantly, to whom to pay extra reinforcement costs. 采用本发明阐述的方法,事实上可以采用较多的轻薄型叶片(例如3叶片或4叶片叶轮)和相对较低的尖速比λ,例如6 < λ < 10的范围。 Method of the invention as set forth, can in fact be used more thin blade type (e.g. 3 or 4 bladed impeller blade) and a relatively low tip speed ratio [lambda], for example, the range of 6 <λ <10's.

[0043] 本发明叶轮对风机振动抑制,风切变引起的载荷平衡,载荷平滑,延长叶片和主轴轴承的疲劳寿命等都有极大的好处。 [0043] The impeller of the present invention to suppress fan vibration, wind shear load balancing change caused by smooth load, the fatigue life of the blade and the spindle bearings and the like have a great advantage.

[0044] 这种叶片结构构成的叶轮,由于叶片异常的轻薄,而且每支叶片是叶片片段组合状态,尤其对于海上风机而言意义重大,一方面,风轮可靠性提高,另一方面即使更换叶片也不需要整个叶轮吊装拆下,单个叶片或者单段叶片更换即可。 [0044] Such an impeller blade structure constituted, abnormal thin blades, blade segments and Each blade is assembled state, especially for offshore wind turbines of great significance, in one aspect, to improve reliability of the wind turbine, on the other hand even if the replacement lifting the entire impeller blade do not need to be removed, the individual blades or vanes and replace single segments.

[0045] 下面结合附图阐述本发明的一个:MW风力发电机组、具有50m长叶片和叶轮的具体实施例。 [0045] The following figures set forth in the present invention, a combination of: MW wind turbine, having a specific embodiment of 50m long blades and vanes embodiment.

附图说明: BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF:

[0046] 图1是一个分为三段的恒定横截面叶片结构示意图; [0046] FIG. 1 is a schematic cross-section of three constant segments into a blade structure;

[0047] 图2是一个叶轮的一支叶片安装状态侧向视图示意图;[0048] 图3是一个叶轮的三支叶片安装状态轴向视图示意图; [0047] FIG. 2 is a blade impeller mounted state of a lateral schematic view; [0048] FIG. 3 is a three blade impeller schematic axial view of a mounted state;

[0049] 图4是一个三叶片叶轮的完整立体结构示意图; [0049] FIG. 4 is a schematic view of a complete three-dimensional structure of a three-bladed impeller;

[0050] 图5是一个拉挤成型叶片片段的方法示意图。 [0050] FIG. 5 is a schematic diagram of a pultrusion method of the blade segment.

[0051] 图1中,1-恒定横截面片段、2-连结点、3-叶尖、4-叶根 In [0051] FIG. 1, a constant cross-sectional segments 1-, 2- junction point, tip 3-, 4- root

[0052] 图2中,1-恒定横截面片段、2-连结点、3-叶尖、4-叶根、5-前端轴向连结结构、6-前端公共支撑点、7-前撑杆、8-轮毂、9-后端公共支撑点、10-后端轴向连结结构、11-轮 In [0052] FIG 2, a constant cross-sectional segments 1-, 2- junction point, 3- tip, root 4-, 5- distal axial coupling structure, the front end of the common support point 6-, 7- front struts, 8- hub, 9 the rear end of the common support and the rear end of the axial coupling structure 10-, 11- wheel

毂法兰。 Hub flange.

[0053] 图3中,1-恒定横截面片段、2-连结点、3-叶尖、4-叶根、8-轮毂、12-横向连结结构。 In [0053] FIG. 3, a constant cross-sectional segments 1-, 2- junction point, tip 3-, 4- root, hub 8-, 12- lateral link structure.

