The advantage of wheel type mobile robot platform is a high-speed and high-efficiency, and shortcoming is that the landform adaptive capacity is poor.In order to adapt to complicated terrain environment, now a lot of robots all not merely adopt wheeled travel mechanism, more are to adopt wheel shoe formula, wheel leg type or wheel to carry out composite moving mechanisms such as leg formula.Compound mobile robot platform adopts the different strategies of advancing under varying environment, greatly improved the speed of advance and the landform adaptive capacity of robot, becomes a main direction of current outdoor robot development.Mobile robot platform is a basic platform, can carry control system, checking system and manipulator etc. on it, can realize the function that many ordinary robots are difficult to realize.Robot platform is an independently module, and separate between other platforms, is convenient to secondary development and repacking, is of wide application.
The substantive issue that the robot moving platform system will solve is; Through the working environment of robot, the technical indexs such as concrete function that will realize are carried out combination property analysis; Design the optimum physical construction of a cover, make robot can realize specified action and control corresponding.The matter of utmost importance of mobile platform system design is to confirm its mode of advancing, and that the mono-mode of advancing mainly contains is wheeled, leg formula and crawler type.The mono-mode of advancing respectively has its characteristics and shortcoming, owing to can not satisfy the requirement of complex-terrain, thereby now mostly adopt the two or more compound modes of advancing, and such robot platform has stronger adaptive capacity to complex-terrain.For example; Novel probe vehicles combined type mobile system structure design and motion analysis (Shang Weiyan etc.; Machine science and technology; The 28th volume in July, 2009 the 7th phase), what adopt is wheel-track combined mobile platform in wheel-track combined military ground location car kinematics modeling and analysis (Shang Weiyan etc., aviation power journal, the 24th volume in October, 2009 the 10th phase); What also for example, leg was carried out analysis of composite machine people active obstacle and action planning (the 41st rolls up in May, 2009 the 5th phase for Wang Wei east etc., Harbin Institute of Technology's journal) employing is the track combined mobile platform of leg; Again for example; Turning-over movable robot with wheel legs (Liu Fanghu etc.; Shanghai Communications University's journal; The 5th October calendar year 2001 phase of the 32nd volume), wheel leg type robot overturning stability is analyzed and what adopt is the wheel-leg combined type mobile platform in control (field hypo etc., robot journal, the 31st volume in March, 2009 the 2nd phase).
The existing robot leg of taking turns mainly contains following several kinds: 1, take turns the leg mobile robot with six of U.S. Mars Rover mars exploration Che Wei representative, and this robotlike can cross over and be higher than the obstacle that it takes turns the footpath; But receive the restriction of its structure; Wheel is less, and vehicle body is too little apart from ground distance, under the complex-terrain environment, must frequently lift the leg obstacle detouring; The efficient of advancing is not high, and energy consumption is bigger.2, be representative with Shanghai Communications University's triangle V shape wheel robot leg, this type machine obstacle climbing ability is stronger; Control is simple, but it adopts and the identical mode of advancing of complex-terrain employing, inefficiency in smooth landform; And the chassis vibration is violent, and the robot platform life-span is not long.3; Artificially represent with Tsing-Hua University's design-calculated wheel leg varistructure mobile apparatus, this robotlike can realize wheel, leg, wheel-leg combined type motion, though its obstacle climbing ability is also stronger; But need eight motors and four cardan wheels; Power consumption is bigger, and because its volume is less, load-carrying capacity and flying power are relatively poor.
Summary of the invention
To the deficiency of prior art, the technical matters that quasi-solution of the present invention is determined is that a kind of wheel-leg combined type mobile robot platform is provided; This platform can satisfy the complex environment multiple requirement of work down in the open air; Can realize climbing, cross over trench, under non-smooth landform, realize steadily advancing etc.Characteristics such as under the prerequisite that realizes said functional requirement, robot platform of the present invention has simple in structure, and control is easy, and it is lower to consume energy.
