CN102294983A - Anti-rear-end vehicle-mounted device - Google Patents

Anti-rear-end vehicle-mounted device Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102294983A
CN102294983A CN 201110180253 CN201110180253A CN102294983A CN 102294983 A CN102294983 A CN 102294983A CN 201110180253 CN201110180253 CN 201110180253 CN 201110180253 A CN201110180253 A CN 201110180253A CN 102294983 A CN102294983 A CN 102294983A
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China
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module
vehicle
car
acceleration
speed
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CN 201110180253
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Chinese (zh)
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张翔
何兆祥
张请
程建川
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东南大学
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Abstract

The invention discloses an anti-rear-end vehicle-mounted device, comprising a single chip microcomputer, an ultrasonic distance measuring module, an acceleration detecting module, a speed measuring module and an alarm module, wherein the ultrasonic distance measuring module, the acceleration detecting module, the speed measuring module and the alarm module are respectively connected with the single chip microcomputer; the distance measuring module is used for measuring the distance between an own vehicle and a front vehicle; the acceleration detecting module is used for detecting the acceleration of the own vehicle; and the speed measuring module is used for detecting the speed of the own vehicle. In the anti-rear-end vehicle-mounted device, the parameters are easy to obtain, the accuracy is high, the subjective feeling of a driver is considered, the rear-end accidents can be effectively prevented, and the cost performance is high.

Description

The anti-car-mounted device that knocks into the back

Technical field

The invention belongs to the automobile active safety technical field, relate in particular to a kind of anti-car-mounted device that knocks into the back.

Background technology

Over-the-road transportation has occupied status the most significantly with advantages such as its wide accommodation, convenient and swift, sensible property are good at traffic and transport field.Arteries of communication has also brought serious safety problem when promoting socio-economic development.In numerous road traffic accidents, the accident proportion that is caused by rear-end collision is the highest, has accounted for 30%~40%, and property damage that rear-end collision caused and personal casualty have accounted for 60% of total damage especially.For reducing the rear-end collision rate, improve safety traffic, countries in the world recognize that generally the performance-oriented anti-device that knocks into the back of research and development is very urgent.At present, American and Britain, moral, day etc. country many car companys (as Germany benz, Mitsubishi, Mazda, daily output etc.) all carried out the research of express highway vehicle-mounted millimeter wave radar preventing collision forewarn system.In China, colleges and universities and The Research of Relevant Technology such as vehicle active collision-preventing warning, DAS (Driver Assistant System) that part Study is being carried out such as Tsing-Hua University, Zhejiang University, Shanghai Communications University, Jilin University.For example, Shanghai Communications University has researched and developed active safety analog system under " people-Che-Lu " combined environment.Though carried out nearly 40 years for this Study on Technology both at home and abroad, achievement in research is not popularized.Problems such as especially in China, this respect technology is also backward relatively, and false alarm rate height, cost performance are low need further to solve.In addition, at present about the model of vehicular safety distance mainly contain safety distance model based on the kinematics analysis of car brakeing process, based on the safety distance model of headway etc., these models be applied to vehicle anti-ly have when knocking into the back that accuracy is low, parameter is difficult for obtaining, to the inconsiderate congruent problem of chaufeur subjective feeling.

Summary of the invention

Goal of the invention:, the purpose of this invention is to provide the anti-car-mounted device that knocks into the back that a kind of effective prevention rear-end collision takes place at the problem and shortage that above-mentioned prior art exists.

Technical scheme: for achieving the above object, the technical solution used in the present invention is a kind of anti-car-mounted device that knocks into the back, comprise micro controller system, range finder module, acceleration detection module, speed measuring module and alarm module, described ultrasonic distance measuring module, acceleration detection module, speed measuring module and alarm module are connected described micro controller system respectively, wherein range finder module is used to measure the distance from car and front truck, the acceleration detection module is used to detect the acceleration/accel from car, and speed measuring module is used to detect the speed from car.

Also can comprise the display module that connects described micro controller system.

Described micro controller system can be the Freescale micro controller system.Described range finder module is a ultrasonic distance measuring module.Described acceleration detection module can be acceleration pick-up MMA7260.

Beneficial effect: the present invention prevents knocking into the back, and the car-mounted device parameter obtains easily, the accuracy rate height, has considered the subjective feeling of chaufeur, can effectively prevent rear-end collision to take place, and the cost performance height.