[0054] 图4中,1-恒定横截面片段、2-连结点、3-叶尖、4-叶根、5-前端轴向连结结构、6-前端公共支撑点、7-前撑杆、8-轮毂、9-后端公共支撑点、10-后端轴向连结结构、11-轮毂法兰、12-横向连结结构、13-机舱、14-塔架。 In [0054] FIG. 4, the constant cross-sectional segments 1-, 2- junction point, 3- tip, root 4-, 5- distal axial coupling structure, the front end of the common support point 6-, 7- front struts, 8- hub, 9 the rear end of the common support and the rear end of the axial coupling structure 10-, 11- hub flange, the lateral coupling structure 12-, 13- nacelle, 14- tower.

[0055] 图5中,511-型腔外模、512-型腔内模、513-悬臂支撑、51-纤维、52-树脂槽、53-纤维布、54-固体泡沫材料、55-模腔、56-加热固化装置、57-牵引机构、58-同步粗化装置、59-同步喷涂装置、60-切割装置、1-恒定横截面片段。 In [0055] FIG. 5, 511- outer mold cavity, the mold cavity 512-, 513- cantilevered, fibers 51, resin bath 52-, 53- fiber cloth, solid foam 54-, 55- cavity , 56- heat curing means, the traction mechanism 57-, 58- roughening synchronizing means synchronizing 59- spraying device, the cutting device 60, 1- constant cross-sectional segments.

具体实施方案: Specific embodiments:

[0056] 本实施例中,叶片长度50m,3叶片叶轮结构。 [0056] In this embodiment, the blade length 50m, 3 blade impeller structure.

[0057] 图1所示的是一支由三段恒定横截面叶片片段组成的叶片,从叶尖到叶根叶片弦长梯级增加。 [0057] FIG. 1 is shown a blade of constant cross-section blade segment consisting of three sections, increases from the tip to the blade root chord rung. 并且每一段都有适度的扭角。 And each section has a moderate twist angle. 图中LI段长度20m,L2段20m,L3段10m。 FIG LI length 20m, L2 segment 20m, L3 segment 10m. 图中,由三段恒定横截面片段I组合成一支叶片。 Drawing, the three segments I constant cross-sectional segments are combined into a blade. 连结点2是叶片固定用的连接点,叶尖3是兼备整流和防雷的结构,叶根4是叶片和轮毂相连接的结构。 2 is a connection point for fixing the connecting point of the blade, both the tip 3 is rectified and the mine structure, structure of the blade root 4 and the hub is connected. 图1中右侧的视图是一个横截面剖面图。 Right side view of FIG. 1 is a cross-sectional profile of FIG. 它展示了一个有良好升阻比气动特性外形的中空结构。 It shows a hollow aerodynamic drag ratio characteristic structure shape favorable liters.

[0058] 图2中,展示出叶轮上一支叶片的轴向安装连结状态示意图,图中省略示意叶片之间的环向连结。 In [0058] FIG. 2, show an axial impeller blades mounted coupling state schematic, not shown schematically coupled to the loop between the blades. 叶轮中其它叶片的安装方式类同。 Other similar installation blade impeller. 图中,轮毂8前方有前撑杆7,前端轴向连结结构5通过前端公共支撑点6连结在一起传递并平衡拉力。 FIG, 8 in front of the front wheel strut 7, the front end of the axial coupling structure by the distal end 5 connected to the supporting point 6 with a common transfer and balance tension. 前端轴向连结结构5可以是桁架结构或者拉索结构。 The front end of the axial coupling structure 5 may be a truss or cable structure. 后端轴向连结结构10通过后端公共支撑点9连结在一起。 The rear end of the axial coupling structure 10 joined together by a common rear support point 9. 后端轴向连结结构10可以是桁架结构或者拉索结构。 The rear end of the axial coupling structure 10 may be a cable structure or a truss structure. 叶片通过连结点2和前端轴向连结结构5、和后端轴向连结结构10连结。 By connecting the blade 2 and the front end point of axial coupling structure 5, and the rear end 10 connected to the axial coupling structure. 图2中Wind表示叶轮运行状态时风的方向,叶轮处于迎风状态。 Wind Wind Figure 2 represents the operating state of the direction of the impeller, the impeller windward state. 叶片通过叶根4和轮毂8连接。 8 is connected to the hub through the blade root 4 and the wheel. 叶轮依靠轮毂法兰11和机舱主轴相连。 Rely impeller hub flange 11 and is connected to the nacelle spindle.