The technical scheme that the present invention solve the technical problem is, designs a kind of wheel-leg combined type mobile robot platform, and this robot platform comprises vehicle body, front vehicle body and aftercarriage, front-wheel leg system and trailing wheel leg system, it is characterized in that:
Said front-wheel leg system comprises steering swivel system and preceding swinging kick system two sub-systems, and steering swivel system comprises steer motor, steering hardware and steered wheel; Swinging kick motor, front-wheel leg support and preceding swinging kick wheel before preceding swinging kick system comprises, two sub-systems all are installed on the front vehicle body; Preceding minor axis and body contact that the front vehicle body utilization is stretched out from its preceding casing rear portion; Said steering hardware is a four-bar linkage; The bottom of casing before being installed in; Stretch out the lower wall of car body through the through hole of preceding lower box; The two ends of connecting rod are connected with the corner bearing pin of both sides steered wheel respectively through pin, realize turning in the same way of steered wheel, and steered wheel is connected with preceding casing through the front-wheel leg support of wall box before being fixed on; Said front-wheel leg support stretches out through the through hole of preceding casing both sides, and outside right ends is installed a preceding swinging kick wheel respectively, and preceding swinging kick wheel can be done rotatablely moving in the certain limit with respect to preceding casing; Steer motor and preceding swinging kick motor are installed in the appropriate location in the preceding casing respectively, and pass motion to steering hardware and front-wheel leg support through the gear connection, realize turning to and swinging kick;
Said trailing wheel leg system comprises back swing leg system and drive system two sub-systems; Two sub-systems all are installed on the aftercarriage; Back minor axis and body contact that the aftercarriage utilization is stretched out from its rear box front portion; Said drive system comprises drive motor, diff, belt wheel and drive wheels; Diff is installed in the aftercarriage; The diff output shaft is stretched out by the through hole of aftercarriage both sides, and two axle heads that stretch out are separately installed with drive wheels, and move with the gear driven drive wheels; The back swing leg system comprises back swing leg motor, sleeve, back swing leg support and back swing leg wheel; Sleeve is installed in a side of diff output shaft; And relative motion is arranged all between diff and the aftercarriage; The moment of torsion of back swing leg motor is given the back swing leg support through the gear transmission that is fixed on the sleeve, realizes the swinging kick in the certain angle scope, and the back swing leg wheel is installed in the outside two ends of back swing leg support; Through being fixed on the belt wheel on drive wheels and the back swing leg wheel, give the back swing leg wheel with transmission of power by strap drive;
Said body portion mainly comprises the corner motor; The corner motor is installed in the vehicle body, and does not have relative motion between the vehicle body; Corner Motor torque mouth connects a gear, and another gear that is engaged with is rigidly connected with described back minor axis, inclines by transferring about the rotation realization vehicle body of corner motor.
Compared with prior art, robot platform of the present invention adopts the wheel-leg combined type structure, only adopts five drive motor, and is simple in structure, and control adopts wheeled method to advance on ground grading easily, and energy consumption significantly reduces; Under complex-terrain, adopt the wheel-leg combined type method to advance, efficient greatly improves.The present invention crosses over the pit of certain-length because special structural design can be crossed over the obstacle that is higher than chassis height, and can adjust the roll angle of robot, and the landform adaptive capacity is very strong.
The specific embodiment
Be described in detail the present invention below in conjunction with embodiment and accompanying drawing thereof.Embodiment is to be the practical implementation that prerequisite is carried out with technical scheme according to the invention, has provided detailed embodiment and process.But the claim protection domain of application of the present invention is not limited to the description scope of said embodiment.
Design-calculated wheel-leg combined type mobile robot platform of the present invention (hereinafter to be referred as robot or platform, referring to Fig. 1-6) is followed robot modularized design philosophy, adopts modular design.Specific structural features is:
Platform of the present invention can be divided into three parts as a whole, promptly be positioned at centre portion vehicle body 1, be positioned at the anterior front vehicle body 2 of vehicle body 1 and be positioned at the aftercarriage 3 at vehicle body 1 rear portion; Front-wheel leg system is installed on the front vehicle body 2, and trailing wheel leg system is installed on the aftercarriage 3; Front-wheel leg system mainly comprises steering swivel system and preceding swinging kick system two sub-systems; Trailing wheel leg system mainly comprises back swing leg system and drive system two sub-systems; Whole robot platform has four legs eight and takes turns: front vehicle body 2 two leg four-wheels, aftercarriage 3 two leg four-wheels and five motors: 2 two of front vehicle body, 1 one of vehicle bodies, 3 two of aftercarriages.
