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One kind of single-axis control type magnetic bearing miniature five degrees of freedom

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Publication number
CN102297202A
CN102297202A CN 201110232891 CN201110232891A CN102297202A CN 102297202 A CN102297202 A CN 102297202A CN 201110232891 CN201110232891 CN 201110232891 CN 201110232891 A CN201110232891 A CN 201110232891A CN 102297202 A CN102297202 A CN 102297202A
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bearing
magnetic
axially
controlling
arranged
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CN 201110232891
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Chinese (zh)
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CN102297202B (en )
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张维煜
朱熀秋
杨益飞
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江苏大学
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Abstract

The invention discloses a single shaft controlled type five DOF miniature magnetic bearing which is used in working occasions with space constraint requirements. According to the invention, two same flange plates are arranged at left and right above a rotating shaft, and a rotor, two annular stator yokes, an annular axially magnetizing permanent magnet and two axially controlling coils are arranged between the two flange plates; axial air gaps exist between medial surfaces of the flange plates and two transverse planes of the rotor; the stator yokes are fixed arranged at two axial sides of the permanent magnet; the two axially controlling coils are arranged in a cavity formed by the two stator yokes and the two flange plates and are in bilateral symmetry relative to the rotor; a sensor isprovided with at one axial side of the rotating shaft; the permanent magnet generates closed loop static bias flux, and the axially controlling coils generate closed loop axially controlling flux. Passive magnetic bearing and active magnetic bearing are combined in the invention, which enables existing large-size magnetic bearings to be miniaturized; the miniature magnetic bearing provided in theinvention has the advantages of simple construction, low power dissipation, simple control and the like, and enables bearing capacity and working performance to be enhanced and application fields of the bearing to be broadened.

Description

一种单轴控制式五自由度微型磁轴承 One kind of single-axis control type magnetic bearing miniature five degrees of freedom

技术领域 FIELD

[0001] 本发明涉及一种非机械接触的五自由度磁轴承,特指一种五自由度微型磁轴承, 可作为诸如磁悬浮微型电机、商业硬盘驱动器、微型涡轮机、人工心脏轴流泵、航天器用磁悬浮储能飞轮系统之类要求高速、洁净无污染、长寿命的机械设备、医疗设备及卫星、航天器中微型旋转部件等工作场合的无接触悬浮支承。 [0001] relates to a non-mechanical contact of the five degrees of freedom magnetic bearing according to the present invention, in particular to a miniature magnetic bearing five degrees of freedom, such as a magnetic levitation micro-motors, commercial hard drives, micro turbines, axial flow pump artificial heart, aerospace Used magnetic levitation flywheel energy storage systems require high-speed type, clean and non-polluting, non-contact workplace long-life mechanical equipment, medical equipment and satellites, spacecraft and other suspended micro rotary member supported.

背景技术 Background technique

[0002] 微型磁轴承是一种利用定子与转子之间的磁力作用将转子悬浮于空间的机电一体化精密产品,适用于具有空间限制的高速、超洁净和真空等特殊场合,为使转子能够实现稳定的悬浮,需要在五自由度上都要进行约束。 [0002] The micro-magnetic bearing is a magnetic force acting between the stator and the rotor the rotor is suspended in space mechatronic precision products, suitable for high-speed special occasions, and a vacuum ultra-clean space constraints like having, as the rotor can be stable suspension, it is necessary to be restrained at the five degrees of freedom.

[0003] 磁轴承的结构一般都包括定子和转子,在定子上缠绕控制线圈,对控制线圈进行通电产生磁通,利用定子与转子之间的磁力作用将转子悬浮于空间,实现对转子的主动控制。 Structure [0003] The magnetic bearing generally includes a stator and a rotor, the stator control coil is wound, of the control coil is energized the magnetic flux generated by the magnetic force between the stator and the rotor the rotor is suspended in space, to achieve active rotor control. 因此,需要多个定子和线圈,以及相应的多个传感器才能实现各自由度的主动控制,导致磁轴承的结构尺寸较大,各自由度悬浮力之间需要复杂的解耦控制,且磁轴承功耗高、成本高,因此不适用于有空间限制要求的工作场合。 Accordingly, a need and a plurality of stator coils, and a corresponding plurality of sensors for each degree of freedom to achieve active control, resulting in larger size of structure of the magnetic bearing, require complex control decoupling between the suspension forces freedom, and magnetic bearings high power, high cost, and therefore not suitable for space-constrained requirements of the workplace.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0004] 本发明的目的是为克服现有技术中磁轴承的结构尺寸较大,不能应用于有空间限制要求场合的不足,提出一种单轴控制式五自由度微型磁轴承,从结构上减小磁轴承的体积、降低磁轴承功耗。 [0004] The object of the present invention is to overcome the large size of the prior art structure of the magnetic bearing can not be applied to space requirements Restricting occasions, to provide a single-axis control type magnetic bearing miniature five degrees of freedom, from the structure reducing the volume of the magnetic bearing, magnetic bearing to reduce power consumption.

