CN102261033A  Inertial measurement unit (IMU) based motion compensation algorithm of vehicular pavement detection system  Google Patents
Inertial measurement unit (IMU) based motion compensation algorithm of vehicular pavement detection system Download PDFInfo
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 CN102261033A CN102261033A CN201110113016XA CN201110113016A CN102261033A CN 102261033 A CN102261033 A CN 102261033A CN 201110113016X A CN201110113016X A CN 201110113016XA CN 201110113016 A CN201110113016 A CN 201110113016A CN 102261033 A CN102261033 A CN 102261033A
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Abstract
Description
Technical field
The fortune that the present invention relates to a kind of vehiclemounted pavement detection system based on Inertial Measurement Unit is mended algorithm, can be used for the true fluctuating on auxiliary laser stadia surveying road surface, calculates the planeness on road surface.
Background technology
The pavement of road planeness is the principal element that influences the road traveling quality, is one of most important index of road surface functional performance, is one of leading indicator of check urban road and speedway construction quality.
The at present domestic method that is used to detect this index mainly contains: 3m ruler measuring method, continous way smoothness measuring equipment detection method, vehicular bumpintegrator detection method.This several method is widely used, but shortcoming is obvious.Wherein, 3m ruler certainty of measurement is low, detection efficiency is low, representativeness is poor and need bow when detecting bend over, workload is big; The instrument mechanical performance of continous way smoothness measuring equipment is bigger to the influence of the precision of data, test speed for actual road speed faster the large tracts of land of highgrade highway detect still restricted; The true section that the vehicular bumpintegrator time stability is poor, transformational is poor, can not provide the road surface in recent years, along with to the improving constantly and the continuous development of pavement management system (PMS) of highway quality of service requirement, surface evenness fast, accurately method of testing just becomes one of problem of paying close attention to the most in the highway construction.
Vehiclemounted laser profiler measuring method is one of stateoftheart in the world at present road surface measuring method, and this measuring method has fast, reliable, low, the easy enforcement of cost, automaticity advantages of higher.But the fluctuating of jolting of vehicle self has caused great kinematic error when measuring owing to the method, and it is relatively poor to cause single laser profiler to measure road surface fluctuating precision.Inertial measurement system is a kind of highprecision Motion Measuring Equipment, can measure body movement and jolt, thereby the measurement result of laser profiler is compensated.Measurement result was dispersed in time when but inertial measuring unit used separately, and measurement result has tangible step when being used in combination with GPS.
Summary of the invention
The problem that technology of the present invention solves is: overcome the deficiencies in the prior art, provide a kind of fortune of the vehiclemounted pavement detection system based on Inertial Measurement Unit to mend algorithm, this method has realized inertia measurement data and the effective method that merges of laser profiler measurement result, realize compensation that car body in the laser profiler measuring process is jolted, improved the certainty of measurement of vehiclemounted pavement detection system.
Technical solution of the present invention is: a kind of fortune of the vehiclemounted pavement detection system based on Inertial Measurement Unit is mended algorithm, and its characteristics are to comprise the following steps:
(1) the Strapdown Inertial Units measuring unit carries out initial alignment, determines the initial orientation angle of Strapdown Inertial Units measuring unit Initial pitching angle theta _{0}With initial roll angle γ _{0}
(2) the Strapdown Inertial Units measuring unit is gathered threeaxis gyroscope data and three axis accelerometer data in real time, carries out compensation data, obtains three axis angular rates and 3axis acceleration;
(3) Strapdown Inertial Units measuring unit startup strapdown resolves algorithm, and three axis angular rates that utilization obtains and 3axis acceleration carry out strapdown and resolve attitude, position and the speed of realtime update quickconnecting inertia measurement unit;
(4) strapdown resolves the result and GPS information is carried out the information fusion filtering operation, calculate attitude error, site error and velocity error, and attitude information, positional information and velocity information that strapdown resolves in the algorithm revised, zero inclined to one side value with inertia device feeds back in the compensation data algorithm simultaneously, helps to improve the precision of compensation data;
(5) when vehicle enters highway section to be measured, adopt double strapdown to resolve algorithm, just utilize this constantly attitude, position and the velocity calculated result in information fusion algorithm start new strapdown and resolve process and carry out pure inertia and resolve as initial value;
(6) strapdown in the test segment is resolved the road surface fluctuating information stack that the pure inertia elevation information that obtains and laser sensor record, stack result is carried out the highpass digital computing, promptly obtain road surface fluctuating information and pavement texture information.
(7) obtain the surface evenness result according to international planeness IRI canonical statistics.
