CN102301973A - Method for cultivating Anguilla marmorata - Google Patents

Method for cultivating Anguilla marmorata Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102301973A
CN102301973A CN201110231065A CN201110231065A CN102301973A CN 102301973 A CN102301973 A CN 102301973A CN 201110231065 A CN201110231065 A CN 201110231065A CN 201110231065 A CN201110231065 A CN 201110231065A CN 102301973 A CN102301973 A CN 102301973A
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bed
eel
resting
pond
water
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黄樟翰
朱华平
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Pearl River Fisheries Research Institute CAFS
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Pearl River Fisheries Research Institute CAFS
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

Abstract

The invention relates to a method for cultivating Anguilla marmorata. The method is applicable to the fishery. The invention discloses a method for improving the cultivation survival rate and growth speed of the Anguilla marmorata, namely a 'rest bed' is arranged for the Anguilla marmorata on one side of a pond, a layer of fishing net covers the 'rest bed', a food platform is positioned on one side of the 'rest bed', a sunshade shed is built above the 'rest bed', and a sunshade net covers the sunshade shed and is about 30cm away from the water surface. The area of the 'rest bed' can be 30 to 300 square meters, and 8 to 10 ten thousand fish is usually cultivated in each 300 square meters. A lifting device is arranged on the 'rest bed' so as to moderately adjust the height of the 'rest bed'; therefore, the aim that the 'rest bed' can be about 1 meter away from the water surface when the temperature of the water surface is overhigh or overlow in summer is fulfilled. In the method, the 'rest bed' which can be lifted is provided for the Anguilla marmorata during cultivation, so that the diseases can be reduced; and the survival rate is greatly improved, the growth speed is improved, the bait coefficient and cultivation cost are reduced, the quality of aquatic products is ensured, the environmental pollution is reduced, and the cultivation efficiency can also be improved.