[0059] 最简化的一种叶片安装方式就是没有后端轴向连结结构10,只有前端轴向连结结构5,而且为拉索结构。 [0059] The simplest way of mounting a blade for an axial rear end that is not connected to the structure 10, only the front end of the axial coupling structure 5, and as cable structure. 这种叶轮,要求从风机安装的开始就要始终保持叶轮对准风向工作,一点也经受不住反方向的风吹受力。 This impeller fan from the beginning requires the installation of the wind direction will remain aligned with the impeller work, is also unable to withstand the wind force in the opposite direction.

[0060] 当然,叶片和叶轮水平回转轴之间的安装角a可以是90°,也可以大于90°。 [0060] Of course, the mounting angle between a horizontal rotating shaft and the impeller blades may be 90 °, may be larger than 90 °. 由于叶片和风机塔柱之间的空间有限,所以,a角大于90°更好。 Due to the limited space between the fan blades and the tower, therefore, an angle greater than 90 ° A better. 这样安装的叶片有一种后掠的姿势。 Such a blade is mounted with a sweep of the latter posture. 和当前传统的叶片安装有前倾姿势完全不同。 And current conventional blade mounted forward posture is completely different. 这种叶轮自然不需要叶片有预弯造型。 This natural impeller blades do not need to have a pre-curved shape.

[0061] 图3中,展示出一个叶轮的三支叶片安装状态轴向视图,为示意图;目的在于示意叶片之间的横向连结状态。 In [0061] Figure 3 show a three blade impeller of an axial view of the mounted state, it is a schematic diagram; for purposes of illustration lateral connection state between the blades. 这种横向连结位于叶片的回转面内。 This coupling is located within the lateral surface of revolution of the blade. 图中省略示意叶片之间的纵向连结。 Not shown a schematic longitudinal coupling between the blades. 三支叶片之间通过横向连结结构12连结成一个整体。 Between three blades 12 coupled by a transverse coupling structure as a whole. 这种横向连结结构12可以是桁架结构,也可以是拉索结构。 This lateral coupling structure 12 may be a truss structure, it may be a cable structure. 最简单的推崇拉索结构。 The simplest respected cable structure. 这种连结结构实现了由轻薄叶片组成的叶轮扭矩的传递和承载。 Such coupling structure realized by a thin blade impeller consisting of torque transmission and the carrier.

[0062] 图4中,展示出一个完整叶轮的三维立体结构示意图;完整展示了一种轻薄叶片依靠拉索结构形成的风力发电机叶轮案例。 In [0062] FIG. 4, show a complete three-dimensional structural diagram of an impeller; shows the complete wind turbine blade impeller case rely on a kind of light cable structure is formed.

[0063] 图4中,示意了机舱13、塔架14、和叶轮之间的组装关系。 In [0063] FIG. 4 illustrates a relationship between the assembly of a nacelle 13, a tower 14, and the impeller. 这是一种上风向的运行设计。 It is designed for operating on the wind direction. 当然,这种叶轮也可以安装成下风向运行组装关系。 Of course, the impeller may be mounted downwind of the assembly operation.