Principle of the present invention is: the laser pavement profiler is in measuring process, comprise the measure error that bigger body movement brings in the measurement result, the true fluctuating and the texture that can't reflect the road surface need to use Inertial Measurement Unit that the measurement result of laser pavement profiler is compensated.And when using Inertial Measurement Unit that laser pavement profiler measurement result is compensated, if using Inertial Measurement Unit can introduce measurement result separately disperses, if with Inertial Measurement Unit and GPS is used in combination and can introduce the jump of measurement result.The longterm accuracy of considering Inertial Measurement Unit and GPS information fusion is higher, therefore the position that the result of Inertial Measurement Unit and GPS information fusion is resolved as pure inertia strapdown, attitude, the speed initial value, use pure inertia strapdown to resolve the measurement body movement in the measuring process, overcome the information fusion result jump has been arranged, the shortcoming that pure inertia measurement result disperses, simultaneously, using highpass digital filter that the elevation of Inertial Measurement Unit is resolved the result carries out filtering and handles, the low frequency aberration that body movement is caused carries out filtering, finally obtain high accuracy, level and smooth inertia measurement result, this result is compensated laser pavement profiler measurement result, finally obtain fluctuating of real road surface and texture information, thereby calculate the planeness information on road surface.
Basic principle is as follows:
Desirable elevation design formulas is as follows:
Wherein, h _{r}Be the elevation information that measures, f _{b}For elevation adds the responsive specific force of meter, Be attitude matrix, g _{n}Be desirable local gravitational acceleration;
Singly add in the meter scheme in tradition, elevation measurement design formulas is as follows:
h _{s}＝∫(f _{b}g _{n}+Δf)·dt
Wherein, h _{s}Be the actual measurement elevation, Δ f is zero an inclined to one side error of accelerometer;
Therefore, error in measurement is:
By following formula as can be known, vehicle attitude Change big more, the elevation error in measurement h that is produced _{Error}Big more, simultaneously, because zero existence of error partially of accelerometer, the elevation measuring value can be dispersed gradually along with the time.
In this patent scheme, adopted complete inertial navigation to resolve technology, this technology can measure complete movable information, has overcome aforementioned " puppet " elevation variation that the attitude variation brings in the meter scheme that singly adds; Adopted the pureinertial guidance of measurement period to resolve technology, this technology can overcome the filtering error that Kalman filtering causes and proofread and correct the error sudden change that brings, and makes the elevation measurement information of this patent scheme overcome the elevation step that conventional Kalman filtering process is brought; Adopted the highpass filtering technology, the error that this technology can the pure inertia of filtering be resolved in the elevation information is dispersed, and keeps actual measurements information wherein.
The present invention's advantage compared with prior art is: the present invention is used for the kinematic error compensation that road vehicle is measured with inertial navigation technology, make that the measurement information precision is higher, adopted the pureinertial guidance technology of local time's section, overcome the error sudden change that the error correction of common inertial navigation Kalman filtering brings, adopted the highpass filtering technology, filtering the vertical error of the pure inertia section of resolving disperse.Therefore, this patent is compared with traditional scheme, has the advantage of precision height, data smoothing.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the structured flowchart based on the vehiclemounted pavement detection system of Inertial Measurement Unit and laser displacement sensor;
Fig. 2 is the flow chart that resolves of information fusion algorithm of the present invention.
The specific embodiment
As shown in Figure 1, the present invention mainly is made up of Inertial Measurement Unit 1, GPS module 2, mileage gauge 3, laser displacement sensor 4, data acquisition board 5 and PC104 computer 6, Inertial Measurement Unit 1 is made up of three gyroscopes 11, three accelerometers 12 etc., is used for the angular velocity and the acceleration of measuring vehicle; GPS module 2 is made up of GPS receiver 21 and antenna 22, is used for the position and the speed of measuring vehicle; Laser displacement sensor 4 measuring vehicle are to the distance on road surface; The operating range of mileage gauge 3 measuring vehicle, and generation pulse signal trigger data acquisition plate 5 carries out data acquisition; Data acquisition board 5 is gathered the output signal of three gyroscopes 11, three accelerometers 12 and laser displacement sensor 41, sends to PC104 computer 6 by usb bus after the digitlization; PC104 computer 6 receives the raw information that data acquisition board 5 sends over, the error compensation, the inertial navigation that carry out three gyroscopes 11, three accelerometers 12 then successively resolve and inertia/GPS information fusion filtering, with the information fusion of inertia/GPS information fusion result and laser displacement sensor, calculate surface evenness information at last.