Description of drawings

Fig. 1 is a driving behavior process scheme drawing;

Fig. 2 is a rear-end collision genetic analysis scheme drawing;

Fig. 3 is a vehicle rear-end collision model scheme drawing;

Fig. 4 is the pin circuitry figure of micro controller system;

Fig. 5 always schemes for circuit of the present invention;

Fig. 6 is a structured flowchart of the present invention.

The specific embodiment

Below in conjunction with the drawings and specific embodiments, further illustrate the present invention, should understand these embodiment only is used to the present invention is described and is not used in and limit the scope of the invention, after having read the present invention, those skilled in the art all fall within the application's claims institute restricted portion to the modification of the various equivalent form of values of the present invention.

3.1 principle of design

3.1.1 mentality of designing

The present invention at first analyzes the driving behavior process, and analyzes the origin cause of formation of vehicle rear-end collision accident on this basis.Start with the Design of device requirement of knocking into the back of clear and definite intelligent chemoprevention again from the origin cause of formation.According to this requirement, the expertise and the electronic information technology of utilization traffic engineering are set up the anti-math modeling that knocks into the back of vehicle, the anti-car-mounted device that knocks into the back of exploitation.

3.1.2 rear-end collision analysis and device designing requirement

Corresponding to " stimulate--body--reaction " classical mode of people's behavior, driving behavior can be divided into three phases, promptly perception stage, judge decision phase and execute phase, as shown in Figure 1.Perception stage mainly obtains vehicle operating information by the vision and the sense of hearing, comprises speed, acceleration/accel, vehicle headway etc.Judge the decision phase be chaufeur on the basis of perception information, make judgement in conjunction with driving experience, define the measure that is beneficial to safety traffic.Execute phase is meant chaufeur according to the practical action of judging that decision-making is made, as quickening, brake, turn to etc.Driving behavior is exactly perception, judgement decision-making and the chain reaction of carrying out three phases.As Fig. 2, based on three stages of driving behavior, we carry out following analysis to the vehicle rear-end collision accident: for perception stage, chaufeur physiological characteristic under the scorch condition can change, and narrows down as kinetic visual acuity decline, the visual field etc.Owing to these reasons, chaufeur is grasped not enough to information such as car speed and distances, thereby causes rear-end collision; For judging the decision phase, chaufeur is made comparisons the safe following distance of current two spacings and experience, thereby is made a policy according to information such as the distance that is obtained, speed.But road such as express highway, city expressway has the monotonicity of long-time driving, and chaufeur is taken sb's mind off sth, and is insensitive to the judgement of dangerous situation, will send wrong decision signal if chaufeur is lacked experience, thereby causes rear-end collision; For the execute phase, if driver's operation error or in case of emergency operate untimelyly just can not produce a desired effect, thus the initiation rear-end collision.

Gather above 3 points, each stage produces wrong and rear-end collision is a kind of relation of logical "or".Anti-speech, only do not occur under the situation of mistake or error at perception, judgement decision-making and execution three phases, vehicle just can be guaranteed safety traffic.Any one stage goes wrong and all can cause the generation of rear-end collision.

In the reason of the rear-end collision that above three phases causes, preceding two reasons account for the theme status, because the rear-end collision proportion that the three phases misoperation causes is very little.Comprehensive above analysis to the vehicle rear-end collision accident causation as can be known, the design specific requirement of the anti-car-mounted device that knocks into the back of High Performance has following two main aspects: 1. the good equipment such as sensor of in-use performance obtain extraneous road traffic condition, strengthen the scope and the accuracy of people's perception; 2. set up science and the practical anti-math modeling that knocks into the back of vehicle, utilization central process unit analysis driving situation is in time sent corresponding alarm message, judges the error that causes thereby reduce by people's subjective experience.

3.2 the anti-math modeling that knocks into the back of vehicle

This project is on the basis of using for reference a large amount of anti-theoretical research result that knock into the back, and the utilization traffic engineering is gained knowledge, and has set up the anti-math modeling that knocks into the back of a cover vehicle.Device is exactly to use safety that this model judges vehicle running state whether.

