CN102273378B - Bottle cultivation method for Hypsizigus marmoreus - Google Patents

Bottle cultivation method for Hypsizigus marmoreus Download PDF

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CN102273378B
CN102273378B CN 201110172137 CN201110172137A CN102273378B CN 102273378 B CN102273378 B CN 102273378B CN 201110172137 CN201110172137 CN 201110172137 CN 201110172137 A CN201110172137 A CN 201110172137A CN 102273378 B CN102273378 B CN 102273378B
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bottle
mushroom
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CN102273378A (en
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郑雪平
管道平
郑华荣
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Abstract

The invention discloses a bottle cultivation method for Hypsizigus marmoreus. The bottle cultivation method for the Hypsizigus marmoreus comprises the following steps of: inoculating the Hypsizigus marmoreus on a bottled culture medium, wherein the inoculation ratio is that each bottle of fungal strains are inoculated on 32 to 40 bottles of culture bottles; performing mycelium culture under the conditions of temperature of between 18 and 25 DEG C, humidity of 60 to 80 percent and CO2 concentration of 1,500 to 5,500 ppm; after the Hypsizigus marmoreus are matured, performing mycelium stimulation and supplementing a small amount of water; performing inducement to primordium; after mushroom buds are generated, performing inhibition period culture for 3 to 5 days; when the mushroom buds grow out of the bottleneck, sleeving a plastic sleeve; performing elongating stage culture; and harvesting after the harvesting standard is reached. In the bottle cultivation method, the period is 105 to 125 days and average yield of a single bottle is 300 to 450g. The bottle cultivation method is a factory-like bottle cultivation method using sawdust, cotton seed hulls and corn cobs as main raw materials. By the bottle cultivation method, the mechanization level and the automation degree of the Hypsizigus marmoreus can be increased greatly; production cost is effectively reduced; stable quality is guaranteed; and a popularization prospect is achieved.