Swinging kick system and steering swivel system and preceding casing 413 (referring to Fig. 4 (1), 4 (2)) before the said front-wheel leg of robot of the present invention system mainly comprises; Said steering swivel system or module have mainly adopted plane four bar structures; Comprise steer motor 48, crank 414, connecting rod 47, turn to minor axis 46, two supports 44,44 ', steered wheel 410 and the transmission gear 49 of front axle 45, left and right symmetry.Casing 413 be a rectangular structure before said, for embodiment attractive in appearance is designed to the face of cylinder with its front, respectively processes a through hole below the both sides sidewall reaches, its rear portion the preceding minor axis 415 that stretches out arranged, be used for realizing and being connected of vehicle body 1.Said steer motor 48 is installed in the preceding casing 413; Crank 414 before through holes below transmission gear 49 and preceding casing 413 pass motion to outside the casing 413; Crank 414 and connecting rod 47 are connected through pin, and the swing of crank 414 in certain angle converts connecting rod 47 into respect to the moving back and forth of preceding casing 413, the two ends of connecting rod 47 respectively with turn to minor axis 46 to pin to be connected; Turn to minor axis 46 front axles 45 cooresponding to be rigidly connected with it; Turn to the swing of minor axis 46 to drive front axle 45 around its cooresponding support 44 swings, the two ends of front axle 45 are separately installed with steered wheel 410, thereby have realized turning to synchronously of two steered wheels 410.
Swinging kick motor 411, forward swing leg support 43 before the swinging kick system comprises before said, symmetrical two preceding swinging kick wheels 41,41 ', minor axis 42,42 ' and preceding transmission gear 412.Swinging kick motor 411 is installed in the preceding casing 413 before said, and is connected with forward swing leg support 43 through preceding transmission gear 412; Forward swing leg support 43 stretches out preceding casing 413 through the through hole of preceding casing 413 both sides, and the two ends of forward swing leg support 43 are connected with cooresponding preceding swinging kick wheel 41 through minor axis 42 respectively.Under the initial condition, forward swing leg support 43 angle (initial angle) with respect to the horizontal plane is 60 °.The radius of the length of forward swing leg support 43 and preceding swinging kick wheel 41 will determine the maximum height of surmountable obstacle and the width of crossing over trench of robot.When the needs obstacle detouring, preceding swinging kick motor 411 drives forward swing leg support 43 to lower swing; When preceding swinging kick wheel 41 touches obstacle, that steered wheel 410 and preceding casing 413 is built on stilts; When steered wheel 410 highly reached obstacle height, upwards swing of forward swing leg support 43 turned back to initial condition.
The said trailing wheel leg of robot of the present invention system (referring to Fig. 5) comprises back swing leg system and drive system and rear box 31 (referring to Fig. 3).Said rear box 31 is a rectangular structure, and corresponding with preceding casing 413, the back of the rear box 31 of embodiment is designed to the face of cylinder, and both sides are processed with through hole, the front be used for realizing with vehicle body 1 bonded assembly after minor axis 32 (referring to Fig. 3).
Said drive system or module 32 have mainly adopted gear-strap drive composite structure (referring to Fig. 5); Mainly comprise drive motor 510, diff 58, belt wheel 52, driving band 53, back axle 512, symmetrical two drive wheels 54; 54 ' and driven wheel 55,55 '.Drive motor 510 is installed in the rear box 33; Through the moment of torsion output of diff 58 with drive motor 510; The output shaft of diff 58 reaches the outside of rear box 33 through the through hole of rear box 33 both sides, and the two ends of diff 58 output shafts are separately installed with driven wheel 55, through driven wheel 55 moment of torsion are passed to back axle 512; Thereby drive wheels 54 and belt wheel 52 motions of drive installation on back axle 512 realize the driving of whole robot.
Said back swing leg system or module mainly comprise back swing leg motor 57, kink 511, back swing leg support 59, symmetrical two back swing leg wheels 51,51 ' and final drive gear 56.Kink 511 is installed in a side of diff 58; With respect to differential axle relative motion is arranged; Final drive gear 56 through being installed in kink 511 two ends is given back swing leg support 59 with the transmission of torque of back swing leg motor 57, and then drive back swing leg support 59 swings up and down realization swinging kick function.Back swing leg wheel 51 gains impetus through the driving band 53 that is installed on the differential axle, and itself also has power-handling capability, and design can avoid robot platform in the obstacle detouring process, to run out of steam like this.Back swing leg wheel 51 is in the state of lifting when obstacle detouring not, initial angle is 45 °.