3.2.1 model hypothesis: 1. vehicle travels on straight way; 2. the surface friction coefficient and the gradient are not undergone mutation; 3. the braking quality of vehicle is more or less the same.

3.2.2 model is set up:

On the basis of model hypothesis, utilization according to the functional characteristics of device, is drawn model scheme drawing as shown in Figure 3 with knowledge such as the theories of speeding.

According to Fig. 3,, in whole driving process, need to satisfy as lower inequality for preventing the generation of rear-end collision:

l Reaction+ l The back system+ l Safety-l Preceding system≤ S (1)

Wherein, l ReactionBe the distance that the back car travels in the reaction time, l The back systemBe the stopping distance of back car, l SafetyBe the safety distance of reserving, l Preceding systemBe the stopping distance of front truck, S is the spacing of the rear car front and the front truck tailstock.l Reaction+ l The back system+ l Safety-l Preceding systemBe and avoid the minimum spacing S that bumps against Min

The novel intelligent chemoprevention of this project research and development car-mounted device that knocks into the back acts on back car (from car), can The real time measure front truck speed v Before, back vehicle speed v After, front truck acceleration/accel a Before, back car acceleration/accel a After, the interval S of rear car front and the front truck tailstock and the tractive force F of back car TractionSimultaneously, the store memory of device has all multidata, as back car when brake the braking force F that can produce Braking, the back car fully loaded quality m etc.This device is judged in real time according to these data: if (1) formula of a certain moment is set up, illustrate that vehicle is in the safety traffic state; Otherwise vehicle is in non-safety traffic state, if the untimely brake measure of taking, the just very possible rear-end collision that takes place.In decision process, system's situation of can travelling according to real-time front and back car divides following two kinds of situations to carry out model calculation.

3.2.2.1 front truck Reduced Speed Now

When a certain chronometry front truck was Reduced Speed Now, the variable in (1) formula was determined as follows:

1. l Reaction--l Reaction=v AfterT ReactionT wherein ReactionBe the data that have in the memory device.It is following two parts sum: the one, and this device is judged vehicle safe condition of living in and provides the required time of result of determination that this time is very short, can ignore; The 2nd, device judges that vehicle is in non-safety traffic state and gives a warning the preoperative reaction time (can according to demand set, generally be not less than 0.5s, this device get 1.0s) of back to the chaufeur reservation.

2. l The back system--l The back system=v After 2/ 2a The back systemWherein, a The back systemThe acceleration/accel that expression back car is had when taking brake measure.Its solution procedure is as follows: before taking the brake measure, have following equation to set up:

F Traction-(the mg=ma of μ ± i) After(2)

When taking to brake measure, there is following equation to set up: F Braking+ (the mg=ma of μ ± i) The back system(3)

Wherein, μ, i represent the friction coefficient and the gradient respectively.(2) (3) two equation additions, obtain following equation: F Traction+ F Braking=ma After+ ma The back system, can get a thus The back system=(F Traction+ F Braking)/m-a AfterWherein, F BrakingWith m be data in the memory device, definite by the performance figure of back car itself.

3. l Safety--l Safety=4m.4. the spacing of S--The real time measure.

5. l Preceding system--l Preceding system=v Before 2/ 2a Before

3.2.2.2 front truck at the uniform velocity or give it the gun

When a certain chronometry front truck at the uniform velocity or when giving it the gun, because in the highway section that rear-end collision takes place traffic density more greatly, easily, vehicle can not quicken or be in for a long time acceleration mode with bigger acceleration/accel.Therefore, for guaranteeing safety, reduce calculated amount simultaneously, shorten the operation time of system, this project is simplified this model, with front truck at the uniform velocity, the two class states that quicken unite two into one, unifiedly calculate by the state that at the uniform velocity travels.Work as v After≤ v BeforeThe time, vehicle is in the safety traffic state; Otherwise, if the back car decelerates to when equating with preceding vehicle speed, still keep a safe distance between back car and the front truck, then be the safety traffic state, still can differentiate in this case with (1) formula, be at this moment the front and back car can not stop l The back systemExpression back car is from beginning to brake the distance that is crossed identical this process of speed with front truck to decelerating to, l Preceding systemBe illustrated in reaction time and the back car distance that front truck is crossed in deceleration time.