Description

A kind of colored common eel cultural method
Technical field
The present invention relates to belong to technical field of aquaculture.
Background technology
The flower common eel ( Anguilla marmorata) belong to Anguilliforme, Anguillidae, Anguilla, popular name: flower eel, snow eel, black ear eel, reedfish, small stream eel.It is bigger a kind of of build in the common eel class, and is individual big, and weight person can reach tens of jin, and health is sturdy, and the former body of abdomeinal fin is cylinder, and the rear portion is flat-sided slightly, it seems that totally body extending is bar-shaped, the spitting image of very large yellow eel, so the title of " eel king " is arranged again.The flower common eel has a very wide distribution; East reaches all islands, middle part, the Pacific Ocean; The west reaches African east; South reaches the Australia south; North reaches Korea, Japan south; China be distributed in THE LOWER YANGTZE VALLEY and on the south the Qiantang River, Ling Jiang, the Oujiang River, Jiulongjiang River, and each big rivers in Taiwan, Guangdong, Guangxi and Hainan Province.The flower common eel grows in river mouth, marsh, He Xi, Hu Tang, the reservoir etc. for one of river straddling fish stocks fall in the typical case.Its disposition is violent, and body is strong and strong.Daytime, living in seclusion was among the cave usually, and just come out night activity, predation are food with animals such as fish, shrimp, shellfish, worms mainly.
There are some researches show; The flower common eel is a seed amino acid, fatty acid and lipid composition complete and protein and higher delicious, the nutritious precious edible fishes of meat flavour of inorganic element content; Compare with European eel with Japanese eel; Its protein content is higher; And fat content is lower, and DHA, EPA, Ca, Na, Mg, Zn, Fe, Mn, Al are also higher.Generally speaking, the nutritive value of flower common eel is better than Japanese eel and European eel, is edible fishes most precious in the Anguilla, always is regarded as first-class nourishing food, and its meat nature and flavor are sweet, flat, and the effect of strengthening by means of tonics is arranged.Zhejiang, the Fujian head of flower eel of using among the people are stewed system together with Ligusticum wallichii, and even soup is edible can treat dizziness headache.Boil soup with the flower common eel,, puerpera, body void person are had good effect as nourishing food.
In recent years because the deterioration of water environment, add that colored common eel is of high nutritive value and suffers overfishing, and poison, electric fishing be to the catastrophic collapse of resource, barrage builds that the dam constructs a reservoir and reason such as power station, and its wild resource is day by day exhausted, and difficulty is seen its trace at present.In addition, there are some researches show that the colored common eel of culturing more than 3 years carries out anatomic observation, naked eyes are not observed gonad, and perhaps this be that flower common eel wild resource more is prone to one of exhausted reason than Japanese eel and European eel.The seed 90% that present China spends common eel to culture all is a Philippine import seed.
The flower common eel is slower slightly than Japanese eel in the growth rate in early stage and mid-term, but growth of later stage speed is very fast, and specification is that the colored common eel of 1 kilogram/tail is cultured the marketable fish that can reach 3-4 kilogram/tail in a year.The price of flower common eel is the highest in the eel culture kind, and procurement price was more stable always in recent years.If culture successfully, its economic benefit is considerable.At present the flower common eel is mainly sold to ground such as Guangdong, Fujian, Zhejiang, Shanghai and Nanjing, also can export to Japan, but because supply is few, and the market demand is vigorous, domesticly generally can sell out.The breed of flower common eel someone in one's early years tries to support, but ends in failure more.In recent years, because the driving of the market demand, the breed of flower common eel day by day increases, but also is in the majority to fail.Tracing it to its cause, mainly is that disease is more in flower common eel breeding process, in case (like parasitosis such as Dactylogyrus, Trichodinas) takes place, difficult with control, thus cause culturing failure.So; Learn and main habit through the aquaculture organism of studying colored common eel; With and to the specific (special) requirements of water quality environment; Grope new breeding technique; Satisfying market, to adjustment aquaculture structure, increase farmers' income, promote flower common eel aquaculture industryization and resources significant to flower common eel active demand.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of this invention is to provide a kind of colored common eel cultural method; It is to learn characteristics to the aquaculture organism that present flower common eel is cultured lower present situation of success rate and flower common eel, and a kind of colored common eel cultural method that improves survival rate and growth rate, safety and environmental protection is provided.
Technical solution of the present invention is:
(1) pond condition: cultivating pool water source, water quality are good, meet the national correlation water standard-required.5~10 mu of soil pool areas, 2.0~2.5 meters of the depth of waters, per 2 mu of paddle aerators that are equipped with a 1.5KW.To carry out the pond sterilization before putting in a suitable place to breed earlier.
(2) fingerling stocking and throwing feeding method: breeding density is decided according to various conditions, and the factors such as yield index, eel pond condition, eel kind specification and cultural technique of looking are confirmed.Have abundant water resources and equipment preferably, can suitably put seedling more.The general stocking rate of per mu yield more than 1 ton is: about eel kind specification 20g, mu is put 8000~8500 tail/mus; About specification 50g, mu is put 5500~6000 tail/mus; About specification 1kg, mu is put 750~800 tail/mus.The full price of throwing something and feeding every day eel feed twice is respectively at 5 in the morning and point in afternoons 8; By decide matter, quantitatively, regularly and " four decide " method of location throw something and feed.
