CN102304291B - Bamboo and plastic composite material and preparation method thereof - Google Patents

Bamboo and plastic composite material and preparation method thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102304291B
CN102304291B CN 201110209909 CN201110209909A CN102304291B CN 102304291 B CN102304291 B CN 102304291B CN 201110209909 CN201110209909 CN 201110209909 CN 201110209909 A CN201110209909 A CN 201110209909A CN 102304291 B CN102304291 B CN 102304291B
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China
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bamboo
plastic composite
fibers
explosion
wood
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CN 201110209909
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Chinese (zh)
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CN102304291A (en
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樊永明
李建章
吴玉英
张学铭
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北京林业大学
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Abstract

The invention discloses a bamboo and plastic composite material and a preparation method thereof. The bamboo and plastic composite material comprises the following raw materials according to parts by weight: 40-80 parts of modified bamboo fiber, 15-85 parts of plastic, 2-10 parts of compatilizer, 2-10 parts of lubricant, 0.2-1.0 part of antioxidant, 5-15 parts of filler and 2-10 parts of fire retardant. Bamboo raw materials are prepared into modified bamboo fibers with an explosion treatment method, wherein the modified bamboo fibers are mutually separated, and eh surface of the modified bamboo fibers is covered with lignin; then the modified bamboo fiber is compounded with plastic; and the product is extruded to form finished product material. According to the bamboo and plastic composite, the technical problems of poor compatibility of wood fiber and thermoplastic plastics can be solved to realize the purpose of comprehensively utilizing the bamboo fiber and plastic, the wood can be omitted, and the additional value of the forest residue is increased. The bamboo and plastic composite material manufactured with the preparation method has the advantages of high mechanical property, and strong tensile strength, bending strength and impact strength of composite material, and the industrial production of high-performance products, such as building engineering materials can be realized.

Description

A kind of bamboo-plastic composite material and preparation method thereof
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of composition and method of making the same of filamentary material, particularly Wood-plastic material of a kind of bamboo-containing fiber material and preparation method thereof.
Background technology
China is the poor countries of the forest reserves, and especially China's economy enters the high speed development stage, increases day by day for the demand of timber, and the forest reserves excessively use, and the forest total area falls sharply and the enforcement of wildwood protected project, timber imbalance between supply and demand aggravation.But bamboo is wide at the southern plantation area of China, and advantage such as bamboo has that growth is fast, the morning of becoming a useful person, intensity height, good toughness, hardness are big, be the desirable feedstock of engineering structure material, can substitute timber in a lot of fields, be widely used in a lot of fields.
The chemical ingredients of bamboo wood is: Mierocrystalline cellulose 40~60%; Hemicellulose 14~25%; Xylogen 16%~34%.The utilization of bamboo wood has former bamboo to utilize and processing and utilization two classes.It is that big bamboo is used as material of construction that former bamboo utilizes, transportation bamboo raft, liquid-transport pipe-line; Middle or small bamboo wood is made stationery, musical instrument, farm implements, bamboo weaving etc.Processing and utilization has multiple use, but as bamboo wood veneer sheet manufacturing machine wear part etc.; Bamboo-wood plyboard was once made first bamboo wood single-blade advaced trainer; Artificial bamboo board can be made the engineering material.Tabasheer also can be made into the kinds of processes artistic products in addition.Bamboo wood also is the important source material of papermaking, fibreboard made and cellulose acetate, nitrocotton.The bamboo charcoal surface hardness is higher than charcoal, can be used for metallurgy industry and produces gac.
Bamboo-plastic composite material be a kind of novel be the composite engineering material that main raw material is made with wood fibre and plastics.Has good water-fast and corrosion resistance nature as bamboo-plastic composite material, anti-ly damage by worms, dimensional stability is good, production technique is flexible, infringement to equipment is little, can also be that raw material makes with the waste and old wood and the plastics that reclaim, and advantage and people's attention extremely such as can be recycled.
But because wood fibre and plastics are two kinds of high molecular polymers of different nature, the consistency of undressed xylon and plastics is poor, and plastics are combined bad with wood fibre, causes the bamboo-plastic composite material quality to be difficult to improve.Only pay attention to mixing or the recycling of several materials in the present macromolecule composite wood-plastic material production process, and the improvement of basic mechanical character, do not take into full account the consistency of various materials and interface in conjunction with situation, interface binding ability and various material in the diffusion at interface, infiltration etc., can not guarantee that wood fibre can fully disperse in high molecule plastic, wood/to mould interfacial interaction poor, both avidity is low, therefore bonding strength is low, causes mechanical property and other use properties of bamboo-plastic composite material of preparation lower.Wood powder addition in the bamboo-plastic composite material is low, the mechanical property of material and poor toughness.