Wherein, l The back system=(v After 2-v Before 2)/2a The back system, l Preceding system=[(v After-v Before)/a The back system+ t Reaction] v BeforeThe same 3.2.2.1 of remaining variables.

3.3 system design and exploitation

3.3.1 function is discussed

Whether the present invention accurately judges motoring condition safety, and sends corresponding sound and light alarm signal by the anti-math modeling that knocks into the back of vehicle, thereby remind chaufeur to take appropriate measures or autobrake.This is a kind of active safety system, it can reduce to greatest extent chaufeur in perception stage, judge the error of decision phase, execute phase, thereby effectively avoid the generation of rear-end collision collision case.

3.3.2 radical function

1) vehicle traveling information obtains---avoid the perception stage error

1. from car (vehicle of the present invention is installed) information detection: be obtained from vehicle speed v in real time by speed sensor After, acceleration pick-up is obtained from car acceleration/accel a in real time After

2. range sensing: utilize ultrasonic transduter be obtained from real time between the car headstock and the front truck tailstock apart from S.

3. preceding vehicle speed and acceleration/accel obtain: by real-time acquisition from vehicle speed v After, acceleration/accel a After, and spacing S, obtain the front truck speed v by the program in the micro controller system Before, acceleration/accel a BeforePrinciple: ultrasonic transduter The real time measure two following distances, establishing the spacing that continuous four moment record is S i, S I+1, S I+2, S I+3, adjacent moment be spaced apart Δ t (the millisecond order of magnitude, concrete numerical value is by the performance decision of sensor own).Then i+1 to i+2 between constantly period and i+2 to i+3 in the period between constantly the speed of front truck be respectively v I+1 Before=(S I+1-S i)/Δ t+v I+1 AfterAnd v I+2 Before=(S I+2-S I+1)/Δ t+v I+2 AfterThereby i+2 to i+3 front truck acceleration/accel a in the period between constantly I+2 Before=(v I+2 Before-v I+1 Before)/Δ t.Because Δ t is minimum, therefore can be instantaneous regard one as from the period of i to i+3 between the moment.

4. vehicle traveling information shows: will obtain from vehicle speed v After, acceleration/accel a After, the front truck speed v Before, acceleration/accel a BeforeBe shown to real-time dynamicly on the liquid crystal display (being the display module in the claim) with spacing S, make chaufeur obtain the driving information of vehicle in real time, thereby effectively avoid obtaining the rear-end collision of slipping up and causing by perception stage information.

2) operation indicating---avoid judging the decision phase error

1. judge the residing safe condition of vehicle: device carries out Comprehensive Treatment for Information by micro controller system, on the basis of the data of the data of obtaining in real time and system stores, uses the math modeling in 2, calculates in real time and avoids bumping against required minimum spacing S MinIf real-time spacing S is more than or equal to S Min, vehicle is in the safety traffic state; Otherwise vehicle is in non-safety traffic state.

2. safe condition prompting: when vehicle is in the safety traffic state, show " vehicle is in a safe condition " printed words on the screen of device; Otherwise, show " vehicle is in the hole " printed words on the screen of device.

3. sound and light alarm: when in a single day vehicle enters non-safety traffic state, device jingle bell, and luminous warning simultaneously, the prompting chaufeur is taked brake measure immediately, thereby effectively avoids judging the rear-end collision that the decision-making error causes by chaufeur.

Especially, above function all is real-time, promptly obtains driving information, real-time prompting safe condition in real time.Whether according to real-time situation, installing synchronous judgement needs to take brake measure.After taking brake measure, device is given the driving information that makes new advances again in real time, judge safe condition, and whether decision need take brake measure once more.This shows that the realization of this function is one and not only continuously but also feed back the on-cycle process has guaranteed the relevance of the ageing and operating process of the information that obtains like this, reaches the effectively anti-purpose that knocks into the back.

3.3.3 additional function

1) model selection function: chaufeur can be selected different patterns according to different road conditions

1. highway mode: when vehicle travelled on express highway, the first class highway or city expressway, speed was higher and change lessly, and chaufeur is lost vigilance easily, and to slow, forewarn system should be an elder generation to guarantee driving safety to the reacting phase of emergency case.So under this pattern, work as S Min≤ S≤1.5S MinThe time, device takes to shift to an earlier date the measure of luminous warning, " take care, may knock into the back " printed words occur on the read-out simultaneously, and chaufeur is careful goes slowly to remind, thereby reduces owing to the untimely misoperation that causes of chaufeur reaction.