Vehicle body 1 according to the invention is rectangular structure (referring to Fig. 6), mainly comprises casing 61, corner motor 62 and pair of engaged gears 63,63 '.The ROBOT CONTROL system mainly is installed in vehicle body 1 inside, requires the inner structure of vehicle body 1 simple as far as possible, and embodiment only has a corner motor 62 and pair of engaged gears 63.Contact with ground in tilting procedure for fear of vehicle body 1, the bottom of the cuboid vehicle body 1 of embodiment is designed to bigger arc transition.The forward and backward through hole of respectively processing of said casing 61 is used for realizing and being connected of forward and backward car body 2,3, and wherein with between the front vehicle body 2 is merely simple and is connected.Corner motor 62 is installed in vehicle body 1 inside, after the position is leaned on, and does not have relative motion between the vehicle body 1, and corner motor 62 is connected with active engaging gear 63; Passive engaging gear 63 ' is rigidly connected with the back minor axis 32 that stretch out aftercarriage 3 fronts, and when 62 rotations of corner motor, it is swinging of axle that vehicle body 61 will form the back minor axis 32 that stretches out with aftercarriage 3, transfers the purpose of inclining thereby reach.
When robot platform is advanced on non-ground grading; For fear of frequent swinging kick obstacle detouring; The steered wheel of embodiment of the invention preliminary design and the diameter of drive wheels are 200mm; The stent length of forward and backward swinging kick support is 240mm (for the ease of installing and batch manufacturing, all wheel diameters are identical).Land lengths (being the distance between steered wheel wheel shaft and the drive wheels wheel shaft) is 600mm, and width (i.e. distance between two steered wheels) is 540mm.The ground-surface distance of vehicle body 1 distance from bottom is the radius of wheel.When car was lower than 100mm promptly less than the obstacle of wheel diameter 1/2 in leap, wheel can directly be crossed, and does not need the swinging kick obstacle detouring.When car body need be crossed over trench, when trench width during less than radius of wheel, robot platform can directly pass through; The trench width rotates through forward and backward two the swinging kick motors of instruction control during greater than radius of wheel, and is different according to initial angle; Rotate 60 ° and 45 ° respectively, the swinging kick wheel contacts with ground before and after making, according to the length computation of swinging kick support; Platform can be 400mm (240+100+100=440mm through maximum width; 240mm is the stent length of swinging kick support, and 100mm is a radius of wheel, gets 400mm) trench.
Four anterior wheels of robot platform of the present invention are flower wheel entirely, come the drive machines people to advance by four wheels at rear portion.Drive system is copied the differential retarder that uses on the automobile originally as prior art.
When robot platform is advanced on rugged road surface, if taking place, car body tilts, robot platform can make car body keep balance through adjustment corner motor 62, avoids overturning.Robot can feed back control system by the mounted angle sensor, realizes adjustment in real time.In addition; Wheel leg composite machine people than other structures; No matter robot platform of the present invention is advanced on what road surface Shi Junke realizes that steered wheel, drive wheels steadily contact (the unsettled phenomenon of no wheel) with ground, improved the stability of robot platform in motion process.Machine designed people's platform of the present invention has stronger obstacle crossing ability.When robot runs into the obstacle that can't directly cross,, can cross the vertical obstacle of maximum 1.2 times of wheel diameters through the cooperation of front and rear wheel leg system.Obstacle detouring principle according to robot; The high obstacle height that the embodiment robot platform can be crossed over be 240-100+100 (240 for back leg long; 100 is radius of wheel); Get 200mm, the height that promptly detects obstacle when the distance measuring sensor on the car body is during greater than 200mm, and robot platform takes to turn to strategy; When the height of obstacle is lower than 200mm, take the obstacle detouring strategy.The robot gross weight of embodiment is that 70kg, safety factor are designed to 1.6, and during this robot platform obstacle detouring, the maximum power of said 5 motor wastage in bulk or weights is 100W; Torque peak is 1500Nm, and its load can reach 20kg, and continuation of the journey can reach 8 hours; Function admirable, field of application are very extensive.
Design-calculated seven is taken turns the compound mobile robot of seven legs before; Six wheels except Stump-jump wheel all contact with ground under initial condition; Therefore robot is when being moved toward the slope by horizontal surface or turning on the slope; Six wheels can't contact with ground simultaneously, make its stability and crossing ability variation.Robot platform of the present invention has four legs eight and takes turns, and in same above-mentioned road conditions, steered wheel is contacted with ground with drive wheels fully, thereby improved its stability; Structurally simpler than existing robot in addition, power consumption is lower.
What need supplemental instruction is, of the present invention " forward and backward; Left and right; Upper and lower " etc. the noun of locality be clear in order to describe, only have relative meaning.Generally speaking, before the direction of advancing forward with robot is, and as the benchmark of other nouns of locality.
The present invention does not address part and is applicable to prior art.