[0064] 图4中,恒定横截面片段I通过叶根4和轮毂8连接,前端轴向连结结构5、后端轴向连结结构10通过连结点2和把叶片固定。 In [0064] FIG. 4, the constant cross-sectional segments 8 connecting the hub I via the blade root 4 and the wheel, axially connected to the front end structure 5, the rear end of the axial coupling structure 10 and the fixed blade 2 through the connection point. 前端公共支撑点6和叶根4之间的距离影响叶片和前端轴向连结结构的受力大小。 Effects of the distal end 6 and the common support point distance between the blade root 4 and the blade tip end size of the force of the axial coupling structure. 同样,后端公共支撑点9和叶根4之间的距离影响叶片和后端轴向连结结构的受力大小。 Similarly, the rear end of the common support point 9 and the influence of the distance between the blade root 4 and the blade size of the force of the rear axial coupling structure. 轴向连结结构、横向连结结构和连结点2把叶片固定。 Axially coupling structure, and a lateral structure connecting the blade 2 fixed connection point. 轴向连结结构承载叶片的迎风向受力,横向连结结构承载叶片的扭转受力。 Coupling an axial bearing structure of the blade to the wind force, the lateral force torsional coupling structure of the blade carrier. 具体的轴向和横向连结结构不局限于图示的连接线。 Specific axial and transverse coupling structure is not limited to the illustrated cable.

[0065] 尽管图4中示意的是三叶片叶轮,本发明涉及的叶轮还可以是多叶片叶轮,其连结特征是一样的。 [0065] Although illustrated in FIG. 4 is a three bladed impeller, the impeller of the present invention may also be a multi-blade impeller, characterized in that the link is the same. 而且,叶片可以是一个从叶尖到叶根的单一弦长叶片,也可以是多段弦长不同的叶片片段的组合。 Further, the blade may be a single chord length from a blade tip to the blade root, it may also be a combination of multiple segments of different chord length of the blade segments. 公共连结点2的位置根据需要布置,不一定在两段片段之间的接合处,连结点2的位置位于叶片的气动工作段范围内。 2 position of the common connection point are arranged as needed, not necessarily at the junction between the two segments, the position of the connecting point of the blade 2 is located pneumatic working range segment.

[0066] 如果是多段叶片片段的组合产品,片段之间采用连接法兰和螺栓结构连接为好,可以给未来的维修替换带来方便。 [0066] If the multi-stage blade segments are combination products, the use of connecting flanges and the bolt connection structure as well, to the maintenance can be replaced between the segments next convenience.

[0067] 这种叶轮结构,由于连结结构的约束,叶片的变形挠度较传统悬臂安装的叶片大幅度减小,始终保证了整个叶片较理想的气动攻角,因此捕风效率相对提高。 [0067] This wheel configuration, since the coupling structure of the constraints, that the deflection of the blade is greatly reduced compared to the conventional blade cantilever mounted, always ensure the entire blade ideal aerodynamic angle of attack, so the wind capture efficiency is relatively improved.

[0068] 图4中的连结点2,在定桨矩风机叶轮中表现为固定的接合结构,是一种死连结。 [0068] The connection point 42 in FIG., In the given pitch appears as a fan wheel engaging a fixed structure, a dead link. 在变桨矩风机叶轮中表现为一种轴承连结结构。 A bearing structure for the performance of the link in variable pitch fan impeller.

[0069] 当采用轴承连结时,由于作用应力不是很大,完全可以采用耐腐蚀重量轻的非金属轴承,具有自润滑性能的聚四氟乙烯轴承是理想的选择。 [0069] When a link bearing, due to the stress is not large, can employ a light weight corrosion resistant non-metallic bearing having self-lubricating properties of the PTFE bearing is the ideal choice.

[0070] 图5示意出拉挤工艺成型这种复合材料叶片的方法。 [0070] Figure 5 schematically a pultrusion method of forming such composite materials of the blade.

[0071] 连续纤维51通过树脂槽52的浸润,连续辅助铺放纤维布53,必要时引入固体泡沫材料54,这些材料组合进入模腔55,在加热固化装置56的作用下树脂迅速反应固化,固化后定型成具有要求外形几何的恒定横截面片段I。 [0071] 51 continuous fibers through the resin infiltration grooves 52, 53 continuously auxiliary laying fiber cloth, solid foam material 54 is introduced, if necessary, combinations of these materials into the die cavity 55, reaction curing resins rapidly cured under the action of a heating device 56, after curing shaped into geometric shape having the desired constant cross-sectional segments I.