(3) method of raising survival rate and growth rate: the quiet happiness of common eel happiness is cloudy, noisy characteristics keep in dark place according to spending; One side in the pond is provided with one " bed for resting " or is referred to as " rest ledge " for the flower common eel; Concrete grammar is following: adopt bamboo or timber to be made into the support of " bed " shape; Cover one deck fishing net above, the size of mesh is advisable can not block colored common eel.The side stage face that the food platform is positioned at " bed for resting " can be put food.Above bed for resting, build a shade, cover shade net above, about 30 centimetres apart from water surface top." bed for resting " neglect greatly the pond put in a suitable place to breed colored common eel seedling what and decide, can not wait for 30~300 square metres, square metre be advisable in common 80,000~100,000 tail/300.For appropriate regulation bed for resting height; On bed for resting, be provided with elevator; Its objective is when summer high-temperature season or winter are cold; Water surface temperature is too high or too low; If " bed for resting " dried up face is too near; At this moment ingesting and having a rest of influence flower common eel spend the food ration of common eel to reduce, and increase to the time of pond bottom activity.Therefore, at this moment should regulate the height of " bed for resting ", with about dried up 1 meter, be advisable.
(4) aquaculture management: start aerator oxygenation according to water quality and weather condition in good time, guarantee that the pond dissolved oxygen is sufficient.The flower common eel is cultured early stage, and through 2~3 months breed, the sized differentiation obviously had a strong impact on the growth of small dimension eel, should in time culture by different size branch pond in the pond.
Above the present invention is provided with elevator for appropriate regulation bed for resting height on bed for resting, this elevator is on the support column at four angles pulley to be installed, or support column is that short column in bulk combines, and can increase or reduce joint number at any time.
Colored common eel cultural method of the present invention is based on colored common eel aquaculture organism characteristics and proposes.Because the flower common eel is high to water quality requirement, like quiet, happiness the moon, keep in dark place, usually live in profundal zone, hide by day and come out at night.So the flower common eel is in breeding process, and is general all movable at the bottom in pond.And pond bottom water-soluble oxygen is lower, and ammonia nitrogen and nitrous acid content are higher, and the pathogenic microorganisms in the bottom water body is more, so, spend common eel in water environments such as hypoxemia, high ammonia, the immunity degradation of self, sick probability has just improved greatly.Therefore, under present cultural technique condition, the disease of flower common eel is more, and the input amount of fishing medicine is corresponding to be increased, and once being difficult to control when morbidity, this is to cause culturing at present the very low one of the main reasons of success rate.The survival rate that how to improve colored common eel breed is one of key that realizes flower common eel aquaculture industryization and resources.To the life habit of above breed present situation with the flower common eel; Core technology of the present invention is to have proposed a kind of method that improves the success rate of colored common eel breed; Promptly in breeding process, for the flower common eel provides one liftable " bed for resting ", its effect and advantage have following several aspect:
(1) disease significantly reduces, and survival rate improves greatly.Because the happiness of flower common eel is quiet, hides in water daytime usually.Build after " bed for resting " on one side in the pond; The flower common eel lives on " bed for resting " basically, and after promptly ingesting, the flower common eel lies in " bed for resting " and goes up rest; Make it not in the pond bottom activity, contact the probability that pond bottom harmful microorganism promptly catches an illness like this and also just significantly reduce.Simultaneously, the bottom that the ovum that the pathogene in the pond (like the normal Dactylogyrus that takes place in the common eel breeding process) is produced or the young rest on the pond usually generally will colonize in body surface or the body of aquaculture organism and could accomplish the history of life, will death if can not find the host.Through the effect of " bed for resting ", the flower common eel has reduced the time of staying of the bottom in the pond, has promptly lost the effect of serving as vector, and the pathogene in the pond can significantly reduce.Therefore,, can significantly reduce the generation of disease, improve survival rate greatly through building " bed for resting ".
(2) improve growth rate.Because the most of the time of flower common eel all lives on " bed for resting ", is in the upper strata of pond waters, and the dissolved oxygen content of common layer waterborne is higher relatively, ammonia nitrogen and nitrous acid content are relatively low, help the growth of flower common eel.In addition, because disease reduces, the breathing of its gill portion is unimpeded, helps the utilization of oxygen.Through improving availability to oxygen, can improve the autoimmunity of flower common eel, reduce the generation of disease, improve its growth rate.
(3) regulation and control of favourable water quality.The flower common eel is demersal fishes; When breeding density is big usually; Chi Shui is owing to the stirring of flower common eel becomes very muddy, and the flower common eel to requirements in water quality than higher, pond oxygen in water, ammonia nitrogen, nitrous acid nitrogen, temperature etc. are direct blossom ingesting of eel and growing of influence all.Because the most of the time of flower common eel all lives on " bed for resting ", and is few to the stirring of mud at the bottom of the pond, help the transparency and the algae grows of water, Chi Shui is haze-free, and it is pure and fresh that water quality keeps, and meets the requirement high to water quality of colored common eel.