Description

The bottle cultivating method of a kind of seafood mushroom
Technical field
The present invention relates to mushroom and cultivate the field, particularly the bottle cultivating method of a kind of seafood mushroom.
Background technology
The seafood mushroom is a kind of in the true Ji mushroom (Hypsizygus marmoreus), has another name called beautiful gill fungus, the beautiful gill fungus of spot, its delicious flavour, and mouthfeel is fresh and tender, and is nutritious, and has certain medical value.The seafood mushroom not only is rich in amino acid and the vitamin of protein, A wide selection of colours and designs, and contains antineoplastic component, has enhancing immunity, and pre-anti-aging, life-extending effect is high protein, low fat, health food low in calories, is the treasure in the edible mushroom.
Present domestic cultivation seafood mushroom mainly adopts the batch production bag to plant pattern and seasonal greenhouse by solar heat bag is planted, batch production bag cultivation process is roughly: adopt doubling bore 17 * 33 * 0.005 (centimetre) high-pressure polypropylene or low-pressure polyethylene plastic sack charging system bag, require every packed 0.9 kilogram of wet feed that enters, expect high 16 centimetres, composts or fertilisers of cultivating will tighten lower pine, preset the perforation rod of 2.5 centimetres of diameters in the middle of the material, take out during inoculation, Plastibell is close to charge level, so that material is close to beyond the Great Wall cotton plug or vinyl cover with a bag wall.Then after sterilizing, cool off, inoculating, 22~25 ℃ of temperature, relative air humidity 60%~70% is cultivated and is carried out cultural hypha and after-ripening management in the room.Urge during the flower bud, separate opened mouth, with the thick lawn of scratching charge level with the zigzag small iron plate, then be placed on the cultivating stand, room temperature is at 13~16 ℃, luminous intensity 500~1000 luxs, keep air fresh, moistening, gas concentration lwevel is below 0.5%, relative air humidity 90%~95%.When syringe needle shape mushroom flower bud differentiation fruiting lid, room temperature remains on 12~14 ℃, and relative air humidity transfers to 85%~90%, illumination 250~500lux.Seasonal greenhouse by solar heat bag cultivation process is roughly: before the bacterium bag advances canopy, build 22 centimetres wide, 10 centimetres high low banks of earth between fields every 50 centimetres on the ground first in canopy, the bacterium bag stacks 5~8 floor heights and is advisable.Urge the later stage management of flower bud and batch production bag to plant similar.
Above-mentioned bag cultivation production technology Mechanization Level and automaticity are lower, and production is lacked competitiveness, and therefore demand seeking a kind of method that can improve seafood mushroom cultivation automatization level urgently.
Summary of the invention
The technical problem to be solved in the present invention is bag cultivating method batch production and the lower shortcoming of automatization level for present domestic cultivation seafood mushroom, and the bottle cultivating method of a kind of seafood mushroom is provided.
The bottle cultivating method of seafood mushroom of the present invention, comprise inoculation, bacteria, mycelium stimulation, urge flower bud, inhibition and cultivate elongating stage, the step of gathering, when seafood mushroom mushroom flower bud grows bottleneck 2-3cm, put plastic sleeve in wherein said elongating stage, the high 13-15cm of sleeve becomes lama's type.
Described inoculation is that inoculative proportion is that every bottle of original seed connects 32~40 bottles of cultivated speciess in bottled medium inoculation seafood mushroom, and as preferably, the culture bottle specification is 1100~1400cc, and bottleneck diameter is 75~85mm.
Described bacteria condition is at 18~25 ℃, humidity 60~80%, CO 2Cultivated under the concentration 1500-5500ppm 75~85 days, wherein bacteria is wood chip 15~35%, corncob 10~25%, wheat bran 15~25% with the medium solid constituent, corn flour 5~10%, cotton seed hulls 15~25%, moisture content in medium are 60~67% of solid constituent.
After described mycelium stimulation was seafood mushroom mycelia maturation, mycelium stimulation also kept the skin wet.
Described to urge flower bud be to be 12~15 ℃ in temperature, humidity 90~95%, CO 2Concentration 1000~1500ppm cultivates under intensity of illumination 50~100lux, and incubation time is 7 days;
Cultivate as growing to 0.5-0.8cm when mushroom flower bud stem described inhibition period, is 10~12 ℃ in temperature, humidity 90~95%, CO 2Concentration 1000~1500ppm, wind speed 30cm/s, intensity of illumination 200~300lux cultivated 2-3 days;
Cultivate as when the mushroom flower bud grows bottleneck 2-3cm described elongating stage, puts plastic sleeve, and the high 13-15cm of sleeve becomes lama's type, at 10~12 ℃, and humidity 90~95%, CO 2Concentration 1000~1500ppm, intensity of illumination 200~300lux, incubation time are 15-18 days.
Described gathering as growing to 15-16cm when seafood mushroom mushroom handle gathered when bacteria cover diameter is 1.5-1.6cm.
The cultivation of step 1 of the present invention is preferably carried out in the cultural hypha district.Because mycelia is affected by self-heating in the culture bottle, culturing room's Temperature Setting is 22~23 ℃, humidity 75~80%, between gas concentration lwevel 2500~3500ppm, common incubation time is 80~90 days, makes it reach physiological ripening and accumulates enough nutrition, can finish incubation.The culture bottle that when cultivating, will in time sort out the bottle of pollution microbes and not sprout, the cleaning of maintenance culturing room.
Bottle cultivating method of the present invention urges the flower bud stage urging the flower bud district to carry out, and concrete steps can be divided into the mycelium stimulation water filling and urge the flower bud process.So-called " mycelium stimulation " is exactly the process of removing old bacterial classification piece and mycoderma, and this is to impel mycelia that the important measures of former base occur, and by mycelium stimulation fruit body is neatly occured from media surface.Edible mushroom is covered with from being inoculated into, and different cultivars is variant, and a bacterium later stage needs 50~60 days.In sending out the bacterium process, because mycelial growth causes respiration heat to make the moisture evaporation, the upper strata mycelia is aging, even forms the mycoderma mycoderm, hinders relative air humidity and contacts with inner mycelia, and is not smooth to the fresh air contact, prolongs the fruiting time, even fruiting is also irregular.Behind the mycelium stimulation, newborn mycelia vitality is vigorous, contact fresh air, space relative moisture, thus it is strong to reach the neat flower bud of mushroom.
Urging flower bud is the key link of seafood mushroom cultivation, must regulate and control environmental parameter, so that mushroom flower bud quantity is even, stable.Bottle cultivating method seafood mushroom of the present invention urges flower bud phase specific environment parameter to be: Temperature Setting is 12~15 ℃, humidity 90~95%, CO 2Concentration 1000~1500ppm, intensity of illumination 50~100lux.Generally through about 10 days, begin to budding.
After the mushroom flower bud occured, ontogenetic power was variant, and branch has successively, and is not of uniform size, can affect regularity.For this reason, after the mushroom flower bud occurs the 3rd day, when naked eyes can be seen the long 0.5-0.8cm of the stem left and right sides, the bacterium bottle is moved on to the inhibition chamber, adopt the measures such as low temperature, weak wind, batch (-type) illumination inhibition to impel the mushroom flower bud neat, sturdy.Carry out in the inhibition zone inhibition period of bottle cultivating method seafood mushroom of the present invention, is 10~12 ℃ in temperature preferably, humidity 90~95%, CO 2Concentration 1000~1500ppm, wind speed 30cm/s, intensity of illumination 200~300lux carried out cultivating 2-3 days inhibition period.