[0072] 拉挤成型的动力来源于牵引机构57的定向行走牵引。 Power [0072] pultruded from a traction mechanism 57 oriented walking traction.

[0073] 当然,模腔55需要足够长,而且模腔型面的横截面需要连续扭转才可以制造出有特定扭转角度的复合材料叶片。 [0073] Of course, the mold cavity 55 need to be long enough, and the cross-sectional profile of the cavity before twisting requires continuous composite blade can be manufactured with a specific angle of twist. 叶片的这种扭转角度的定型需要树脂的固化反应速度和牵引速度的适配才可以做到。 The twist angle of this blade setting adapter required curing reaction rate and the pulling speed of the resin can be done. 模腔长度也取决于固化反应速度和牵引速度。 Cavities also depends on the length of the curing reaction rate and the pulling speed. 通过铺层设计,引入叶片外壳铺层结构的不对称性,也可以造成固化后的叶片自然扭曲。 By ply design, the introduction of asymmetry blade shell laminate structure, can also cause blade after curing natural twist.

[0074] 图5中,恒定横截面片段I的横截面示意图如AA视图,它是一种中空结构,所以模腔55是由型腔外模511和型腔内模512组成。 [0074] FIG. 5, I fragment of constant cross section as a schematic cross-sectional view AA, which is a hollow structure, the mold cavity 55 by the outer mold cavity 511 and mold cavity 512.. 由于叶片蒙皮横向纤维的存在,必然需要有位于模腔55外部悬臂支撑513来固定型腔内模512,使得型腔内模512悬浮在型腔外模511中。 Due to the presence of transverse fibers of the blade skin, it necessitates the boom 55 is located outside the cavity 513 to secure the support mold cavity 512, so that the mold cavity 512 is suspended in an outer mold cavity 511. 纤维、树脂、夹心材料一起进入模腔55中,固化定型,便成为恒定横截面片段I。 Together into the fiber, resin, mold cavity fill material 55, cured shape, becomes constant cross-sectional segments I.

[0075] 当然,配置同步粗化装置58和同步喷涂装置59,以及切割装置60等后续辅助设备,就形成了连续生产的流水线。 [0075] Of course, the configuration of the synchronizing device 58 and the synchronous coarse spray device 59, and a cutting means 60 and other auxiliary equipment follow, it forms a continuous production line. 这种工艺彻底改变了目前叶片制造劳动密集型的不利局面。 This process completely changed the blade manufacturing labor-intensive unfavorable situation at present. 同时大量减少了传统工艺真空袋膜等辅助成型材料的消耗和环境污染。 A significant reduction in the conventional process while vacuum bag film assisted molding material consumption and environmental pollution.

[0076] 这种拉挤工艺成型的叶片具有精确的几何外形,所以可以表现出理想的空气动力学特性。 [0076] Such pultrusion forming blade having a precise geometrical shape, it is possible to exhibit desirable aerodynamic characteristics.

[0077] 用不同的设备拉制不同弦长的恒定横截面叶片型材,然后切断成要求长度的片段后,进一步组合就可以获得我们要求的叶片。 [0077] chord drawn with different devices of different blade profile of constant cross section, and then after cutting to the required length of the fragment, the blade can be obtained further combined our requirements.

[0078] 本发明实现了一种低成本、高可靠、轻巧型大直径水平轴风力发电机组叶轮。 [0078] The present invention achieves a low-cost, high reliability, lightweight large diameter horizontal axis wind turbine impellers.