At present Wood-Plastics Composite and application are increased gradually, for example: notification number is that the patent of invention of CN1227297C discloses its purposes of a kind of modified composite material of woods and plastics and manufacture method thereof, it utilizes wood powder and plastics or waste or used plastics to be main raw material, be equipped with a little auxiliary, with special-purpose grafting agent wood powder and frosting are carried out the graft modification processing, effectively strengthen the boundary strength between wood powder and plastics, adopt continuous expressing technique, utilize the mould of various section forms, extrude and produce various high performance composite.Wherein the wood powder component content surpasses 50%.
Granted publication number discloses a kind of wood plastic composite for the Chinese invention patent of CN1482166, this wood plastic composite refers to by thermoplastic resin, wood powder, the auxiliary agent compatilizer, raw materials such as properties-correcting agent mix by weight, with this wood plastic composite after the forcing machine granulation again through extruder for shaping or directly extrude and be expressed on the rolling press by a sheet machine head port mould through the forcing machine fusion plastification, be pressed into plate, the sheet material section bar, each heat is laminated with a layer dielectric or fabric in the material top and bottom, or two-sided each again heat be laminated with one deck aluminium foil (band) layer, cut into finished product through cooling off cutting edge.
Notification number is that the application for a patent for invention of CN101302349 discloses a kind of maleic anhydride graft polyolefine bamboo-plastic composite material and preparation method thereof.This wood plastic composite, comprise following raw material: plant fiber powder, maleic anhydride graft polyolefine and the auxilliary weight that adds plastics are 100 parts, wherein plant fiber powder is 60~85 parts, surplus for the maleic anhydride graft polyolefine adds plastics with auxilliary, wherein maleic anhydride graft polyolefine weight accounts for 40~100% (being preferably 70~100%).
Notification number is that the application for a patent for invention of CN101143952 discloses flame-proof smoke-inhibiting wood-plastic composite material, and this material is mainly made by polystyrene and/or the polyvinyl chloride, wood fibre, expansion type flame retardant, expanding material, the lubricant that have added thermo-stabilizer.
Notification number provides a kind of method of utilizing crop straw to produce macromolecule composite wood-plastic material for the application for a patent for invention of CN101186754, the method of utilizing that belongs to a kind of crop straw, described method is, crop straw is pulverized and the dry straw powder that gets, straw powder is carried out dip treating, dry modified straw powder then, be that other main raw material carries out high-speed mixing and cooling mixing gets dry mash with modified straw powder and plastics, dry mash is carried out extruding pelletization, with the material extrusioning shaping after the granulation, make macromolecule composite wood-plastic material again.
But, all only adopt compatilizer to make wood powder and plastics directly carry out mixed getting in the above-mentioned bamboo-plastic composite material preparation process, because being the surface, wood powder has the polarity macromolecular compound of a large amount of polar groups, and plastics are a kind of non-polar high polymer polymkeric substance, both consistencies are poor, the weak strength of the bamboo-plastic composite material for preparing.Need higher quantity of plastics ratio if will obtain the high-strength bamboo plastic composite materials.
Summary of the invention
The objective of the invention is provides a kind of bamboo-plastic composite material and preparation method thereof at the problem that prior art exists, the bamboo-plastic composite material of the present invention preparation is to utilize through the later bamboo of explosion treatment to be composited as raw material and plastics, the mechanical mechanics property of the bamboo-plastic composite material of preparation is good, intensity is high, excellent in cushion effect, dimensional stability good, have good processing properties.
For realizing purpose of the present invention, the invention provides on the one hand a kind of bamboo-plastic composite material is provided, comprise following raw materials in weight portion:
Wherein, the weight part proportioning of described raw material is selected:
Particularly, obtain described modification bamboo fibers by bamboo fiber material being carried out explosion treatment.
Wherein, described explosion treatment comprises following step in sequence:
1) bamboo fiber material is placed in the blaster and in blaster feeds saturated vapor, carry out decatize and handle;
2) open the baiting valve of blaster, the bamboo material explosion is spurted, obtain the explosion bamboo fibers;
3) the explosion bamboo fibers is carried out drying treatment, namely get the modification bamboo fibers.
Particularly, the relative pressure of saturated vapor described in the step 1) is 11-4.1MPa; The relative pressure that described decatize is handled is 1-4MPa, and steaming time is 5-45min; The temperature of the drying treatment described in the step 3) is 100-200 ℃, the water ratio of dried modification bamboo fibers≤10%.
Especially, the relative pressure of described saturated vapor is preferably 2.5-4.0MPa; The relative pressure that described decatize is handled is 2-4MPa, and steaming time is 15-30min; The water ratio of described modification bamboo fibers is 2-10%.