The management of elongating stage mainly is to promote fruit body color and luster, stem elongation.The cap size to fit, the growth neat and consistent.When the mushroom flower bud grows the bottleneck 2cm left and right sides, put plastic sleeve (specification is high 13-15cm, becomes lama's type).Adopting elongating stage sleeve to form local environmental conditions promotes the elongation of seafood mushroom stem and cap to launch.Bottle cultivating method seafood mushroom of the present invention preferably carries out in the elongation zone elongating stage, when the mushroom flower bud grows bottleneck 2-3cm, and the cover upper bush, at 10~12 ℃, humidity 90~95%, CO 2Concentration 1000~1500ppm, intensity of illumination 200~300lux carry out elongating stage and cultivate.Adopt elongating stage sleeve to form the high CO of local environment 2Concentration to be promoting the elongation of seafood mushroom, and as preferably, the high 13-15cm of described sleeve becomes lama's type.
The present invention grows to 15cm, bacteria cover diameter at seafood mushroom mushroom handle and can gather about 1.5cm.Gather after the end, bottle moves into and digs the bottle district, by automatic scratching machine waste material is dug out, and the bacterium bottle is re-used in production.Waste material should in time transport the strange land and process, so as not to mouldy, turn sour, affect assanation.Fruit body after gathering is carried out classification by classification standard after finishing, and in time packing is preserved.
Compared with prior art, the present invention's difference is: the production and application culture bottle replaces cultivation bag, and optimization cultivation bottle specification is 1400cc; Produce to adopt four districts production technology processed, namely the cultural hypha district, urge flower bud district, inhibition zone and elongation zone; The culture medium prescription of seafood mushroom is wood chip 15~35%, corncob 10~25%, wheat bran 15~25%, corn flour 5~10%, cotton seed hulls 15~25%, moisture content in medium 63~67%, the pH value is 6.5~7.5, seafood mushroom bottle cultivating method breeding cycle of the present invention is 105~115 days, and average single bottle of output is 300~450g.
Major advantage of the present invention is as follows:
1) bottle of the present invention is planted production model replacement bag and is planted a production model, can increase substantially Mechanization Level and the automaticity of seafood mushroom;
2) the present invention adopts four districts system to produce bottle and plants technique, and the level of the productive forces has improved more than 50%, effectively reduces production costs;
3) the present invention has stablized unit yield, and has guaranteed uniform in quality and stable.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is seafood mushroom bottle of the present invention cultivating method four districts production technological process processed.
Embodiment
The invention discloses the industrial bottle cultivating method of a kind of seafood mushroom, those skilled in the art can use for reference this paper content, suitably improve technological parameter and realize.Special needs to be pointed out is, all similarly replace and change apparent to those skilled in the art, and they all are deemed to be included in the present invention.Method of the present invention and application are described by preferred embodiment, the related personnel obviously can change or suitably change and combination methods and applications as herein described within not breaking away from content of the present invention, spirit and scope, realizes and use the technology of the present invention.
In order to make those skilled in the art understand better technical scheme of the present invention, the present invention is described in further detail below in conjunction with specific embodiment.Following examples are all with reference to figure 1.
Embodiment 1: the medium preparation
Take by weighing by weight percentage solid constituent.Wherein wood chip 23%, corncob 24%, wheat bran 23%, corn flour 5%, cotton seed hulls 25%.Be made into the medium that water content is solid constituent weight 66%, regulating pH with quicklime is 7.5, continues to be stirred to bottling and finishes.The specification of culture bottle is 1400cc.
Embodiment 2: sterilization and cooling
Adopt high-pressure sterilizing pot, a bottle frame subject to sterilization neatly is placed on the vehicle of sterilization, pushes in the autoclave, closes to the doorstep, starts the operation button, and autoclave is set as vacuum exhaust 3 times, sterilizes 90 minutes for 121 ℃.
Cooling: after sterilization finishes, the back door of opening autoclave, vehicle of sterilization is pushed in the cooling chamber, and the cooling chamber Temperature Setting is at 20~22 ℃.
Embodiment 3: inoculation and cultivation
The bottle that is cooled to below 22 ℃ is inoculated by automatic vaccination machine, and inoculation device is placed in the transfer room of abundant cleaning, and every bottle of original seed connects 32~40 bottles of cultivated speciess, the inoculation after by tape transport to culturing room.
Culturing room's Temperature Setting is 22~25 ℃, humidity 60~80%, and between gas concentration lwevel 2500~3500ppm, incubation time is 80~95 days.
Embodiment 3: urge the flower bud stage
(1) mycelium stimulation and water filling
After seafood mushroom mycelia is through the After-mature cultivation maturation, can carry out mycelium stimulation, namely adopt cutter head that the steamed bun shape is scratched on the material surface, and replenish a little moisture, increase former basic quantity of formation.The bottle basket of having scratched bacterium is placed on the bedstead of giving birth to the chamber and induces the mushroom flower bud.
(2) urge flower bud
Cultivation bedstead in fertility chamber is generally 7 floor, and urging flower bud is the key link of seafood mushroom cultivation, must regulate and control environmental parameter, so that mushroom flower bud generation quantity is even, stable.The specific environment parameter is: Temperature Setting is 12~15 ℃, humidity 90~95%, CO 2Concentration 1000~1500ppm, intensity of illumination 50~100lux.Generally through about 10 days, begin to budding.
Embodiment 4: growing stage
(1) inhibition period
After the mushroom flower bud occured, ontogenetic power was variant, and branch has successively, and is not of uniform size, can affect regularity.For this reason, after the mushroom flower bud occurs the 3rd day, when naked eyes can be seen the long 0.5-0.8cm of the stem left and right sides, the bacterium bottle is moved on to the inhibition chamber, adopt the measures such as low temperature, weak wind, batch (-type) illumination inhibition to impel the mushroom flower bud neat, sturdy.The specific environment parameter is: 10 ℃ of temperature, humidity 90~95%, CO 2Concentration 1000~1500ppm, wind speed 30cm/s. intensity of illumination 200~300lux.
(2) elongating stage
The management of elongating stage mainly is to promote fruit body color and luster, stem elongation.The cap size to fit, the growth neat and consistent.When the mushroom flower bud grows the bottleneck 2cm left and right sides, put plastic sleeve, preferred specification is high 13cm, becomes lama's type.The specific environment parameter is: 10 ℃ of temperature, humidity 90~95%, CO 2Concentration 1000~1500ppm, intensity of illumination 200~300lux.When growing to 15cm, bacteria cover diameter, the mushroom handle about 1.5cm, can gather.
Described seafood mushroom bottle cultivating method breeding cycle is 105~115 days, and average single bottle of output is 300~450g.
The bag cultivating method of embodiment 5, seafood mushroom and bottle cultivating method effect are relatively
The effect of the bag cultivating method of seafood mushroom and bottle cultivating method of the present invention is more as shown in table 1 at present.
Table 1
Figure GDA00002083070900061
The above only is preferred embodiment of the present invention; should be pointed out that for those skilled in the art, under the prerequisite that does not break away from the principle of the invention; can also make some improvements and modifications, these improvements and modifications also should be considered as protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (8)