(4) reduce feed coefficient and aquaculture cost.Because " bed for resting " effect makes the upper strata of colored common eel life pool water within, dissolved oxygen content is high, helps improving the transformation efficiency of bait, thereby reduces feed coefficient, practices thrift feed cost.In addition, water quality is pure and fresh, and disease significantly reduces, and the usage amount of inputs such as fishing medicine, improver of water quality reduces.Can not only guarantee the quality of aquatic products, reduce pollution, can also reduce aquaculture cost, improve culture benefit environment.
Embodiment
Embodiment one
(1) pond condition: cultivating pool water source, water quality are good, meet the national correlation water standard-required.5 mu of soil pool areas, 2.0~2.5 meters of the depth of waters, the paddle aerator of 2 1.5KW of outfit.Want earlier every mu of usefulness 150 kilograms of quicklime bands water or the 50 kilograms of tea dregs of rice band water band water poison pool when 50 to 80 centimetres of the depth of waters before putting in a suitable place to breed, the property of medicine can be put the Tilapia mossambica fingerling in a suitable place to breed after disappearing after 7 days.
(2) fingerling stocking and throwing feeding method: breeding density is decided according to various conditions, and the factors such as yield index, eel pond condition, eel kind specification and cultural technique of looking are confirmed.Have abundant water resources and equipment preferably, can suitably put seedling more.The general stocking rate of per mu yield more than 1 ton is: about eel kind specification 20g, mu is put 7000~9000 tail/mus; About specification 50g, mu is put 5000~6000 tail/mus; About specification 1kg, mu is put 700~800 tail/mus.Because flower common eel happiness the moon keeps in dark place, be preferably in close to daybreak and the feed of throwing something and feeding at dusk, the full price eel feed twice of promptly throwing something and feeding every day is respectively at 5 in the morning and point in afternoons 8; By decide matter, quantitatively, regularly and " four decide " method of location throw something and feed.
(3) method of raising survival rate and growth rate: the quiet happiness of common eel happiness is cloudy, noisy characteristics keep in dark place according to spending; One side in the pond is provided with one " bed for resting " or is referred to as " rest ledge " for the flower common eel; Concrete grammar is following: adopt bamboo or timber to be made into the support of " bed " shape; Cover one deck fishing net above, the size of mesh is advisable can not block colored common eel.The food platform is positioned at a side of " bed for resting ".Above bed for resting, build a shade, cover shade net above, about 30 centimetres apart from water surface top." bed for resting " neglect greatly the pond put in a suitable place to breed colored common eel seedling what and decide, can not wait for 30~300 square metres, square metre be advisable in common 80,000~100,000 tail/300.Simultaneously, on the support column at " bed for resting " four angles, pulley is installed,, is regulated its height to the water surface in order to go up and down " bed for resting ".Its objective is that water surface temperature is too high or too low when summer high-temperature season or winter are cold, if " bed for resting " dried up face is too near, at this moment ingesting and having a rest of influence flower common eel spend the food ration of common eel to reduce, and increase to the time of pond bottom activity.Therefore, at this moment should regulate the height of " bed for resting ", with about dried up 1 meter, be advisable.
(4) aquaculture management: start aerator oxygenation according to water quality and weather condition in good time, guarantee that the pond dissolved oxygen is sufficient.Note water quality management, the pH value that generally keeps pond water is 6.5~8.5, and dissolved oxygen is more than 3.5 mg/litre, and ammonia nitrogen is below 0.2 mg/litre, and nitrite is below 0.05 mg/litre.Culture early stage, through 2~3 months breed, the sized differentiation obviously had a strong impact on the growth of eel to small dimension flower common eel, should in time culture by different size branch pond in the pond.
Be employed in the cultivating pool method that " bed for resting " is set for the flower common eel, in Shunde District, Foshan City, places such as Guangzhou Fanyu District, Jiangmen city Taishan City make an experiment, and all receive extraordinary effect.Wherein a peasant household of Shunde District, Foshan City adopts the method to culture the flower common eel; Put into colored eel seedling 3000 tails that average specification is 375 gram/tails on December 20th, 2010; When Mays 25 in 2011, bu was pool cultivated; Wherein reach colored eel 1400 tails about 1 kilogram/tail; 0.5 colored eel 1200 tails about kilogram/tail; 0.25 colored eel 400 tails about kilogram/tail, survival rate 100%.And compare with the pond that does not have " bed for resting " is set, water quality is obviously pure and fresh, no longer becomes turbid.Above facts have proved that the method for flower common eel setting " bed for resting " is successful, and its disease significantly reduces, and survival rate improves greatly, and growth rate is also corresponding to be improved.
Embodiment two
Cultural method is with embodiment one, and just the present invention is provided with elevator for appropriate regulation bed for resting height on bed for resting, and this elevator is that support column is that " short column in bulk " combines, and can increase at any time or reduce joint number and regulate the bed for resting height.This elevator comprises the wooden short column of cylinder shape several (length of short column is changeable, decides according to the joint number of the pond depth of water and installation), clamping device for fastening (perhaps claiming sleeve arrangement) several.Clamping device for fastening be used to the to be fixedly clamped junction of two wooden short columns utilizes a plurality of clamping device for fastening can connect fixing a plurality of short columns, thereby forms the support column of " bed for resting ".Reach the purpose of regulating the bed for resting height through the joint number that increases or reduce the short column of support column on four angles of bed for resting simultaneously like this.This method is easy to operate, and is simple in structure, and reusable, economical and practical.