[0005] 本发明为实现上述目的采用的技术方案是:转子同轴固接转轴,转子上空套永磁体,转轴上空套有左右布置的2个相同的法兰盘,2个法兰盘间设有1个转子、2个环形的定子磁轭、轴向充磁的1个环形永磁体和2个轴向控制线圈;法兰盘的内侧面与转子的两个端面之间具有轴向气隙;定子磁轭固定设置于永磁体的轴向两侧;2个法兰盘、2个定子磁轭以及永磁体的外径均相等;2个轴向控制线圈设置于2个定子磁轭与2个法兰盘构成的空腔内且相对于转子左右对称;转轴的轴向一侧设有传感器;永磁体产生静态偏磁磁通,静态偏磁磁通是从永磁体N极流出、依次经一侧的定子磁轭、法兰盘、轴向气隙后进入转子,再进入另一侧的轴向气隙、法兰盘、定子磁轭,回到永磁体S极的闭环磁回路;轴向控制线圈通以控制电流产生轴向控制磁通,轴向控制磁通是依次 [0005] To achieve the aspect of the present invention is used in the above-mentioned object: a rotor coaxially fixed to the rotary shaft, the rotor cover over the permanent magnets, disposed about the shaft, the idler has two identical flanges, disposed between two flanges 1 rotor, two ring-shaped stator yokes, axial magnetizing an annular permanent magnet and two axial control coils; has an axial air gap between the two end faces of the inner side surface of the flange of the rotor ; fixed stator yoke disposed on both axial sides of the permanent magnet; two flanges, two of the stator yoke and the outer diameter of the permanent magnets are equal; two axially disposed in the control coil 2 and the stator yoke 2 cavity and a flange configured symmetrically with respect to the rotors; axial side of the rotation shaft is provided with a sensor; generating a static magnetic bias permanent magnet flux, a static bias magnetic flux flows from the permanent magnet pole is N, by sequentially stator yoke side of the flange, the axial direction of the rotor into the air gap, the air gap and then into the axial other side of the flange, a stator yoke, the permanent magnet back to the S pole of the closed magnetic circuit; shaft through the control coil to produce an axial control flux control current, axial control flux sequentially 定子磁轭、法兰盘、轴向气隙、转子、回到定子磁轭的闭环磁回路。 The stator yoke, the flange, an axial air gap, the rotor, the stator back yoke closed magnetic circuit.

[0006] 本发明与现有技术相比的有益效果在于: [0006] the present invention compared to the prior art that the beneficial effects:

1、本发明将现有的大尺寸的磁轴承微型化,微型的过程中考虑简单控制,精简结构,降低成本等因素,因此,本发明减少主动控制的自由度数目,提出了被动悬浮控制,无需采用定子上通过缠绕控制线圈进行通电来实现主动控制。 1, the present invention is the large size of the conventional magnetic bearing miniaturized, micro consider a simple control process, streamlined structure, reduce cost and other factors, therefore, the present invention reduces the number of degrees of freedom active control, a passive levitation control is proposed, by winding control coils on the stator to be energized without using active control.