1. the industrial bottle cultivating method of a seafood mushroom, comprise inoculation, bacteria, mycelium stimulation, urge flower bud, inhibition period and cultivate elongating stage, the step of gathering, it is characterized in that, cultivate described elongating stage when seafood mushroom mushroom flower bud grows bottleneck 2-3cm, the cover upper bush, the high 13-15cm of described sleeve becomes lama's type, the culture bottle specification is 1100~1400cc, and bottleneck diameter is 75~85mm; Bacteria used medium solid constituent is wood chip 15~35%, corncob 10~25%, wheat bran 15~25%, corn flour 5~10%, cotton seed hulls 15~25%, and water content is 60~67% of solid constituent weight.
2. industrial bottle cultivating method according to claim 1 is characterized in that, described elongating stage, condition of culture was 10 ℃~12 ℃ of temperature, humidity 90~95%, CO 2Concentration 1000~1500ppm, intensity of illumination 200~300lux, incubation time are 15-18 days.
3. industrial bottle cultivating method according to claim 1 is characterized in that, described bacteria is at 18 ℃-25 ℃ of temperature, CO 2Concentration is 1500-5500ppm, and relative moisture 60-80% cultivated 75~85 days.
4. industrial bottle cultivating method according to claim 1 is characterized in that, described mycelium stimulation is that mycelium stimulation also keeps the skin wet after seafood mushroom mycelia maturation.
5. industrial bottle cultivating method according to claim 1 is characterized in that, described to urge flower bud be to be 12 ℃~15 ℃ in temperature, humidity 90~95%, CO 2Concentration 1000~1500ppm cultivates under intensity of illumination 50~100lux, and incubation time is 7 days.
6. industrial bottle cultivating method according to claim 1 is characterized in that, cultivate as growing to 0.5-0.8cm when mushroom flower bud stem described inhibition period, is 10 ℃~12 ℃ in temperature, humidity 90~95%, CO 2Concentration 1000~1500ppm, wind speed 30cm/s, intensity of illumination 200~300lux cultivated 2-3 days.
7. industrial bottle cultivating method according to claim 1 is characterized in that, described standard of gathering is the long 15-16cm of being of seafood mushroom mushroom handle, and bacteria cover diameter is 1.5-1.6cm.
8. industrial bottle cultivating method according to claim 1 is characterized in that, adopts four districts system to produce.
CN 201110172137 2011-06-24 2011-06-24 Bottle cultivation method for Hypsizigus marmoreus Expired - Fee Related CN102273378B (en)

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