Wherein, decatize described in the step 1) is handled and to be, feeding relative pressure in the blaster is the 11-4.1MPa saturated vapor, and the relative pressure in the blaster reaches 1-4MPa, under this pressure, keeps 5-45min.
Particularly, comprise also in the step 1) that it is 20-40mm filamentary material section that described filamentary material is cut into length.
Wherein, described plastics are that polyethylene (PE) plastics are or/and polypropylene (PP) plastics.
Particularly, described vinyon is selected high density polyethylene(HDPE) (HDPE) plastics, Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) plastics.
Wherein, described compatilizer is selected from one or more in maleic anhydride, maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene, maleic anhydride inoculated polypropylene, chlorinatedpolyethylene, the Chlorinated Polypropylene III.
Particularly, the percentage of grafting of described maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene, maleic anhydride inoculated polypropylene is respectively 1-3%.
Especially, the molecular weight 10000-300000 of described maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene, melting index 0.4-0.9g/10min; The molecular weight 10000-300000 of maleic anhydride inoculated polypropylene, melting index 0.3-1.2g/10min.
Particularly, the molecular weight of described chlorinatedpolyethylene is 10000-300000, and cl content is 40-60%.
Wherein, described lubricant is selected one or more in polyethylene wax, stearic acid, calcium stearate, barium stearate, the Zinic stearas;
Particularly, the molecular weight of described polyethylene wax is 1400-8000.
Wherein, described antioxidant is one or more in antioxidant 264, antioxidant 1010 or the antioxidant 1076.
Particularly, described antioxidant 264 is 2,6 di tert butyl 4 methyl phenol; Described antioxidant 1010 is four [β (3,5-di-tert-butyl-hydroxy phenyl) propionic acid] pentaerythritol ester; Described antioxidant 1076 is β-positive octadecanol ester of (3,5-di-tert-butyl-hydroxy phenyl) propionic acid.
Wherein, described filler is calcium carbonate or talcum powder;
Wherein, described fire retardant is one or more in clorafin, eight bromo ether, antimonous oxide, tricresyl phosphate (2-chloroethyl) ester or the ammonium polyphosphate.
Particularly, nitrogen content is 22-25% in the described fire retardant ammonium polyphosphate, and phosphorus content 〉=20%, molecular weight are>10 5The molecular weight of described fire retardant clorafin is 800-1300, and cl content is 40-70%.
The present invention provides a kind of method for preparing above-mentioned bamboo-plastic composite material on the other hand, comprises 1) described raw material is mixed, obtain compound; 2) with compound extrusion moulding, compression molding or injection moulding.
Wherein, mixing temperature is 110-180 ℃ in the mixing process of raw material described in the step 1), and mixing time is 8-20min, and stir speed (S.S.) is 700-800rpm during mixing.
Particularly, compound heating and melting temperature is 110-180 ℃ in the described extrusion moulding process, is preferably 145-180 ℃, and rotating speed is 50-100rpm.
Further aspect of the present invention provides a kind of preparation method of above-mentioned bamboo-plastic composite material, comprises following step in sequence:
1) described raw material is mixed, make the bamboo fibers mixture;
2) the bamboo fibers mixture is joined in the screw extrusion press extrude, cut off, obtain the bamboo-plastic composite material pellet;
3) with pellet extrusion moulding, compression molding or the injection moulding of bamboo-plastic composite material.
Wherein, adopt in the step 1) to stir described raw material is mixed, stir speed (S.S.) is 700-800rpm during mixing, and mixing time is 8-20min, and mixing temperature is 110-180 ℃.
Wherein, step 2) adopt in the twin screw extruder in and extrude, utilize the plane of structure cutting knife to cut off, make described bamboo-plastic composite material pellet, wherein the Heating temperature of screw extrusion press is 130-180 ℃, and rotating speed is 50-100rpm.
Wherein, compound heating and melting temperature is 110-180 ℃ in the process of extrusion moulding described in the step 3), and extruding rotating speed is 50-100rpm.
The bamboo-plastic combined filamentary material of the present invention's preparation has following advantage:
1, to adopt the explosion modification bamboo fibers make by the high-temperature steam explosion treatment be the prepared bamboo-plastic composite material mechanical property height of raw material in the present invention; be that the wood working resistance of raw material is similar to timber resources; can replace with the timber resources is the wood working product of raw material; reduced the consumption of timber resources; the protection environment is for the comprehensive utilization bamboo wood provides a kind of new purposes.
2, the present invention can separate fibrocyte in the bamboo fibers raw material by blast processing method from middle lamella, surface attachment one deck xylogen of the modification bamboo fibers of explosion treatment preparation, improved the consistency between fiber and the plastics, improved the dispersion effect of fiber in plastics, solve the compatibility problem of fibrous material and plastics, exempted the complicated procedures of forming of raw material post-processed simultaneously.