[0007] 2、区别于传统磁轴承或无轴承电机,本发明采用被动磁轴承和主动磁轴承相结合的办法,只在一个自由度(绕轴向Z轴平动)采用主动控制,而其它自由度(绕径向X、Y轴平动及绕χ、γ轴扭转)采用被动控制,使转子实现五自由度悬浮。 [0007] 2, different from the conventional magnetic bearing, or no bearing motor, the present invention uses a passive magnetic bearing approaches and a combination of active magnetic bearing, only one degree of freedom (rotation about the Z-axis axial translation) active control, while the other DOF (about the radial X, Y axis and around the translational χ, γ shaft torsional) passive control, five degrees of freedom of the rotor to achieve a suspension. 相比于全部采用主动控制的五自由度磁轴承,本发明大大减少了系统所需的电磁铁及各个自由度采取闭环控制方法所采用的传感器的数目,且针对微型磁轴承的悬浮力较小的特点,只在轴向单自由度采取主动控制,而其它四自由度采取的被动控制,无需进行各个自由度之间的悬浮力解耦控制,因此本发明简化了磁轴承的控制方案,降低了磁轴承的控制成本,减少了磁轴承的功率损耗, 提高了磁轴承的整体效率。 Compared to the control in all the five degrees of freedom active magnetic bearing, the present invention greatly reduces the number of degrees of freedom systems take various sensors and solenoid control loop methods used, and a smaller force for miniature magnetic bearing suspension characteristics of active control only one degree of freedom in the axial direction to take, while the other four degrees of freedom taken passive control, without decoupling control levitation force between the respective degrees of freedom, the present invention thus simplifies the magnetic bearing control scheme, reduced the magnetic bearing control costs, reduce power consumption magnetic bearing, improve the overall efficiency of the magnetic bearing.

[0008] 3、本发明可达到很高的运转转速,并且具有结构简单、体积小、功耗低、成本低、控制简单、机械磨损小、寿命长、无污染等优点,提高了磁轴承的承载力和工作性能、扩大了磁轴承的应用领域。 [0008] 3, the present invention can achieve high speed operation, and has a simple structure, small size, low power consumption, low cost, simple control, small mechanical wear, long life, pollution, etc., to improve the magnetic bearing capacity and performance, expanding the field of application of magnetic bearings.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0009] 图1为本发明单轴控制式五自由度微型磁轴承轴向截面图及轴向控制原理图; 图2为图1中的AA剖视图; [0009] FIG present invention of formula 1-axis control magnetic bearing miniature five degrees of freedom and an axial sectional view of an axial control principle; Figure 2 AA sectional view of FIG. 1;

图3为图1所示的本发明微型磁轴承被动悬浮径向恢复力的结构原理图; 图4为图1所示的本发明微型磁轴承被动悬浮径向恢复力矩的结构原理图; 图5为图1所示的本发明微型磁轴承轴向主动悬浮的结构原理图; 图中:1.永磁体;2.定子磁轭;3.法兰盘;4.轴向控制线圈;5.转子;6.转轴;7.传感器;8.静态偏磁磁通;9.轴向控制磁通;10.轴向气隙。 FIG 3 is a miniature passive magnetic bearing suspension of the present invention shown in FIG. 1 the radial restoring force structure diagram; FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram of a micro structure according to the present invention is a passive magnetic bearing suspension shown in FIG. 1 the radial restoring moment; Figure 5 FIG 1 is a schematic diagram of a micro structure of the present invention is a magnetic axial bearing active suspension shown; FIG: a permanent magnet; second stator yoke; flange 3; 4 axial control coil; 5 rotor.... ;. spindle 6; 7 sensor; 8 static magnetic bias flux; 9 axial control flux;. 10 axial airgap.