2. city pattern: when vehicle during in the urban highway except that the through street, low-grade highway or other travels down, speed is lower and change comparatively frequently, and driver's operation is flexible, and forewarn system should avoid influencing the false-alarm of chaufeur normal driving as far as possible.So under this pattern, device no longer shifts to an earlier date luminous warning, only at S<S MinSituation under instant sound and light alarm, take brake measure immediately to remind chaufeur.

2) caution back car function: as S<S Min, promptly being about to glancing impact from car, the forewarn system of the tailstock is sound and light alarm simultaneously, follows the chaufeur Reduced Speed Now of vehicle to remind the rear, and vehicle and rear-end impact from car are followed in prevention.

3.4 apparatus module

This device mainly contains with lower module:

1) micro controller system

This device adopts the Freescale series monolithic to each module, comprises that the input/output signal of modules such as speed detection, acceleration detection, range finding is taked centralized control and processing.Structured flowchart of the present invention, single chip circuit figure, way circuit figure are respectively as Fig. 6, Fig. 4 and shown in Figure 5.

2) speed measuring module:

The homemade speed sensor of this device use is realized the detection from vehicle speed, and circuit connects sees Fig. 5 top.

Principle: placed a code-disc on the rear axle of vehicle, a pair of electro-optical tubes is in both sides.Code-disc is a disk that has 32 even spaces.Just accept a pulse when running into the pipe of accepting in the space, come the count measurement pulse number, as count down to 32 signals and illustrate that then wheel makes a circle by electro-optical tubes.So, speed=(per second count pulse number/32) * trailing wheel girth.

3) acceleration detection module:

This device use acceleration pick-up MMA7260 detects the acceleration/accel from car, and circuit connects sees Fig. 5 lower left.

Principle: the MMA7260 series sensor is numeral output 3 axle acceleration sensors, has numeral output (I2C and SPI) function and XYZ (3 sensitivitys).Sensitivity is 64LSB/g when 2g; Be 64LSB/g during 8g under 10 bit patterns, optionally acceleration due to gravity has 2g, 4g or 8g.Its electric current when standby mode only needs 2.5uA, and electric current is 400uA in the time of normal the operation, and has the characteristics of low-power consumption and low voltage (2.4V-3.6V).MMA7455L has powerful design, can anti-intensity reach 10, the impact of 000g, and the programmable threshold value is interrupted output, can be used for moving the horizontal detection of identification and clicks or double-click identification.

4) range finder module:

This device utilization HC-SR04 supersonic sounding comprises ultrasonic transmitter, and receptor and control circuit, circuit connect sees Fig. 5 bottom.

Principle: adopt IO mouth TRIG to trigger range finding, the high level signal of 10us at least; Module sends the square wave of 8 40khz automatically, and whether detection has signal to return automatically; Having signal to return, by high level of IO mouth ECHO output, is exactly that super sonic is from being transmitted into the time of returning in the time of high level car void.So, measuring distance=(the high level time * velocity of sound (340M/S)/2).

5) alarm module and display module:

In the time that range finder module detects two spacings less than safety distance, buzzer phone can send the bell sound and give alarm driver, and the luminous warning of diode meeting also has prompting on the display screen simultaneously, and the display screen interface circuit diagram is seen Fig. 5 rightmost side.

Principle: 1602 Liquid Crystal Module in-to-in character generation memory devices (CGROM) have been stored 160 different dot character figures, these characters have: the capital and small letter of Arabic number, English alphabet, symbol commonly used and Japanese ideogram etc., each character all has a fixing code, code such as the English alphabet of capitalizing " A " is 01000001B (41H), module is come out the dot character graphic display among the 41H of address during demonstration, and we just can see letter " A ".Utilize these all literal that just can on read-out, export our required demonstration and relevant option.

6) main program code module:

This device is by C language compilation program code, and program is moved by the central process unit in the micro controller system.

1. dac code

2. range sensing and digital to analogy conversion display module code

3. liquid crystal display display text block code

7) contact between each module

Total system is carried out overall control by the Freescale micro controller system.Speed measuring module, acceleration detection module, range finder module import the result into micro controller system by the measurement to corresponding parameter, by micro controller system the signal that these import into is handled, judge the residing safe condition of dolly according to the result who draws then, in time send corresponding sound and light alarm, thereby reach the purpose of whole control.