3, use the bamboo-plastic composite material mechanical property of modification bamboo fibers preparation of the present invention to significantly improve, the tensile strength of matrix material, bending strength and resistance to impact shock are strong, and compressive strength reaches 25.8-45.1MPa; Bending strength reaches 37.2-49.2MPa; Composite bending modulus reaches 3.2-4.8MPa.
4, the bamboo-plastic composite material made of the present invention excellent in cushion effect, dimensional stability good, the water ratio of bamboo-plastic composite material, expansion rate of water absorption, water-intake rate are low, water ratio is lower than 2.8%, water-intake rate is lower than 3.1%, expansion rate of water absorption only is 2.1-2.8%.
5, the bamboo-plastic composite material of manufacturing of the present invention has the characteristics of timber and plastics concurrently, and profile attractive in appearance is not only arranged, but also can have anticorrosion, moistureproof, anti-ly damage by worms, feature such as fire prevention.
6, the bamboo-plastic composite material of the present invention's preparation has good flame-retardant effect, and the oxygen index of material is 25.5-28.9%, reaches the B2 rank among the GB50222-95 (code for fire prevention design of interior decoration of buildings).
7, the bamboo-plastic composite material of the present invention preparation has good wear-resisting and processing characteristics and can be used as material of construction (as floor, garden, mat shelter, dressing cubicle, tables and chairs, door and window etc.) and wrapping material, product can unlimited recycling, is fabulous novel environment friendly material.
Embodiment
The present invention is described in further detail below in conjunction with embodiment, but embodiments of the present invention are not limited thereto.
The present invention mainly adopts such scheme to realize that the present invention conceives, but is not limited to above-mentioned several scheme, and every scheme that uses main design of the present invention all belongs among the scope that the present invention protects.
Polyethylene wax is moulded industry company limited available from Jiangyin profit of a specified duration among the present invention; Ammonium polyphosphate is available from generation Anhua, Shandong worker company limited.
Embodiment 1
1, get the raw materials ready according to following weight part proportioning:
Wherein, the molecular weight of high density polyethylene(HDPE) (HDPE) is 40000-300000, density 0.93-0.97g/cm 3, (MI g/10min) is 0.3-0.5 to melting index; The molecular weight 10000-300000 of maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene, percentage of grafting are 1-2%, melting index 0.5-0.6g/10min; The molecular weight of polyethylene wax is 2500-3000, density 0.92-0.94g/cm 3, viscosity 0.7-1.2Pas (140 ℃); The nitrogen content of ammonium polyphosphate is 22%-25%, phosphorus content 〉=20%.
Wherein, the modification bamboo fibers step of carrying out in the following order is prepared from:
A) bamboo wood is cut into long 20-40mm bamboo material segment, places blaster (Beijing Forestry University; Model: BL-08), open the blaster pressure valve, feeding relative pressure is the saturated vapor of 3.0MPa, makes the relative pressure in the blaster reach 2.0MPa, keeps 15min under 2.0MPa pressure, bamboo wood is carried out decatize handle;
B) open the baiting valve of blaster, bamboo fiber material moment explosion is spurted to the normal pressure receiving vessel, obtain the explosion bamboo fibers;
C) the explosion bamboo fibers is placed carry out drying treatment in the moisture eliminator under 200 ℃, making water ratio is 10% modification bamboo fibers.
The electron-microscope scanning figure of modification bamboo fibers as shown in Figure 1.
2, above-mentioned all raw materials are joined high temperature mixing machine (the mechanical company limited of the grand base in Zhangjagang City, model: mix stirring and evenly mixing SHR-50A), reaction makes bamboo and moulds mixture, and wherein, the stirring velocity during mixing is 750rpm, mixing time is 8 minutes, and mixing temperature is 110 ℃.
3, bamboo is moulded mixture and joined in the cocurrent and parallel twin screw extruder, extrude, utilize the plane of structure cutting knife to cut off, obtain the pellet of bamboo-plastic composite material, wherein, the Heating temperature of screw extrusion press is 145 ℃, and rotating speed is 60rpm.
4, the bamboo-plastic composite material pellet is made the bamboo-plastic combined sheet material of finished product or section bar with compression molding forming machine.