具体实施方式 detailed description

[0010] 如图1及图2所示,本发明由1个永磁体1、2个相同的定子磁轭2、2个相同的法兰盘3、2个相同的轴向控制线圈4、1个转子5、1个转轴6和1个传感器7构成。 [0010] As shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, the present invention consists of the same stator flux of the permanent magnet 1 1,2 2,2 3,2 identical flange identical axial yoke control coils 4,1 5, a rotor shaft 6 and a sensor 7 constituted. 2个相同的法兰盘3均空套在转轴6上且左右布置,法兰盘3为常用的阶梯状结构,在2个相同的法兰盘3之间设置转子5、2个相同的定子磁轭2、1个永磁体1和2个相同的轴向控制线圈4, 其中,转子5同轴固定在转轴6上,由圆形硅钢片叠压在转轴6上,并且在2个相同的法兰盘3的内侧面与转子5的两个端面之间留有轴向气隙10。 2 are identical idler flange 3 on the shaft 6 and disposed around, the flange 3 is a conventional stepped structure, provided between the rotor 32 of the same flange 5, two identical stator the yoke 2, permanent magnets 2 and the same axial control coil 41, wherein the rotor 5 is fixed coaxially on the rotary shaft 6, a circular silicon steel sheets laminated on the rotary shaft 6, and two identical the inner side surface of the flange 3 between the two end faces of the rotor 5 and the axial gap 10 is left. 转子5上空套1个永磁体1,永磁体1为轴向充磁的环形永磁体,一端是N极,另一端是S极。 5, the idler rotor 1, an axially magnetized permanent magnet is a permanent ring-shaped permanent magnet, one end of the N pole, and the other end is an S pole. 在轴向上,位于永磁体1的轴向两侧,与2个相同的法兰盘3内壁之间的空间各固定设置1个环形的定子磁轭2,即本发明的法兰盘3内侧联接定子磁轭2,永磁体1被叠压在具有对称结构的2个相同的定子磁轭2之间。 In the axial direction, axial sides of the permanent magnet 1, and the space between the inner wall of the flange 2 identical each fixed stator flux provided an annular yoke 2, i.e. the flange 3 of the present invention, the inner coupling the stator yoke 2, permanent magnet 1 is laminated in the same two stator magnetic yoke having a symmetric structure between the two. 2个法兰盘3、2个定子磁轭2以及永磁体1的外径均相等,2个定子磁轭2与永磁体1的内径相等。 Two flanges 3, the outer diameter of a stator yoke and the permanent magnet 12 are equal, the inner diameter of the stator yoke 2 and the permanent magnet 2 is equal to 1. 在2个定子磁轭2与2个法兰盘3构成的空腔内设置2个相同的轴向控制线圈4,2个相同的轴向控制线圈4相对于转子5左右对称。 In the two stator yoke 2 and two flanges 3 is provided within the cavity formed of two identical axial control coil 4, two identical control winding 4 with respect to the axial direction of the rotor 5 about symmetry. 在转轴6的轴向一侧安置传感器7,用于检测转子5的轴向位移。 Side of the rotation shaft 6 in the axial direction of the sensor 7 is disposed for detecting the axial displacement of the rotor 5.

[0011] 根据磁回路要求,磁路部件需导磁性能良好,磁滞低,并尽量降低涡流损耗与磁滞损耗,由此确定转子5采用硅钢片叠压而成,而定子磁轭2、法兰盘3采用电工纯铁加工而成,永磁体1采用高性能稀土材料钕铁硼。 [0011] The magnetic circuit of claim permeable magnetic circuit member need good performance, low hysteresis and eddy current loss and minimize the hysteresis loss, thereby determining the rotor 5 formed using the laminated silicon steel, and the stator yoke 2, using electrical iron flange 3 processing, a high-performance rare earth permanent magnet material NdFeB.

[0012] 本发明由永磁体1产生静态偏磁磁通8 (参见图1中带箭头的虚线磁路),静态偏磁磁通8从永磁体1的N极流出,依次经过一侧的定子磁轭2、法兰盘3、轴向气隙10后进入转子5,然后进入另一侧的轴向气隙10、法兰盘3、定子磁轭2、最后回到永磁体1的S极,形成闭环磁回路结构。 [0012] The present invention generates a static magnetic bias flux by the permanent magnet 18 (see arrows in FIG. 1 with a broken line a magnetic circuit), a static bias magnetic flux flows from the N pole 8 of the permanent magnet 1, and sequentially passes through the stator side the yoke 2, the flange 3, the axial gap 10 into the rotor 5, and then into the axial air gap 10 on the other side, the flange 3, the stator yoke 2, and finally back to the S pole of the permanent magnet 1 , forming a closed magnetic circuit structure. 轴向控制线圈4通以控制电流产生轴向控制磁通9 (参见图1中带箭头的实线磁路),轴向控制磁通9依次经过定子磁轭2、法兰盘3、轴向气隙10后进入转子5,然后回到定子磁轭2,形成闭环磁回路结构。 Axial control coil 4 through 9 to produce an axial control flux to control current (see FIG. 1 with an arrow in solid lines in the magnetic circuit), an axial control flux through the stator yoke 9 in sequence 2, the flange 3, the axial after the air gap 10 into the rotor 5, and then return to the stator yoke 2, forming a closed magnetic circuit structure.