Claims (5)

  1. 1.一种水平轴风力发电机使用的拉挤工艺成型的带扭角的恒定横截面纤维增强树脂复合材料叶片,具有典型的空气动力学结构特征的外形轮廓,主要由树脂、纤维、夹心材料组成,其特征在于:沿一支叶片纵向长度上至少含有一段恒定横截面的叶片片段,由多段叶片片段组成的叶片,每段叶片片段都具有特定弦长的恒定的横截面,对于每段恒定横截面的叶片片段,从叶片的叶根向叶尖方向,每个微分横截面绕变桨中心轴连续扭转一定角度。 A pultrusion forming horizontal-axis wind generators with a constant twist angle cross section composite fiber reinforced resin blade material, with typical air dynamics contour structural features, mainly composed of resins, fibers, fill material composition, wherein: along a longitudinal length of the blade comprising at least a section of constant cross section blade segments, the blade segments by a plurality of blade segments, each segment has a blade chord length specified constant cross-section, a constant for each segment the cross section of blade segments, the blade root to tip direction, each of the differential cross section continuously about the central axis of the torsion pitch angle.
  2. 2.根据权利要求1所述的恒定横截面纤维增强树脂复合材料叶片,其特征在于:每支叶片的片段之间通过连结法兰和螺栓结构连接。 The constant cross section of the one blade of fiber reinforced resin composite material, as claimed in claim wherein: the flange is connected by the connecting structure between the segments and the bolts Each blade.
  3. 3.根据权利要求1所述的恒定横截面纤维增强树脂复合材料叶片,其特征在于:叶片由纵向纤维和横向纤维的搭配、以及引入的固体泡沫夹心材料构成的复合结构。 The constant cross section of the one blade of fiber reinforced resin composite material, as claimed in claim wherein: the vane by the longitudinal fibers and transverse fibers in the mix, and a composite sandwich structure of the solid material into the foam constituted.
  4. 4.一种带扭角的恒定横截面纤维增强树脂复合材料叶片片段的拉挤成型方法,包括树脂对纤维的浸润和树脂固化过程,形成具有特定几何轮廓的恒定横截面的叶片片段,其特征在于:连续的纤维经过树脂浸润后汇集,进入一个加热的模具型腔,模具的型腔具有足够的长度,并且模具型腔的横截面连续向一个方向扭转,在牵引机构的连续拉伸力作用下,浸润树脂的纤维在模具中持续行走并经过化学反应而硬化后移出模具型腔,通过冷却后就获得具有特定弦长的恒定横截面的、恒定截面扭转定型的复合材料叶片片段。 The pultrusion method of constant cross-section fiber-reinforced resin composite material blade segments 4. A twist angle of the belt, including the resin infiltration and resin curing process of the fiber, the blade segments are formed of constant cross section having a specific geometric profile, characterized in wherein: the continuous fibers together after resin infiltration into a heated mold cavity, the mold cavity has a sufficient length and cross-section of the mold cavity is continuously twisted in one direction, a tensile force acting in the continuous traction mechanism next, the resin infiltration of the fibers in the mold and continuing to walk through a chemical reaction and removed from the mold cavity after hardening, to achieve a constant cross section having a specific chord length after cooling by a constant cross-sectional shape twisted blade segments of a composite material.
  5. 5.根据权利要求4所述的一种带扭角的恒定横截面纤维增强树脂复合材料叶片片段的成型方法,其特征在于:拉挤成型中空的恒定横截面片段(I)时模具必然存在一个模具的型腔外模(511)和型腔内模(512)两部分,在模具的入料口位置,有延伸出模具型腔外部的悬臂支撑结构(513)来支撑型腔内模(512)悬浮安置在型腔外模(511)中。 4 according to a constant twist angle with one of said cross section of the fiber forming process blade segments reinforced resin composite material, as claimed in claim wherein: a constant cross-sectional segments (I) of the hollow pultrusion die there is a necessary outside the mold cavity of the mold (511) and a mold cavity (512) in two parts, the position of the feed inlet of the mold, with a cantilevered support structure extending outside of the mold cavity (513) to support the mold cavity (512 ) was placed in the outer mold cavity (511) in.
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