According to the density of U.S. material with the bamboo-plastic composite material of the experiment ASTM D792-00 of association " measuring the standard test methods of plastic density and proportion (relative density) with displacement method " detection present embodiment preparation;
According to composite bending modulus, the bending strength of U.S. material with the bamboo-plastic composite material of the experiment ASTM D790-97 of association " the bending strength method of inspection of plastic cement and megohmite " detection present embodiment preparation;
According to the compressive strength of U.S. material with the bamboo-plastic composite material of the experiment ASTM D695-02a of association " test method of rigid plastics anti-compression property " detection present embodiment preparation;
According to the water-intake rate of U.S. material with the bamboo-plastic composite material of the experiment ASTM D570-98 of association (2005) " test method of plastics water-intake rate " detection present embodiment preparation;
Detect expansion rate of water absorption, the water ratio of the bamboo-plastic composite material of present embodiment preparation according to GB GB/T17657-1999 " Test methods of evaluating the properties of woodbased panels and surface decorated woodbased panels ".
The capability and performance index parameter of the bamboo-plastic composite material of present embodiment preparation, detected result sees Table 1.
Embodiment 2
1, get the raw materials ready according to following weight part proportioning:
Wherein, the molecular weight of described polypropylene (PP) plastics is 10000-300000, and (MI g/10min) is 0.2-1 to melting index; The molecular weight of maleic anhydride inoculated polypropylene is 12000-300000, and percentage of grafting is 1.5-2.5%, melting index 0.3-1.2g/10min.
Wherein, the modification bamboo fibers step of carrying out in the following order is prepared from:
A) bamboo wood is cut into long 20-40mm bamboo material segment, places blaster, open the blaster pressure valve, feeding relative pressure is the saturated vapor of 3.0MPa, make the relative pressure in the blaster reach 4MPa, under this pressure, keep 15min, bamboo wood is carried out decatize handle;
B) open the baiting valve of blaster, bamboo material moment explosion is spurted to the normal pressure receiving vessel, obtain the explosion bamboo fibers;
C) the explosion bamboo fibers is placed carry out drying treatment in the moisture eliminator under 100 ℃, making water ratio is 9% modification bamboo fibers.
2, above-mentioned all raw materials are joined in the high temperature mixing machine mix, stirring and evenly mixing, reaction makes bamboo and moulds mixture, and wherein, the stirring velocity during mixing is 800rpm, and mixing time is 10 minutes, and mixing temperature is 175 ℃.
3, bamboo is moulded mixture and joined the cocurrent and parallel twin screw extruder and extrude, utilize the plane of structure cutting knife to cut off, obtain the pellet of bamboo-plastic composite material, wherein, the screw rod Heating temperature is 170 ℃, and rotating speed is 100rpm.
4, the bamboo-plastic composite material pellet that makes is directly extruded production all size section bar with conical double screw extruder, wherein, compound heating and melting temperature is 110 ℃ in the conical double screw extruder extrusion, and extruding rotating speed is 80rpm.
The capability and performance index parameter of the bamboo-plastic composite material of present embodiment preparation, detected result sees Table 1.
Embodiment 3
1, get the raw materials ready according to following weight part proportioning:
Wherein, the molecular weight of high density polyethylene(HDPE) (HDPE) is 40000-300000, density 0.94g/cm 3, (MI g/10min) is 0.3-0.5 to melting index; The molecular weight 10000-300000 of maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene, percentage of grafting are 1-2%, melting index 0.5-0.6g/10min; The molecular weight of clorafin is 800-1300, and cl content is 40-70%.
Wherein, the modification bamboo fibers step of carrying out in the following order is prepared from:
A) bamboo wood is cut into long 20-40mm bamboo material segment, open the blaster pressure valve after placing blaster, feeding relative pressure is the saturated vapor of 3.0MPa, makes the relative pressure in the blaster reach 2.5MPa, under this pressure, keep 30min, bamboo wood is carried out decatize handle;
B) open the baiting valve of blaster, bamboo material moment explosion is spurted to the normal pressure receiving vessel, obtain the explosion bamboo fibers;
C) the explosion bamboo fibers is placed carry out drying treatment in the moisture eliminator under 200 ℃, making water ratio is 5% modification bamboo fibers.
2, above-mentioned all raw materials are joined in the high temperature mixing machine mix, stirring and evenly mixing, reaction makes bamboo and moulds compound, and wherein, the stirring velocity during mixing is 700rpm, and mixing time is 20 minutes, and mixing temperature is 150 ℃.
3, the above-mentioned compound for preparing is directly extruded production all size section bar with conical double screw extruder, wherein, the Heating temperature of screw extrusion press is 145 ℃, and rotating speed is 100rpm.
The capability and performance index parameter of the bamboo-plastic composite material of present embodiment preparation, detected result sees Table 1.
Embodiment 4
1, get the raw materials ready according to following weight part proportioning:
Wherein, the molecular weight of Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) is 20000-30000, density 0.91g/cm 3, melting index 0.5g/10min; The molecular weight of chlorinatedpolyethylene is 10000-300000, and cl content is 40-60%; The molecular weight of polyethylene wax is 1400-8000.