Claims (2)

1. colored common eel cultural method is characterized in that:
(1) pond condition: cultivating pool water source, water quality are good, meet the national correlation water standard-required, 5~10 mu of native pool areas, and 2.0~2.5 meters of the depth of waters, per 2 mu of paddle aerators that are equipped with a 1.5KW will carry out the pond earlier and sterilize putting in a suitable place to breed before;
(2) fingerling stocking and throwing feeding method: breeding density is decided according to various conditions; The factors such as yield index, eel pond condition, eel kind specification and cultural technique of looking are confirmed; Have abundant water resources and equipment preferably; Can suitably put seedling more; The general stocking rate of per mu yield more than 1 ton is: about eel kind specification 20g, mu is put 8000~8500 tail/mus; About specification 50g, mu is put 5500~6000 tail/mus; About specification 1kg, mu is put 750~800 tail/mus, the full price of throwing something and feeding every day eel feed twice, respectively at 5 in the morning and afternoons 8 point; By decide matter, quantitatively, regularly and " four decide " method of location throw something and feed;
(3) method of raising survival rate and growth rate: cloudy according to the quiet happiness of flower common eel happiness; The characteristics that keep in dark place and make a noise; One side in the pond is provided with one " bed for resting " for the flower common eel; Concrete grammar is following: adopt bamboo or timber to be made into the support of " bed " shape; Cover one deck fishing net above; The size of mesh is advisable can not block colored common eel; The food platform is positioned at a side of " bed for resting "; Table top can be put food above bed for resting; Build a shade; Cover shade net above; Apart from water surface top about 30 centimetres; " bed for resting " neglect greatly the pond put in a suitable place to breed colored common eel seedling what and decide; Can not wait for 30~300 square metres; Square metre be advisable in common 80,000~100,000 tail/300; For appropriate regulation bed for resting height; On bed for resting, be provided with elevator; Its objective is when summer high-temperature season or winter are cold; Water surface temperature is too high or too low; If " bed for resting " dried up face is too near, at this moment ingesting and having a rest of influence flower common eel spend the food ration of common eel to reduce; And increase to the time of pond bottom activity; Therefore, at this moment should regulate the height of " bed for resting ", with about dried up 1 meter, be advisable;
(4) aquaculture management: in good time start aerator oxygenation according to water quality and weather condition; Guarantee that the pond dissolved oxygen is sufficient; The flower common eel is cultured early stage; In the pond through 2~3 months breed; The sized differentiation obviously; Have a strong impact on the growth of small dimension eel, should in time culture by different size branch pond.
2. according to the said a kind of colored common eel cultural method of claim 1; It is characterized in that for appropriate regulation bed for resting height; On bed for resting, be provided with elevator; This elevator is on the support column at four angles pulley to be installed; Or support column is that short column in bulk combines, and can increase or reduce joint number at any time.
CN201110231065A 2011-08-12 2011-08-12 Method for cultivating Anguilla marmorata Pending CN102301973A (en)