3.5 innovation characteristic

1) the present invention started with from three root phases of driving behavior, the origin cause of formation of analysis rear-end collision, and cause the factor that knocks into the back at each stage, the design of the car-mounted device of preventing knocking into the back.So both avoid the anti-in the past device design-calculated blindness that knocks into the back, reached the comprehensive anti-target that knocks into the back again.

2) realized that data in real time obtains, safe condition is judged in real time, has reached the omnidistance anti-target that knocks into the back.Especially,, can when super sonic obtains distance, obtain the speed and the acceleration/accel of front truck, achieve many things at one stroke by means of the program in the micro controller system.

3) device can be chosen different mode according to different road conditions, satisfies the safe driving demand under the different road conditions conditions better.

4) relevant knowledge of utilization traffic traffic engineering has been set up the vehicle of a cover science and has been prevented knocking into the back math modeling.Especially, compare with the anti-model that knocks into the back of tradition, this model can be offset coefficientoffriction and gradient i by computing, has so just overcome and can't measure a condition of road surface or the low difficult problem of survey precision in real time, has improved the accuracy that safe condition is judged.

5) Zhuan Zhi element is common product on the market, does not use special high performance material or new and high technology, and is cheap.

3.6 device is used

1) all functions of this device all can directly apply in the real vehicle.Wherein, the differentiation of vehicle safety state need obtaining from the car tractive force in real time.In real vehicle, tractive force is according to formula F Lead=P/v tries to achieve, and wherein v is obtained by this device, and P is obtained by gauge panel, and calculating process is by the chip microcontroller of this device.In application process, only need will device the corresponding position of each several part by interface and vehicle connect and get final product.When being used for different vehicles, can be equipped with the part of different performance according to the actual requirements for this device, for example, can use high sensor instead according to needs.

2) this intelligent chemoprevention car-mounted device that knocks into the back is applicable to various types of vehicles on the straight way, can be used as the important component part of intelligent transport system.

3) this device can with GPS, stoplight stop lamp, steering indicating light, the chain use of other car-mounted devices such as safety strap.

Claims (5)

1. prevent knocking into the back car-mounted device for one kind, comprise micro controller system, range finder module, acceleration detection module, speed measuring module and alarm module, described ultrasonic distance measuring module, acceleration detection module, speed measuring module and alarm module are connected described micro controller system respectively, wherein range finder module is used to measure the distance from car and front truck, the acceleration detection module is used to detect the acceleration/accel from car, and speed measuring module is used to detect the speed from car.
2. according to the described anti-car-mounted device that knocks into the back of claim 1, it is characterized in that: also comprise the display module that connects described micro controller system.
3. according to the described anti-car-mounted device that knocks into the back of claim 1, it is characterized in that: described micro controller system is the Freescale micro controller system.
4. according to the described anti-car-mounted device that knocks into the back of claim 1, it is characterized in that: described range finder module is a ultrasonic distance measuring module.
5. according to the described anti-car-mounted device that knocks into the back of claim 1, it is characterized in that: described acceleration detection module is acceleration pick-up MMA7260.
CN 201110180253 2011-06-30 2011-06-30 Anti-rear-end vehicle-mounted device CN102294983A (en)

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CN104656087A (en) * 2015-02-12 2015-05-27 无锡市崇安区科技创业服务中心 Ultrasonic automobile collision avoidance system adopting pulse counting
CN105551306A (en) * 2016-02-23 2016-05-04 江苏大学 Vehicle fleet collision avoidance system and method based on fish streaming
CN105564430A (en) * 2014-10-30 2016-05-11 现代自动车株式会社 System and method for controllng acceleration torque of vehicle
CN107472256A (en) * 2017-07-26 2017-12-15 成都西华升腾科技有限公司 Use driver's interactive system of inertia measurement
CN107499314A (en) * 2017-07-26 2017-12-22 成都西华升腾科技有限公司 Rear-end collision preventing system based on IMU
CN111047878A (en) * 2018-10-11 2020-04-21 浙江宇视科技有限公司 Traffic violation determination method and device and traffic access

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