Wherein, the modification bamboo fibers step of carrying out in the following order is prepared from:
A) bamboo wood is cut into long 20-40mm bamboo material segment, open the blaster pressure valve after placing blaster, feeding relative pressure is the saturated vapor of 2.5MPa, makes the relative pressure in the blaster reach 2.0MPa, under this pressure, keep 30min, bamboo wood is carried out decatize handle;
B) open the baiting valve of blaster, bamboo material moment explosion is spurted to the normal pressure receiving vessel, obtain the explosion bamboo fibers;
C) the explosion bamboo fibers is placed carry out drying treatment in the moisture eliminator under 150 ℃, making water ratio is 7% modification bamboo fibers.
2, above-mentioned all raw materials are joined in the high temperature mixing machine mix, stirring and evenly mixing, reaction makes bamboo and moulds mixture, and wherein, the stirring velocity during mixing is 800rpm, and mixing time is 8 minutes, and mixing temperature is 150 ℃.
3, bamboo is moulded mixture and joined in the cocurrent and parallel twin screw extruder, extrude, utilize the plane of structure cutting knife to cut off, obtain the pellet of bamboo-plastic composite material, wherein, the Heating temperature of screw extrusion press is 180 ℃, and rotating speed is 60rpm.
4, the bamboo-plastic composite material pellet that makes is directly extruded production all size section bar with conical double screw extruder, wherein, compound heating and melting temperature is 150 ℃ in the conical double screw extruder extrusion, and extruding rotating speed is 100rpm.
The capability and performance index parameter of the bamboo-plastic composite material of present embodiment preparation, detected result sees Table 1.
Embodiment 5
1, get the raw materials ready according to following weight part proportioning:
Wherein, the molecular weight of described polypropylene (PP) plastics is 10000-300000, and (MI g/10min) is 0.2-1 to melting index.
Wherein, the modification bamboo fibers step of carrying out in the following order is prepared from:
A) bamboo wood is cut into long 20-40mm bamboo material segment, open the blaster pressure valve after placing blaster, feeding relative pressure is the saturated vapor of 4.0MPa, makes on the relative pressure in the blaster to reach 3.0MPa, under this pressure, keep 15min, bamboo wood is carried out decatize handle;
B) open the baiting valve of blaster, bamboo material moment explosion is spurted to the normal pressure receiving vessel, obtain the explosion bamboo fibers;
C) the explosion bamboo fibers is placed carry out drying treatment in the moisture eliminator under 180 ℃, making water ratio is 6% modification bamboo fibers.
2, above-mentioned all raw materials are joined in the high temperature mixing machine mix, stirring and evenly mixing, reaction makes bamboo and moulds mixture, and wherein, the stirring velocity during mixing is 750rpm, and mixing time is 10 minutes, and mixing temperature is 180 ℃.
3, bamboo is moulded mixture and joined in the cocurrent and parallel twin screw extruder, extrude, utilize the plane of structure cutting knife to cut off, obtain the pellet of bamboo-plastic composite material, wherein, the Heating temperature of screw extrusion press is 170 ℃, and rotating speed is 100rpm.
4, the bamboo-plastic composite material pellet that makes is directly extruded production all size section bar with conical double screw extruder, wherein, compound heating and melting temperature is 180 ℃ in the conical double screw extruder extrusion, and extruding rotating speed is 50rpm.
The capability and performance index parameter of the bamboo-plastic composite material of present embodiment preparation, detected result sees Table 1.
Embodiment 6
1, get the raw materials ready according to following weight part proportioning:
Wherein, the molecular weight of described polypropylene (PP) plastics is 10000-300000, and (MI g/10min) is 0.2-1 to melting index; The molecular weight of high density polyethylene(HDPE) (HDPE) is 40000-300000, density 0.94g/cm 3, (MI g/10min) is 0.3-0.5 to melting index; The molecular weight of maleic anhydride inoculated polypropylene is 12000-300000, and percentage of grafting is 1.5-2.5%, melting index 0.3-1.2g/10min; The nitrogen content of ammonium polyphosphate is 22%-25%, phosphorus content 〉=20%.
Wherein, the modification bamboo fibers step of carrying out in the following order is prepared from:
A) bamboo wood is cut into long 20-40mm bamboo material segment, places blaster, open the blaster pressure valve, feeding relative pressure is the saturated vapor of 3.0MPa, make the relative pressure in the blaster reach 2.5MPa, under this pressure, keep 20min, bamboo wood is carried out decatize handle;
B) open the baiting valve of blaster, bamboo material moment explosion is spurted to the normal pressure receiving vessel, obtain the explosion bamboo fibers;
C) the explosion bamboo fibers is placed carry out drying treatment in the moisture eliminator under 150 ℃, making water ratio is 5% modification bamboo fibers.