[0013] 如图3所示,当转子5在径向二自由度方向(X、Y)受到干扰而偏离平衡位置时,根据磁阻力特性可知,永磁体1提供的静态偏磁磁通8产生恢复力F,其方向为X轴正方向。 Static magnetic bias flux 8 [0013] As shown, the rotor 5 when the interference in the radial direction of two degrees of freedom (X, Y) deviates from the equilibrium position, in accordance with known properties of the magnetic resistance, is provided a permanent magnet 3 generating restoring force F, which direction is the positive X-axis direction. 使转子5回到平衡位置。 The rotor 5 back to the equilibrium position.

[0014] 如图4所示,当转子5在径向扭转二自由度方向( 0、Φ分别为绕X、Y轴的扭转角度),受到干扰而偏离平衡位置位置时,利用转子5的外径相对于转子5的轴向长度较短的结构特点和磁阻力总是有使磁路磁阻最小的性质,永磁体1 提供的静态偏磁磁通8产生恢复扭转力矩Μ,其方向为绕Y轴正方向扭转方向,使转子5回到平衡位置。 [0014] As shown in FIG. 4, the rotor 5 when the two degrees of freedom in a radial direction of twisting (0, Φ respectively around X, the twist angle of the Y axis), and disturbed from its equilibrium position by the outer rotor 5 diameter relative to the axial length of the rotor 5 is short and the magnetic characteristics of structural resistance so there is always a minimum magnetic resistance properties, static bias magnetic flux provided by the permanent magnet 8 to generate a twisting moment [mu] recovery, which is a direction twisting direction around the Y-axis positive direction, the rotor 5 back to the equilibrium position.

[0015] 如图5所示,当转子5在轴向单自由度方向(Z)受到干扰偏离平衡位置时,通过传感器7反馈微型磁轴承的位移情况,调节左右轴向控制线圈4的电流,从而调节轴向气隙10 中的轴向控制磁通9,图5所示的是调节了左侧的轴向气隙10使其增大,使右侧的轴向气隙10减小,始终使转子保持在轴向平衡位置。 [0015] As shown in FIG. 5, when the rotor 5 is disturbed from its equilibrium position of the single degree of freedom in the axial direction (the Z), 7 by the sensor feedback displacement of miniature magnetic bearing, the axial adjusting the control current of about 4 coils, the axial air gap 10 so as to adjust the axial control flux 9 is adjusted so that the axial air gap 10 increases the left side of FIG. 5, the right axial air gap 10 is reduced, always holding the rotor in the axial equilibrium position.

[0016] 因此,本发明将被动悬浮控制(针对径向四自由度)和主动悬浮控制(针对轴向单自由度)相结合,在径向二自由度和扭转方向的二自由度采用被动控制,轴向通过控制线圈4通直流电提供轴向控制磁通实现转子5的轴向悬浮力的闭环控制,最终实现转子5的稳定悬浮。 [0016] Accordingly, the present invention is a passive levitation control (for four radial degrees of freedom) and active suspension control (for single-axis degree of freedom) combined passive control two degrees of freedom and two degrees of freedom the radial direction of the torsion an axial control flux providing axial closed-loop control of the axial force of the rotor 5 is suspended by controlling the direct current through the coil 4, and ultimately the stable suspension of the rotor 5. 只利用轴向一个自由度控制微型磁轴承五自由度稳定悬浮,径向四自由度依靠转子5自身磁阻力实现被动悬浮;轴向一个自由度通过调节轴向控制线圈4中电流的大小来改变轴向左右气隙10处磁通的大小,进而改变转子5轴向左右两侧受力的大小,使转子处于平衡位置,实现主动悬浮。 Only one degree of freedom with axial magnetic bearing control microcomputer stable suspension of five degrees of freedom, four degrees of freedom the radial magnetic resistance of the rotor 5 itself to rely Passive suspension; axial coil 4 a current controlled by adjusting the degree of freedom in axial size changing the size of the left and right axial airgap flux 10, thereby changing the size of the left and right sides of the rotor 5 by the axial force of the rotor in the equilibrium position, for active suspension. 当转子5处于平衡位置时,左右两侧轴向气隙10中静态偏置磁通8和轴向控制磁通9两部分叠加合成磁通密度相等;利用转子5外径相对于转子5的轴向长度较短的结构特点和磁阻力总是使磁路磁阻最小的原理,当转子5有径向位移或倾斜,磁阻力都会作用使其回到平衡位置。 When the rotor 5 in the balanced position, the left and right sides of the air gap 10 in the axial static bias flux control flux 8 and 9 of two parts axially superposed flux density equal synthesis; with a rotor shaft 5 with respect to the outer diameter of the rotor 5 the structural characteristics and short length to minimize the magnetic resistance is always the principle of magnetic resistance, when the rotor 5 with radial displacement or the inclination, so that a magnetic resistance effect will be returned to the equilibrium position.