As shown in Figure 2, concrete grammar of the present invention is as follows:
(1) the Strapdown Inertial Units measuring unit carries out initial alignment, determines the initial orientation angle of Strapdown Inertial Units measuring unit Initial pitching angle theta _{0}With initial roll angle γ _{0}, design formulas is as follows:
Gather gyro and accelerometer data 510 minute, ask the average g of sampled value _{x}, g _{y}, g _{z}, a _{x}, a _{y}, a _{z}(wherein, g _{x}, g _{y}, g _{z}Be three gyrostatic responsive values, a _{x}, a _{y}, a _{z}Be the sensitivity value of three accelerometers) utilize g _{x}, g _{y}, g _{z}, a _{x}, a _{y}, a _{z}Ask the initial attitude angle θ _{0}, γ _{0}, design formulas is as follows:
T _{11}＝T _{22}·T _{33}T _{23}·T _{32}，T _{12}＝T _{23}·T _{31}T _{21}·T _{33}，T _{13}＝T _{11}·T _{32}T _{22}·T _{31} <3>
Wherein, Be system's attitude matrix, T _{Ij}For In the element of the capable j of i row, a ', w ', H _{Ga}, E is intermediate variable;
It is as follows to get attitude angle:
θ _{0}＝sin ^{1}(T _{23}) <5>
(2) gather gyroscope and accelerometer in the measuring process in real time, carry out strapdown and resolve renewal, design formulas is as follows:
Utilize the sampling of gyroscope and accelerometer to calculate angle increment Δ θ _{x}, Δ θ _{y}, Δ θ _{z}, utilize angle increment to upgrade hypercomplex number and attitude matrix:
Wherein, q (n) is hypercomplex number value of resolving of putting n computing time, and angle increment Δ θ formula is as follows:
Attitude matrix More new formula as follows:
Utilize acceleration renewal speed and position
In the above formula, λ is a longitude, and L is a latitude, V _{n}Be the speed under the navigation system, Be the transition matrix of navigation system with respect to earth system, Be the projection of rotationalangular velocity of the earth under navigation system, The vehicle that brings for movement velocity is with respect to the motion angular velocity of the earth, f _{b}For Inertial Measurement Unit measures the specific force that obtains, f _{n}Be the projection of specific force under navigation system, Be attitude matrix, R is an earth radius.
The strapdown attitude algorithm finishes.
(3) strapdown is resolved result and gps data and carry out information fusion by the information fusion wave filter, and utilize the inertia device zero inclined to one side estimated result that merges that the data backoff algorithm is carried out feedback compensation, design formulas is as follows:
State equation:
Wherein, X is a system state vector, and W is the system noise vector, and F is system's transfer matrix, and G is the noise transition matrix:
X＝[φ _{x}?φ _{y}?φ _{z}?δV _{n}(x)?δV _{n}(y)?δV _{n}(z)?δL?δλ?δh?ε _{x}?ε _{y}?ε _{z}?σ _{x}?σ _{y}?σ _{z}] ^{T}
<18>
The measurement equation of system:
Z＝HX+η <21>
Wherein: Z is a measurement vector, and H is an observing matrix, and η is a measurement noise:
Z＝[δV _{n}(x)?δV _{n}(y)δV _{n}(z)δL?δλ?δh] ^{T} <22>
The layout of information fusion filtering rudimentary algorithm, the flow chart of this algorithm be as shown in Figure 2:
State onestep prediction equation
The State Estimation accounting equation
Filtering increment equation
Onestep prediction mean square error equation
Estimate the mean square error equation
(4) in test segment, adopt double strapdown to resolve algorithm, just start new strapdown and resolve algorithm, only carry out more new Algorithm of strapdown, do not carry out information fusion filtering with GPS;
(5) second strapdown in the test segment resolved the road surface fluctuating information stack that the elevation information that obtains and laser sensor record, stack result is carried out the highpass digital computing, promptly obtain road surface fluctuating information and pavement texture information, design formulas is as follows:
h＝h _{laser}+h _{imu} <30>
Wherein, h ' _{1}, h ' _{2}, h ' _{3}... h ' _{n}Be the information that truly rises and falls of resulting road surface after the filtering, h _{Laser}Be the road surface fluctuating information that laser sensor records, h _{Imu}Be the elevation information that obtains in the Inertial Measurement Unit strapdown algorithm two, h _{1}, h _{2}, h _{3}... h _{n}Be h _{Laser}With h _{Imu}The algebraical sum time series, k is a filter order, s _{1}, s _{2}, s _{3}... s _{k}Be digital filter feedback factor, r _{1}, r _{2}, r _{3}... r _{k}Be the digital filter filter factor;
(6) obtain the surface evenness result according to international planeness IRI canonical statistics, design formulas is as follows:
Calculate variable
Wherein, S _{Mn}(m=1,2,3,4; N=1,2,3,4) and P _{l}(l=1,2,3,4) are the international norm coefficient matrixes according to the 250mm specification; h _{i}Be the i road surface fluctuating value constantly that step (7) calculates, dx is the interval between the measuring point;
Calculate each measuring point and adjust the gradient:
Calculate the international roughness index IRI on road surface:
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CN102607505A (en) *  20120323  20120725  中国科学院深圳先进技术研究院  Road evenness detection method and road evenness detection system 
CN102628249A (en) *  20120427  20120808  重庆邮电大学  Fullautomatic inertial sensing pavement evenness detection system and detection method 
CN104573343A (en) *  20141225  20150429  长安大学  Field estimation method and simulation estimation method for flatness and comfort of bituminous pavement 
CN104792937A (en) *  20150402  20150722  同济大学  Bridge head bump detection evaluation method based on vehiclemounted gravitational acceleration sensor 
CN104929024A (en) *  20150615  20150923  广西大学  Road surface evenness detector and road surface evenness measuring method 
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CN102607505A (en) *  20120323  20120725  中国科学院深圳先进技术研究院  Road evenness detection method and road evenness detection system 
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CN105421200A (en) *  20151106  20160323  苏交科集团股份有限公司  Flatness detection method and detection device based on vibration detection 
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CN105717500A (en) *  20160224  20160629  深圳乐行天下科技有限公司  Laser radar and data correcting method thereof 
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