2, above-mentioned all raw materials are joined in the high temperature mixing machine mix, stirring and evenly mixing, reaction makes bamboo and moulds mixture, and wherein, the stirring velocity during mixing is 700rpm, and mixing time is 20 minutes, and mixing temperature is 165 ℃.
3, bamboo being moulded mixture joins the cocurrent and parallel twin screw extruder and extrudes, utilize the plane of structure cutting knife to cut off, obtain the pellet of bamboo-plastic composite material, wherein, the screw rod Heating temperature is 180 ℃, rotating speed is 50rpm, then the bamboo-plastic composite material pellet is produced sheet material or the section bar of all size with injection moulding machine.
The capability and performance index parameter of the bamboo-plastic composite material of present embodiment preparation, detected result sees Table 1.
The performance index detected result of table 1 bamboo-plastic composite material
Embodiment 1 Embodiment 2 Embodiment 3 Embodiment 4 Embodiment 5 Embodiment 6
Density (kg/m 3) ??1115 ??1130 ??1118 ??1116 ??1105 ??1112
Composite bending modulus (MPa) ??3.3 ??4.5 ??3.6 ??3.2 ??4.6 ??4.8
Bending strength (MPa) ??39.3 ??48.2 ??41.3 ??37.2 ??48.6 ??49.2
Compressive strength (MPa) ??26.4 ??40.7 ??29.5 ??25.8 ??41.3 ??45.1
Expansion rate of water absorption (%) ??2.1 ??2.6 ??2.1 ??2.8 ??2.3 ??2.2
Water-intake rate (%) ??2.2 ??2.1 ??2.3 ??3.1 ??2.7 ??2.5
Water ratio (%) ??2.5 ??2.8 ??1.42 ??2.1 ??2.0 ??2.1
Detected result shows:
1, the bamboo-plastic composite material intensity height of the present invention's preparation, compressive strength reaches 25.8-45.1MPa; Bending strength reaches 37.2-49.2MPa; Composite bending modulus reaches 3.2-4.8MPa;
2, the dimensional stability height of the bamboo-plastic composite material of the present invention's preparation, water-intake rate, water ratio and expansion rate of water absorption are low, and the water-intake rate of matrix material is lower than 3.1%; Water ratio is lower than 2.8%; Expansion rate of water absorption only is 2.1-2.8%;
3, the capability and performance index of the bamboo-plastic composite material of the present invention's preparation has surpassed common bamboo-plastic composite material, reaches the requirement of LY/T1613-2004 extruding wood-plastic composite panel.
Reference examples 1
Except the bamboo wood material being ground into pulverous bamboo fiber material powder, prepare outside the bamboo-plastic composite material with the bamboo fiber material powder, all the other are identical with embodiment 1, and the capability and performance detected result of the bamboo-plastic composite material of preparation sees Table 2.
Reference examples 2
Except the bamboo wood material being ground into pulverous bamboo fiber material powder, prepare outside the bamboo-plastic composite material with the bamboo fiber material powder, all the other are identical with embodiment 2, and the capability and performance detected result of the bamboo-plastic composite material of preparation sees Table 2.
Reference examples 3
Except the bamboo wood material being ground into pulverous bamboo fiber material powder, prepare outside the bamboo-plastic composite material with the bamboo fiber material powder, all the other are identical with embodiment 3, and the capability and performance detected result of the bamboo-plastic composite material of preparation sees Table 2.
Reference examples 4
Except the bamboo wood material being ground into pulverous bamboo fiber material powder, prepare outside the bamboo-plastic composite material with the bamboo fiber material powder, all the other are identical with embodiment 4, and the capability and performance detected result of the bamboo-plastic composite material of preparation sees Table 2.
Reference examples 5
Except the bamboo wood material being ground into pulverous bamboo fiber material powder, prepare outside the bamboo-plastic composite material with the bamboo fiber material powder, all the other are identical with embodiment 5, and the capability and performance detected result of the bamboo-plastic composite material of preparation sees Table 2.
Reference examples 6
Except the bamboo wood material being ground into pulverous bamboo fiber material powder, prepare outside the bamboo-plastic composite material with the bamboo fiber material powder, all the other are identical with embodiment 6, and the capability and performance detected result of the bamboo-plastic composite material of preparation sees Table 2.