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Cited By (12)

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CN103004666A (en) * 2012-12-28 2013-04-03 珠海市斗门区河口渔业研究所 Breeding method for intermediate breeding of Anguilla marmorata fries
CN103416337A (en) * 2013-08-24 2013-12-04 宁波市大桥生态农业有限公司 Wild-imitation breeding method for river eel
CN103461236A (en) * 2013-08-19 2013-12-25 安徽华凌生态农业有限公司 Breeding method for American eel black fries
CN103478024A (en) * 2013-08-19 2014-01-01 安徽华凌生态农业有限公司 Method for farming white fries of American eels
CN104381164A (en) * 2014-10-30 2015-03-04 中国水产科学研究院东海水产研究所 Indoor domestication method for Japanese eel fries
CN104663540A (en) * 2015-01-31 2015-06-03 陈宏� Aquaculture process for South American eel larvae
CN105210962A (en) * 2015-10-29 2016-01-06 苏州市美人半岛齐力生态农产品专业合作社 The high-yield cultivation method of eel
CN107006407A (en) * 2017-06-05 2017-08-04 黄世强 Flower eel cultural method
CN107182856A (en) * 2017-06-05 2017-09-22 黄世强 With reference to the flower eel cultural method of frame for cultivating
CN107182855A (en) * 2017-06-05 2017-09-22 黄世强 The flower eel cultural method of high-survival rate
CN107410110A (en) * 2017-06-05 2017-12-01 黄世强 The artificial cultivating method of flower eel
CN110199933A (en) * 2019-05-27 2019-09-06 山东荣信水产食品集团股份有限公司 Seven-star eel cultivation apparatus and its artificial cultivating method

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Cited By (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103004666A (en) * 2012-12-28 2013-04-03 珠海市斗门区河口渔业研究所 Breeding method for intermediate breeding of Anguilla marmorata fries
CN103004666B (en) * 2012-12-28 2015-03-11 珠海市斗门区河口渔业研究所 Breeding method for intermediate breeding of Anguilla marmorata fries
CN103461236A (en) * 2013-08-19 2013-12-25 安徽华凌生态农业有限公司 Breeding method for American eel black fries
CN103478024A (en) * 2013-08-19 2014-01-01 安徽华凌生态农业有限公司 Method for farming white fries of American eels
CN103416337A (en) * 2013-08-24 2013-12-04 宁波市大桥生态农业有限公司 Wild-imitation breeding method for river eel
CN104381164A (en) * 2014-10-30 2015-03-04 中国水产科学研究院东海水产研究所 Indoor domestication method for Japanese eel fries
CN104663540A (en) * 2015-01-31 2015-06-03 陈宏� Aquaculture process for South American eel larvae
CN105210962A (en) * 2015-10-29 2016-01-06 苏州市美人半岛齐力生态农产品专业合作社 The high-yield cultivation method of eel
CN107006407A (en) * 2017-06-05 2017-08-04 黄世强 Flower eel cultural method
CN107182856A (en) * 2017-06-05 2017-09-22 黄世强 With reference to the flower eel cultural method of frame for cultivating
CN107182855A (en) * 2017-06-05 2017-09-22 黄世强 The flower eel cultural method of high-survival rate
CN107410110A (en) * 2017-06-05 2017-12-01 黄世强 The artificial cultivating method of flower eel
CN110199933A (en) * 2019-05-27 2019-09-06 山东荣信水产食品集团股份有限公司 Seven-star eel cultivation apparatus and its artificial cultivating method

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