[0017] 根据以上所述,便可以实现本发明。 [0017] According to the above, the present invention will be realized. 对本领域的技术人员在不背离本发明的精神和保护范围的情况下做出的其它的变化和修改,仍包括在本发明保护范围之内。 Other modifications and variations to those skilled in the art made without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention, still included within the scope of the present invention.

Claims (1)

1. 一种单轴控制式五自由度微型磁轴承,转子(5)同轴固接转轴(6),转子(5)上空套永磁体(1),其特征是:转轴(6)上空套有左右布置的2个相同的法兰盘(3),2个法兰盘(3)之间设有1个转子(5)、2个环形的定子磁轭(2)、轴向充磁的1个环形永磁体(1)和2 个轴向控制线圈(4);法兰盘(3)的内侧面与转子(5)的两个端面之间具有轴向气隙(10); 定子磁轭(2)固定设置于永磁体(1)的轴向两侧;2个法兰盘(3)、2个定子磁轭(2)以及永磁体(1)的外径均相等;2个轴向控制线圈(4)设置于2个定子磁轭(2)与2个法兰盘(3) 构成的空腔内且相对于转子(5)左右对称;转轴(6)的轴向一侧设有传感器(7);永磁体(1) 产生静态偏磁磁通(8),静态偏磁磁通(8)是从永磁体(1)的N极流出、依次经一侧的定子磁轭(2)、法兰盘(3)、轴向气隙(10)后进入转子(5),再进入另一 A single-axis control type magnetic bearing miniature five degrees of freedom, the rotor (5) coaxially fixed to the shaft (6), the rotor (5), the idler permanent magnet (1), characterized in that: the shaft (6), the idler there is provided a rotor (5), two annular stator yoke (2) disposed between right and left two identical flanges (3), two flanges (3), axial magnetizing an annular permanent magnet (1) and two axial control coil (4); an axial air gap (10) between two end flanges (3) of the inner side surface of the rotor (5); a stator flux both axial sides of the yoke (2) fixed to the permanent magnet (1); the two flanges (3), the outer diameter of the stator yoke 2 (2) and a permanent magnet (1) are equal; 2 axes the control winding (4) is provided on two stator yoke (2) and two flanges (3) and cavity configuration with respect to the rotors (5) of symmetry; the rotation shaft (6) axially disposed side a sensor (7); a permanent magnet (1) generating a static magnetic bias flux (8), a static magnetic bias flux (8) is flowing from the N pole permanent magnet (1) sequentially through the stator side yoke ( 2), the flange (3), an axial air gap (10) into the rotor (5), and then into another 的轴向气隙(10)、法兰盘(3)、定子磁轭(2)、回到永磁体(1)的S极的闭环磁回路;轴向控制线圈(4)通电流产生轴向控制磁通(9),轴向控制磁通(9)是依次经定子磁轭(2)、法兰盘(3)、轴向气隙(10)、转子(5)、回到定子磁轭(2)的闭环磁回路。 An axial air gap (10), the flange (3), a stator yoke (2), return to the permanent magnet (1) of the S-pole closed magnetic circuit; axial control coils (4) generate an axial electric current through control flux (9), the axial control flux (9) sequentially by a stator yoke (2), the flange (3), an axial air gap (10), a rotor (5), a stator back yoke (2) a closed magnetic circuit.
CN 201110232891 2011-08-15 2011-08-15 Single shaft controlled type five-degrees-of-freedom (DOF) miniature magnetic bearing CN102297202B (en)

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