The performance index detected result of table 2 bamboo-plastic composite material
Reference examples 1 Reference examples 2 Reference examples 3 Reference examples 4 Reference examples 5 Reference examples 6
Composite bending modulus (MPa) ??2.8 ??3.5 ??2.9 ??2.7 ??3.7 ??4.2
Bending strength (MPa) ??34.2 ??37.3 ??33.8 ??32.5 ??42.7 ??43.6
Compressive strength (MPa) ??22.7 ??35.2 ??25.3 ??22.5 ??35.4 ??37.8
Expansion rate of water absorption (%) ??2.3 ??2.2 ??2.2 ??2.8 ??2.7 ??2.6
Water-intake rate (%) ??2.6 ??2.7 ??2.4 ??2.2 ??2.1 ??2.0
Detected result shows: the modification bamboo fibers that the present invention prepares with employing explosion treatment bamboo wood material is that the intensity of the bamboo-plastic composite material of feedstock production significantly improves, and bending strength has improved more than 12%; Compressive strength has improved more than 14%.
Test routine fire retardancy test
Detect the burns oxygen index of the bamboo-plastic composite material of present embodiment preparation according to GB GB/T8924-2005 " fibre reinforced plastics combustibility test method oxygen index method ",
The bamboo-plastic composite material of embodiment 1-6 preparation is made the test sample that thickness is 3mm, and it is standby that each embodiment makes 6 test samples.
At first: sample vertically is installed on the central position of combustion barrel, the sample top is lower than combustion barrel top 100mm at least, and sample expose portion lowest part is higher than combustion barrel bottom 100mm at least; Then with the speed of (40 ± 2) mm/s, the washing combustion barrel is 30s at least; Light sample then, carry out the operation of following a bar and b bar repeatedly, recording three samples is the above minimum oxygen concn of 3min combustion time, i.e. the oxygen concn value of a bar, but the difference of the oxygen concn of a bar and b bar gained should be less than 0.5%;
Wherein, a) sample then reduces oxygen concn greater than 3m in combustion time;
B) sample then increases oxygen concn less than 3min combustion time.
Record the fire retardancy test detected result at last.Fire retardancy test oxygen index detected result is as shown in table 3.
The oxygen index detected result of table 3 bamboo-plastic composite material
Oxygen index (%)
Embodiment 1 ??27.6
Embodiment 2 ??28.9
Embodiment 3 ??25.5
Embodiment 4 ??26.0
Embodiment 5 ??27.2
Embodiment 6 ??26.8
Detected result shows: the bamboo-plastic composite material of the present invention's preparation has good flame-retardant effect, and the oxygen index of material is 25.5-28.9%, reaches the B2 rank among the GB50222-95 (code for fire prevention design of interior decoration of buildings).

Claims (8)

1. bamboo-plastic composite material comprises following raw materials in weight portion:
Wherein, described modification bamboo fibers is the bamboo fibers that bamboo wood passes through surface attachment one deck xylogen that explosion treatment obtains, and described explosion treatment comprises following step in sequence:
1) bamboo fiber material is placed in the blaster and in blaster feeds saturated vapor, carry out decatize and handle;
2) open the baiting valve of blaster, the bamboo material explosion is spurted, obtain the explosion bamboo fibers;
3) the explosion bamboo fibers is carried out drying treatment.
2. bamboo-plastic composite material as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that, the weight part proportioning of described raw material is:
3. bamboo-plastic composite material as claimed in claim 1 or 2 is characterized in that, the relative pressure that decatize described in the step 1) is handled is 1-4MPa, and the decatize treatment time is 5-45min.
4. bamboo-plastic composite material as claimed in claim 1 or 2 is characterized in that, the temperature of the drying treatment described in the step 3) is 100-200 ℃, the water ratio of dried modification bamboo fibers≤10%.
5. bamboo-plastic composite material as claimed in claim 1 or 2 is characterized in that:
Described compatilizer is selected from one or more in maleic anhydride, maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene, maleic anhydride inoculated polypropylene, chlorinatedpolyethylene, the Chlorinated Polypropylene III.
6. bamboo-plastic composite material as claimed in claim 1 or 2 is characterized in that, described plastics are that vinyon is or/and acrylic plastering.
7. the manufacture method of bamboo-plastic composite material as claimed in claim 1 or 2 is characterized in that: 1) described raw material is mixed, obtain compound; 2) with compound extrusion moulding, compression molding or injection moulding.
8. manufacture method of bamboo-plastic composite material as claimed in claim 1 or 2 is characterized in that: comprise following step in sequence:
1) described raw material is mixed, make the bamboo fibers mixture;
2) the bamboo fibers mixture is joined in the screw extrusion press extrude, cut off, obtain the bamboo-plastic composite material pellet;
3) with the extrusion moulding of bamboo-plastic composite material pellet, compression molding or injection moulding.
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CN108250785A (en) * 2017-12-30 2018-07-06 重庆蓝兔塑胶制品有限公司 Flame-retardant wood-plastic composite material and preparation method
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